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Standard Non-Uniform Noise Dataset, Andres Imperial, John M. Edwards 2021 Utah State University

Standard Non-Uniform Noise Dataset, Andres Imperial, John M. Edwards

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Fixed Pattern Noise Non-Uniformity Correction through K-Means Clustering

Fixed pattern noise removal from imagery by software correction is a practical approach compared to a physical hardware correction because it allows for correction post-capture of the imagery. Fixed pattern noise presents a unique challenge for de-noising techniques as the noise does not present itself where large number statistics are effective. Traditional noise removal techniques such as blurring or despeckling produce poor correction results because of a lack of noise identification. Other correction methods developed for fixed pattern noise can often present another problem of misidentification of noise. This problem can result ...


The James Webb Space Telescope And Scientific Progress, Robert Astle 2021 Collin College

The James Webb Space Telescope And Scientific Progress, Robert Astle

Quest

Independent Research Paper

Research in progress for PHYS 2425: University Physics I

Faculty Mentor: Raji Kannampuzha, Ph.D.

The following paper represents research work done by students in University Physics 2425, the first half of a two-semester introductory course in physics. It is a calculus- based physics course, intended primarily for physics, chemistry, math, and engineering majors. Students are introduced to the concept of academic research by learning to ask research-focused questions and then use the library resources to pursue outside research to find answers. For this assignment, students are asked to investigate a physical science, biological science, or technology ...


Investigation On The Use Of Small Aperture Telescopes For Leo Satellite Orbit Determination, Luis R. Curiel III 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Investigation On The Use Of Small Aperture Telescopes For Leo Satellite Orbit Determination, Luis R. Curiel Iii

Master's Theses

The following thesis regards the use of small aperture telescopes for space domain awareness efforts. The rapidly populating space domain was motivation for the development of a new operation scheme to conduct space domain awareness feasibility studies using small telescopes. Two 14-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescopes at the California Polytechnic State University and the Air Force Research Lab in Kirtland AFB, NM, in conjunction with a dedicated CCD camera and a commercial DSLR camera, were utilized to conduct optical observations on satellites in Earth orbit.

Satellites were imaged during August 2019, and from January 2020 to March 2020, resulting in the collection ...


Tidal Locking And The Gravitational Fold Catastrophe, Andrea Ferroglia, Miguel C. N. Fiolhais 2020 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Tidal Locking And The Gravitational Fold Catastrophe, Andrea Ferroglia, Miguel C. N. Fiolhais

Publications and Research

The purpose of this work is to study the phenomenon of tidal locking in a pedagogical framework by analyzing the effective gravitational potential of a two-body system with two spinning objects. It is shown that the effective potential of such a system is an example of a fold catastrophe. In fact, the existence of a local minimum and saddle point, corresponding to tidally locked circular orbits, is regulated by a single dimensionless control parameter that depends on the properties of the two bodies and on the total angular momentum of the system. The method described in this work results in ...


Measurements And Mitigation Of Scattered Light Noise In Ligo, Corey Daniel Austin 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Measurements And Mitigation Of Scattered Light Noise In Ligo, Corey Daniel Austin

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) detectors use 1064 nm lasers to measure the tiny fluctuations in spacetime that occur when gravitational waves pass through the earth. LIGO makes use of advanced coating methods and materials to limit the amount of light that scatters from the main beam, but some amount of light does scatter. This stray light can interact with surfaces inside the interferometer that are not seismically isolated and then recombine with the main beam, introducing excess noise into the gravitational wave channel. This thesis reviews the methods for modeling scattered light with ray tracing software and analytical models, for ...


Telescope Parallel Actuator Mount: Control And Testing, Samuel S. Artho-Bentz 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Telescope Parallel Actuator Mount: Control And Testing, Samuel S. Artho-Bentz

Master's Theses

This thesis approaches the task of designing a control system for the Parallel Actuator Mount developed by Dr. John Ridgely and Mr. Garrett Gudgel. It aims to create a base framework that directly controls the telescope and can be expanded to accept external command. It incorporates lower priced components and develops more easily approachable software with great functionality. An open-loop method for velocity control is established. Developing repeatable tests is a major focus. Testing finds the control methods developed result in velocity error of less than 5% and position error of less than 1.5% despite several mechanical issues and ...


Topics In Gravitational Wave Physics, Aaron David Johnson 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Topics In Gravitational Wave Physics, Aaron David Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

We begin with a brief introduction to gravitational waves. Next we look into the origin of the Chandrasekhar transformations between the different equations found by perturbing a Schwarzschild black hole. Some of the relationships turn out to be Darboux transformations. Then we turn to GW150914, the first detected black hole binary system, to see if the nonlinear memory might be detectable by current and future detectors. Finally, we develop an updated code for computing equatorial extreme mass ratio inspirals which will be open sourced as soon as it has been generalized for arbitrary inclinations.


The Planetary Luminosity Problem: " Missing Planets" And The Observational Consequences Of Episodi Accretion, Sean D. Brittain, Joan R. Najita, Ruobing Dong, Zhaohuan Zhu 2020 Clemson University

The Planetary Luminosity Problem: " Missing Planets" And The Observational Consequences Of Episodi Accretion, Sean D. Brittain, Joan R. Najita, Ruobing Dong, Zhaohuan Zhu

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The high occurrence rates of spiral arms and large central clearings in protoplanetary disks, if interpreted as signposts of giant planets, indicate that gas giants commonly form as companions to young stars (Myr) at orbital separations of 10–300 au. However, attempts to directly image this giant planet population as companions to more mature stars (>10 Myr) have yielded few successes. This discrepancy could be explained if most giant planets form by "cold start," i.e., by radiating away much of their formation energy as they assemble their mass, rendering them faint enough to elude detection at later times. In ...


Characterizing Plasma With Emission Tomography-Feasibility Study On Synthetic And Experimental Data, M. Nikolić, A. Samolov, A. Godunov, L. Vušković,, S. Popović 2020 Old Dominion University

Characterizing Plasma With Emission Tomography-Feasibility Study On Synthetic And Experimental Data, M. Nikolić, A. Samolov, A. Godunov, L. Vušković,, S. Popović

Physics Faculty Publications

We present a feasibility study on different tomographic algorithms to overcome the issues of finite sets of projection data, limited viewing angles, and noisy data, which cause the tomographic reconstruction to be an ill-posed inversion problem. We investigated three approaches: single angle Abel inversion, two angle approach, and multiple angle 2D plasma tomography. These methods were tested on symmetric and asymmetric sample functions and on experimental results from a supersonic flowing argon microwave plasma sustained in a cylindrical quartz cavity. The analysis focused on the afterglow region of the microwave flow where a plasmoid-like formation was observed. We investigated the ...


Determining The Rotational And Orbital Velocities Of Objects In The Solar System, Mark Jones 2020 East Tennessee State University

Determining The Rotational And Orbital Velocities Of Objects In The Solar System, Mark Jones

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Astronomers have been observing the night sky for many centuries to establish a better understanding for our universe and solar system. As part of their observations, astronomers characterize celestial bodies by fundamental properties such as mass, motion, and composition in order to provide further insight about the objects in question. As technology and science have evolved, the methods for measuring these properties have become more precise and accurate. One such methodology is known as spectroscopy, and it is a significant tool for observational astronomy. In this paper, we shall describe how we used astronomical spectroscopy to determine orbital and rotational ...


Design And Construction Of A Computer Controlled Astronomical Spectropolarimeter, Jacob Marchio 2020 University of Maine

Design And Construction Of A Computer Controlled Astronomical Spectropolarimeter, Jacob Marchio

Honors College

A theoretical description of a simple optical train, modulated signal based spectropolarimeter is discussed. The design includes, after the telescope optical tube (in this case, a 9.25” Schmidt Cassegrain), a rotating quarter waveplate (compensator), a fixed linear polarizer (analyzer), and transmission grating of 100l/mm, with a ZWO ASI290mm astronomical camera. The practical constraints on implementing such an instrument are discussed, and the construction of the spectropolarimeter is detailed, including the necessary optics, optomechanics, and electromechanics. The rotation and recording of the rotating compensator is facilitated by a motorized connection with proportional feedback control, and the uncertainty in measuring ...


Automated Spectroscopic Detection And Mapping Using Alma And Machine Learningtechniques, Steven Cocke, Andrew Wilkins, Josephine McDaniel, John Santerre, Conor Nixon 2020 Southern Methodist University

Automated Spectroscopic Detection And Mapping Using Alma And Machine Learningtechniques, Steven Cocke, Andrew Wilkins, Josephine Mcdaniel, John Santerre, Conor Nixon

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper we present a methodology for automating theclassification of spectrally resolved observations of multiple emissionlines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA).Molecules in planetary atmospheres emit or absorb different wavelengthsof light thereby providing a unique signature for each species. ALMAdata were taken from interferometric observations of Titan made be-tween UT 2012 July 03 23:22:14 and 2012 July 04 01:06:18 as part ofALMA project 2011.0.00319.S. We first employed a greedy set cover algorithm to identify the most probable molecules that would reproducethe set of frequencies with respective flux greater than ...


Physical Dispersions Of Meteor Showers Through High Precision Optical Observations, Denis Vida 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Physical Dispersions Of Meteor Showers Through High Precision Optical Observations, Denis Vida

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Meteoroids ejected from comets form meteoroid streams which disperse over time due to gravitational perturbations and non-gravitational forces. When stream meteoroids collide with the Earth's atmosphere, they are visible as meteors emanating from a common point-like area (radiant) in the sky. Measuring the size of meteor shower radiant areas can provide insight into stream formation and age. The tight radiant dispersion of young streams are difficult to determine due to measurement error, but if successfully measured, the dispersion could be used to constrain meteoroid ejection velocities from their parent comets. The estimated ejection velocity is an uncertain, model-dependent value ...


Calibration Transients In Ligo Detectors, Thomas Daniel Abbott 2020 Louisiana State University

Calibration Transients In Ligo Detectors, Thomas Daniel Abbott

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation describes a novel method of analyzing fluctuations in the time-dependent calibration models of the LIGO interferometers to estimate their effect on strain reconstruction for gravitational-wave detections. The time-dependence of the calibration model of each detector is tracked with a set of parameters which are continuously measured while the interferometers are operating. These parameters track slow variations in the sensing function of the detectors as well as the actuators that hold the detectors in an operational state. The time-dependent parameter data during the second observation run (O2 [November 30, 2016 16:00 UTC to August 25, 2017 22:00 ...


Stellar Nucleosynthesis: Direct Measurement Of The Neutron-Capture Cross Sections Of Stable Germanium Isotopes And Design Of A Next Generation Ion Trap For The Study Of Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission, Alexander Laminack 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Stellar Nucleosynthesis: Direct Measurement Of The Neutron-Capture Cross Sections Of Stable Germanium Isotopes And Design Of A Next Generation Ion Trap For The Study Of Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission, Alexander Laminack

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Knowledge of stellar nuclear reaction rates is critical to understanding the cosmic origins of the abundances of elements. In order to determine these reaction rates, accurate measurements of nuclear cross sections are needed. This thesis presents the results of an experiment to directly measure the neutron capture cross sections of 70-Ge, 72-Ge, 74-Ge, and 76-Ge. These measurements were performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science CEnter (LANSCE) using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). This is the first direct measurement for many of these isotopes across the neutron energy spectrum of 10 eV to 1 MeV using the ...


Astro2020 Apc White Paper. 2020 Vision: Towards A Sustainable Oir System, Sally Oey, Terry D. Oswalt, Tom Maccarone, Fred Walter, Charles Bailyn, Jay Gallagher, Todd Henry, Derek Buzasi, J. Allyn Smith, Rachael Beaton, Jim Webb, Brad Barlow, Misty Bentz, Leslie Hebb, Patrick Kelly, Jedidah Isler, Michael Meyer, John Salzer, Simone Scaringi 2020 University of Michigan

Astro2020 Apc White Paper. 2020 Vision: Towards A Sustainable Oir System, Sally Oey, Terry D. Oswalt, Tom Maccarone, Fred Walter, Charles Bailyn, Jay Gallagher, Todd Henry, Derek Buzasi, J. Allyn Smith, Rachael Beaton, Jim Webb, Brad Barlow, Misty Bentz, Leslie Hebb, Patrick Kelly, Jedidah Isler, Michael Meyer, John Salzer, Simone Scaringi

Publications

Open-access telescopes of all apertures are needed to operate a competitive and efficient national science program. While larger facilities contribute light-gathering power and angular resolution, smaller ones dominate for field of view, time-resolution, and especially, total available observing time, thereby enabling our entire, diversely-expert community. Smaller aperture telescopes therefore play a critical and indispensable role in advancing science. Thus, the divestment of NSF support for modest-aperture (1 – 4 m) public telescopes poses a serious threat to U.S. scientific leadership, which is compounded by the unknown consequences of the shift from observations driven by individual investigators to survey-driven science. Given ...


High Power And Optomechanics In Advanced Ligo Detectors, Terra Christine Hardwick 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

High Power And Optomechanics In Advanced Ligo Detectors, Terra Christine Hardwick

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

In September 2015, a new era of astronomy began with the first direct detection of grav- itational waves from a binary black hole coalescence. The event was captured by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, comprised of two long-baseline interferometers, one in Livingston, LA and one in Hanford, WA. At the time of the first detection, the interferometers were part way through an upgrade to an advanced configuration and were operating with a strain sensitivity of just better than 10−23/Hz1/2 around 100Hz. The full Advanced LIGO design calls for sensitivity of a few parts in 10−24 ...


A Rotating Aperture Mask For Small Telescopes, Edward L. Foley 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

A Rotating Aperture Mask For Small Telescopes, Edward L. Foley

Master's Theses

Observing the dynamic interaction between stars and their close stellar neighbors is key to establishing the stars’ orbits, masses, and other properties. Our ability to visually discriminate nearby stars is limited by the power of our telescopes, posing a challenge to astronomers at small observatories that contribute to binary star surveys. Masks placed at the telescope aperture promise to augment the resolving power of telescopes of all sizes, but many of these masks must be manually and repetitively reoriented about the optical axis to achieve their full benefits. This paper introduces a design concept for a mask rotation mechanism that ...


Space Telescope And Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. Viii. Time Variability Of Emission And Absorption In Ngc 5548 Based On Modeling The Ultraviolet Spectrum, Gerard A. Kriss, Gisella De Rosa, Justin Ely, Bradley M. Peterson, J. Kaastra, M. Mehdipour, Gary J. Ferland, Maryamossadat Dehghanian, S. Mathur, Rick Edelson, Kirk T. Korista, N. Arav, Aaron J. Barth, Misty C. Bentz, W. Niel Brandt, D. Michael Crenshaw, E. Dalla Bonta, K. D. Kenney, C. Done, Michael Eracleous, Michael M. Fausnaugh, E. Gardner, Michael R. Goad, Catherine J. Grier, Keith Horne, Christopher S. Kochanek, I. M. McHardy, Hagai Netzer, Anna Pancoast, L. Pei, Richard W. Pogge, Daniel Proga 2019 Space Telescope Science Institute

Space Telescope And Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. Viii. Time Variability Of Emission And Absorption In Ngc 5548 Based On Modeling The Ultraviolet Spectrum, Gerard A. Kriss, Gisella De Rosa, Justin Ely, Bradley M. Peterson, J. Kaastra, M. Mehdipour, Gary J. Ferland, Maryamossadat Dehghanian, S. Mathur, Rick Edelson, Kirk T. Korista, N. Arav, Aaron J. Barth, Misty C. Bentz, W. Niel Brandt, D. Michael Crenshaw, E. Dalla Bonta, K. D. Kenney, C. Done, Michael Eracleous, Michael M. Fausnaugh, E. Gardner, Michael R. Goad, Catherine J. Grier, Keith Horne, Christopher S. Kochanek, I. M. Mchardy, Hagai Netzer, Anna Pancoast, L. Pei, Richard W. Pogge, Daniel Proga

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

We model the ultraviolet spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope during the 6 month reverberation mapping campaign in 2014. Our model of the emission from NGC 5548 corrects for overlying absorption and deblends the individual emission lines. Using the modeled spectra, we measure the response to continuum variations for the deblended and absorption-corrected individual broad emission lines, the velocity-dependent profiles of Lyα and C iv, and the narrow and broad intrinsic absorption features. We find that the time lags for the corrected emission lines are comparable to those for the original data ...


The Power Of Principled Bayesian Methods In The Study Of Stellar Evolution, Ted von Hippel, David van Dyk, David Stenning, Elliot Robinson, Elizabeth Jeffery, Nathan Stein, William Jefferys, Erin M. O'Malley 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

The Power Of Principled Bayesian Methods In The Study Of Stellar Evolution, Ted Von Hippel, David Van Dyk, David Stenning, Elliot Robinson, Elizabeth Jeffery, Nathan Stein, William Jefferys, Erin M. O'Malley

Ted von Hippel

It takes years of effort employing the best telescopes and in- struments to obtain high-quality stellar photometry, astrometry, and spectroscopy. Stellar evolution models contain the experience of life- times of theoretical calculations and testing. Yet most astronomers fit these valuable models to these precious datasets by eye. We show that a principled Bayesian approach to fitting models to stellar data yields substantially more information over a range of stellar astrophysics. We highlight advances in determining the ages of star clusters, mass ratios of binary stars, limitations in the accuracy of stellar models, post-main-sequence mass loss, and the ages of individual ...


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