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An Accurate Solution Of The Self-Similar Orbit-Averaged Fokker-Planck Equation For Core-Collapsing Isotropic Globular Clusters: Properties And Application, Yuta Ito 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

An Accurate Solution Of The Self-Similar Orbit-Averaged Fokker-Planck Equation For Core-Collapsing Isotropic Globular Clusters: Properties And Application, Yuta Ito

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Hundreds of dense star clusters exist in almost all galaxies. Each cluster is composed of approximately ten thousand through ten million stars. The stars orbit in the clusters due to the clusters' self-gravity. Standard stellar dynamics expects that the clusters behave like collisionless self-gravitating systems on short time scales (~ million years) and the stars travel in smooth continuous orbits. Such clusters temporally settle to dynamically stable states or quasi-stationary states (QSS). Two fundamental QSS models are the isothermal- and polytropic- spheres since they have similar structures to the actual core (central part) and halo (outskirt) of the clusters. The two ...


Machine Learning For Scientific Data Mining And Solar Eruption Prediction, Hao Liu 2020 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Machine Learning For Scientific Data Mining And Solar Eruption Prediction, Hao Liu

Dissertations

This dissertation explores new machine learning techniques and adapts them to mine scientific data, specifically data from solar physics and space weather studies. The dissertation tackles three important problems in heliophysics: solar flare prediction, coronal mass ejection (CME) prediction and Stokes inversion.

First, the dissertation presents a long short-term memory (LSTM) network for predicting whether an active region (AR) would produce a certain class of solar flare within the next 24 hours. The essence of this approach is to model data samples in an AR as time series and use LSTMs to capture temporal information of the data samples. The ...


Flare Emission Observed In High Resolution And Comparison With Numerical Modeling, Nengyi Huang 2020 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Flare Emission Observed In High Resolution And Comparison With Numerical Modeling, Nengyi Huang

Dissertations

As one of the most intense activities on the solar surface, flares have been extensively observed and studied ever since the first report. The standard model of solar flares has been established and commonly accepted. However, many limitations from the researching tools have left some of the problems unsolved or controversial. For example, the density of electrons in the corona is lower than it is required to activate the observed emission in HXR, and the mechanism that these electron beams can penetrate down to lower chromosphere is unclear. Many theoretical scenarios were suggested, and more observations had been in need ...


Binary Neutron Star Mergers: Testing Ejecta Models For High Mass-Ratios, Allen Murray 2020 Purdue University - North Central Campus

Binary Neutron Star Mergers: Testing Ejecta Models For High Mass-Ratios, Allen Murray

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Neutron stars are extremely dense stellar corpses which sometimes exist in orbiting pairs known as binary neutron star (BNS) systems. The mass ratio (q) of a BNS system is defined as the mass of the heavier neutron star divided by the mass of the lighter neutron star. Over time the neutron stars will inspiral toward one another and produce a merger event. Although rare, these events can be rich sources of observational data due to their many electromagnetic emissions as well as the gravitational waves they produce. The ability to extract physical information from such observations relies heavily on numerical ...


Erratum: Searches For Gravitational Waves From Known Pulsars At Two Harmonics In 2015-2017 Ligo Data (Astrophysical Journal (2019) 879 (10) Doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/Ab20cb), B. P. Abbott, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, S. Abraham, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C. Adams, R. X. Adhikari, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, M. Agathos, K. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. Aguiar, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, G. Allen, A. Allocca, M. A. Aloy, P. A. Altin, A. Amato, A. Ananyeva, S. B. Anderson, W. G. Anderson, S. V. Angelova, S. Antier, S. Appert, K. Arai, M. C. Araya, J. S. Areeda, Tiffany Z. Summerscales 2020 California Institute of Technology

Erratum: Searches For Gravitational Waves From Known Pulsars At Two Harmonics In 2015-2017 Ligo Data (Astrophysical Journal (2019) 879 (10) Doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/Ab20cb), B. P. Abbott, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, S. Abraham, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C. Adams, R. X. Adhikari, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, M. Agathos, K. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. Aguiar, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, G. Allen, A. Allocca, M. A. Aloy, P. A. Altin, A. Amato, A. Ananyeva, S. B. Anderson, W. G. Anderson, S. V. Angelova, S. Antier, S. Appert, K. Arai, M. C. Araya, J. S. Areeda, Tiffany Z. Summerscales

Faculty Publications

© 2020. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Two analysis errors have been identified that affect the results for a handful of the high-value pulsars given in Table 1 of Abbott et al. (2019). One affects the Bayesian analysis for the five pulsars that glitched during the analysis period, and the other affects the 5n-vector analysis for J0711-6830. Updated results after correcting the errors are shown in Table 1, which now supersedes the results given for those pulsars in Table 1 of Abbott et al. (2019). Updated versions of figures can be seen in Figures 1-4. Bayesian analysis.-For the ...


Relativity Lite: A Pictorial Translation Of Einstein’S Theories Of Motion And Gravity, Jack C. Straton 2020 Portland State University

Relativity Lite: A Pictorial Translation Of Einstein’S Theories Of Motion And Gravity, Jack C. Straton

PDXOpen: Open Educational Resources

Relativity Lite is designed for the General Astronomy sequence (PH 361-2U, SCI 315-6U) whose primary book glosses over Special Relativity and General Relativity while trying to explain the Cosmology that is based on those subjects. Relativity Lite translates the mathematical equations conventional relativity texts rely upon into pictures that are readily understood and contain within them the mathematical essentials. This book provides the comprehensive coverage needed to understand, in sufficient depth, these three linked areas of our reality.

Readers seeking this knowledge on their own, and those in other courses for nonscientists, may also find it helpful.

Adopt/Adapt
If ...


Gw190412: Observation Of A Binary-Black-Hole Coalescence With Asymmetric Masses, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, S. Abraham, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C. Adams, R. X. Adhikari, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, M. Agathos, K. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. Aguiar, A. Aich, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, S. Akcay, G. Allen, A. Allocca, P. A. Altin, A. Amato, S. Anand, A. Ananyeva, S. B. Anderson, W. G. Anderson, S. V. Angelova, S. Ansoldi, S. Antier, S. Appert, K. Arai, Tiffany Z. Summerscales 2020 California Institute of Technology

Gw190412: Observation Of A Binary-Black-Hole Coalescence With Asymmetric Masses, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, S. Abraham, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C. Adams, R. X. Adhikari, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, M. Agathos, K. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. Aguiar, A. Aich, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, S. Akcay, G. Allen, A. Allocca, P. A. Altin, A. Amato, S. Anand, A. Ananyeva, S. B. Anderson, W. G. Anderson, S. V. Angelova, S. Ansoldi, S. Antier, S. Appert, K. Arai, Tiffany Z. Summerscales

Faculty Publications

© 2020 authors. Published by the American Physical Society. Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/"Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI. We report the observation of gravitational waves from a binary-black-hole coalescence during the first two weeks of LIGO's and Virgo's third observing run. The signal was recorded on April 12, 2019 at 05â¶30â¶44 UTC with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 19 ...


Cosmological Initial Data For Numerical Relativity, David Garfinkle, Lawrence Mead 2020 Oakland University

Cosmological Initial Data For Numerical Relativity, David Garfinkle, Lawrence Mead

Faculty Publications

© 2020 American Physical Society. We find initial data for numerical relativity simulations of inhomogeneous cosmologies. This involves treating an exceptional case of the general relativity constraint equations. We devise analytic and numerical methods to treat this exceptional case. We apply the analytic method to the standard case of cosmology with a single scalar field. The numerical method is applied to the two-field ekpyrotic cosmology.


Modifications To Gravitational Wave Equation From Canonical Quantum Gravity, Andrea Dapor, Klaus Liegener 2020 Louisiana State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Baton Rouge, LA

Modifications To Gravitational Wave Equation From Canonical Quantum Gravity, Andrea Dapor, Klaus Liegener

Faculty Publications

It is expected that the quantum nature of spacetime leaves its imprint in all semiclassical gravitational systems, at least in certain regimes, including gravitational waves. In this paper we investigate such imprints on gravitational waves within a specific framework: space is assumed to be discrete (in the form of a regular cubic lattice), and this discrete geometry is quantised following Dirac's canonical quantisation scheme. The semiclassical behavior is then extracted by promoting the expectation value of the Hamiltonian operator on a semiclassical state to an effective Hamiltonian. Considering a family of semiclassical states representing small tensor perturbations to Minkowski ...


Are Conditions Right On Other Planets For The Existence Of Life As We Know It?, Nuri Park 2020 Syracuse University

Are Conditions Right On Other Planets For The Existence Of Life As We Know It?, Nuri Park

English Language Institute

Understanding the origin of life is one fo the fundamental knowledge required to find life on extraterrestrial celestial. Among numerous phenomena that are driven by bio-molecules, self-assembly of the cellular membrane is considered as the most basic process in the origin of life. In water dominant environment of standard pressure and temperature, molecular interaction (Van der Waals force) among water molecules and phospholipids forces phospholopids to form lipid bilayer structure which is the proto structure of the cellular membrane. However, self-assembly of phospholopids in extremely pressurized wet environments has never been explored. Since liquid water in the solar system has ...


Kinds Of Science And Exploring The Past, Channon Visscher 2020 Dordt University

Kinds Of Science And Exploring The Past, Channon Visscher

Faculty Work Comprehensive List

"Working alongside experimental and observational work, historical science helps us continue to learn the unfolding story of how a beautiful universe, created by a loving God, came to be as we see it today."

Posting about scientific methods from In All Things - an online journal for critical reflection on faith, culture, art, and every ordinary-yet-graced square inch of God’s creation.

https://inallthings.org/kinds-of-science-and-exploring-the-past/


Modeling The Obscuring Features In Active Galactic Nuclei: An X-Ray Analysis Of Ngc 1052, Samantha E. Cabral 2020 University of Massachusetts Boston

Modeling The Obscuring Features In Active Galactic Nuclei: An X-Ray Analysis Of Ngc 1052, Samantha E. Cabral

Graduate Masters Theses

We present a multi-epoch analysis of the X-ray spectrum of NGC 1052, a nearby galaxy notorious for its well-studied spectral variability. We utilize observations from NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, Chandra, Swift, Suzaku, BeppoSAX, and ASCA to create a comprehensive set of data that spans roughly 20 years. Organizing our data by observation date and grouping into specific epochs allows us to explore a model allowed to flex and accommodate any spectral changes that occur over time in the X-ray spectrum of NGC 1052. We find that the spectrum takes on a relatively flat nature and is best modeled with two neutral absorption ...


Is Ngc 300 A Pure Exponential Disk Galaxy?, In Sung Jang, Roelof S. De Jong, Ivan Minchev, Eric F. Bell, Antonela Monachesi, Benne W. Holwerda, Jeremy Bailin, Adam Smercina, Richard D'Souza 2020 Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam

Is Ngc 300 A Pure Exponential Disk Galaxy?, In Sung Jang, Roelof S. De Jong, Ivan Minchev, Eric F. Bell, Antonela Monachesi, Benne W. Holwerda, Jeremy Bailin, Adam Smercina, Richard D'Souza

Faculty Scholarship

NGC 300 is a low-mass disk galaxy in the Sculptor group. In the literature, it has been identified as a pure exponential disk galaxy, as its luminosity profile can be well fit with a single exponential law over many disk scale lengths (Type I). We investigate the stellar luminosity distribution of NGC 300 using Hubble Space Telescope archive data, reaching farther and deeper than any other previous studies. Color-magnitude diagrams show a significant population of old red giant branch (RGB) stars in all fields out to R ∼ 19 kpc (32′), as well as younger populations in the inner regions. We ...


Meteoroid Impacts As A Source Of Bennu's Particle Ejection Events, W. F. Bottke, A. V. Moorhead, Harold Connolly Jr., C. W. Hergenrother, J. L. Molaro, P. Michel 2020 Rowan University

Meteoroid Impacts As A Source Of Bennu's Particle Ejection Events, W. F. Bottke, A. V. Moorhead, Harold Connolly Jr., C. W. Hergenrother, J. L. Molaro, P. Michel

School of Earth & Environment Faculty Scholarship

Asteroid (101955) Bennu, a near‐Earth object with a primitive carbonaceous chondrite‐like composition, was observed by the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security‐Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS‐REx) spacecraft to undergo multiple particle ejection events near perihelion between December 2018 and February 2019. The three largest events observed during this period, which all occurred 3.5 to 6 hr after local noon, placed numerous particles <10 cm on temporary orbits around Bennu. Here we examine whether these events could have been produced by sporadic meteoroid impacts using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Meteoroid Engineering Model 3.0. Most projectiles that impact Bennu come from nearly isotropic or Jupiter‐family comets and have evolved toward the Sun by Poynting‐Robertson drag. We find that 7,000‐J impacts on Bennu occur with a biweekly cadence near perihelion, with a preference to strike in the late afternoon (~6 pm local time). This timing matches observations. Crater scaling laws also indicate that these impact energies can reproduce the sizes and masses of the largest observed particles, provided the surface has the cohesive properties of weak, porous materials. Bennu's ejection events could be caused by the same kinds of meteoroid impacts that created the Moon's asymmetric debris cloud observed by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). Our findings also suggest that fewer ejection events should take place as Bennu moves further away from the Sun, a result that can be tested with future observations.


Diffuse Spectra Model Of Photoluminescence In Carbon Quantum Dots, S. E. Kumekov, N. K. Saitova, Karen S. Martirosyan 2020 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Diffuse Spectra Model Of Photoluminescence In Carbon Quantum Dots, S. E. Kumekov, N. K. Saitova, Karen S. Martirosyan

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

The attractive aspect of excitation related to fluorescence nature in carbon quantum dots (CQD) has guided to several assumptions correlated with clusters size distribution, shapes as well as presence of different emissive states. In this study, a dimer–excimer model of photoluminescence (PL) in CQD describing discrete multiple electronic states for the excitation-dependent emission is described. The functional dependence of the characteristic width of the diffuse spectra of PL on the size of a quantum dots are calculated. The effective width of PL spectrum can be tuned from 0.1 to 1 eV.


Adaptive Spline Fitting With Particle Swarm Optimization, Soumya Mohanty, Ethan Fahnestock 2020 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Adaptive Spline Fitting With Particle Swarm Optimization, Soumya Mohanty, Ethan Fahnestock

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

In fitting data with a spline, finding the optimal placement of knots can significantly improve the quality of the fit. However, the challenging high-dimensional and non-convex optimization problem associated with completely free knot placement has been a major roadblock in using this approach. We present a method that uses particle swarm optimization (PSO) combined with model selection to address this challenge. The problem of overfitting due to knot clustering that accompanies free knot placement is mitigated in this method by explicit regularization, resulting in a significantly improved performance on highly noisy data. The principal design choices available in the method ...


Active Magnetic Radiation Shielding For Long-Duration Human Spaceflight, Kristine Ferrone 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Active Magnetic Radiation Shielding For Long-Duration Human Spaceflight, Kristine Ferrone

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Exploration of interplanetary space presents dramatic hazards to human survival.

Space radiation hazards outside the protection of the Earth’s magnetosphere can

produce both acute and chronic health risks and thus become limiting factors for

NASA’s planned mission to Mars by the 2030s. Radiation exposure on a Mars mission

is delivered primarily by high energy ions from galactic cosmic rays and moderate

energy protons from solar particle events. The chronic radiation dose due to galactic

cosmic rays on a typical Mars mission is on the order of 1 Sv, and additional acute

radiation dose from solar flares can reach ...


Space Telescope And Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. Xi. Disk-Wind Characteristics And Contributions To The Very Broad Emission Lines Of Ngc 5548, Maryam Dehghanian, Gary J. Ferland, G. A. Kriss, B. M. Peterson, K. T. Korista, M. R. Goad, Marios Chatzikos, Francisco Guzmán, G. De Rosa, M. Mehdipour, J. Kaastra, S. Mathur, M. Vestergaard, D. Proga, T. Waters, M. C. Bentz, S. Bisogni, W. N. Brandt, E. Dalla Bontà, M. M. Fausnaugh, J. M. Gelbord, Keith Horne, I. M. McHardy, R. W. Pogge, D. A. Starkey 2020 University of Kentucky

Space Telescope And Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. Xi. Disk-Wind Characteristics And Contributions To The Very Broad Emission Lines Of Ngc 5548, Maryam Dehghanian, Gary J. Ferland, G. A. Kriss, B. M. Peterson, K. T. Korista, M. R. Goad, Marios Chatzikos, Francisco Guzmán, G. De Rosa, M. Mehdipour, J. Kaastra, S. Mathur, M. Vestergaard, D. Proga, T. Waters, M. C. Bentz, S. Bisogni, W. N. Brandt, E. Dalla Bontà, M. M. Fausnaugh, J. M. Gelbord, Keith Horne, I. M. Mchardy, R. W. Pogge, D. A. Starkey

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

In 2014 the NGC 5548 Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping campaign discovered a two-month anomaly when variations in the absorption and emission lines decorrelated from continuum variations. During this time the soft X-ray part of the intrinsic spectrum had been strongly absorbed by a line-of-sight (LOS) obscurer, which was interpreted as the upper part of a disk wind. Our first paper showed that changes in the LOS obscurer produces the decorrelation between the absorption lines and the continuum. A second study showed that the base of the wind shields the broad emission-line region (BLR), leading to the emission-line decorrelation ...


Tess Reveals A Short-Period Sub-Neptune Sibling (Hd 86226c) To A Known Long-Period Giant Planet, J. Teske, M. R. Díaz, R. Luque, T. Močnik, J. V. Seidel, J. F. Otegi, F. Feng, J. S. Jenkins, E. Pallè, D. Ségransan, S. Udry, K. A. Collins, J. D. Eastman, G. R. Ricker, R. Vanderspek, D. W. Latham, S. Seager, J. N. Winn, J. M. Jenkins, D. R. Anderson, T. Barclay, F. Bouchy, J. A. Burt, R. P. Butler, D. A. Caldwell, K. I. Collins, J. D. Crane, C. Dorn, E. Flowers, J. Haldemann, R. Helled, C. Hellier, Eric L.N. Jensen, S. R. Kane, N. Law, J. J. Lissauer, A. W. Mann, M. Marmier, L. D. Nielsen, M. E. Rose, S. A. Shectman, A. Shporer, G. Torres, S. X. Wang, A. Wolfgang, I. Wong, C. Ziegler 2020 Swarthmore College

Tess Reveals A Short-Period Sub-Neptune Sibling (Hd 86226c) To A Known Long-Period Giant Planet, J. Teske, M. R. Díaz, R. Luque, T. Močnik, J. V. Seidel, J. F. Otegi, F. Feng, J. S. Jenkins, E. Pallè, D. Ségransan, S. Udry, K. A. Collins, J. D. Eastman, G. R. Ricker, R. Vanderspek, D. W. Latham, S. Seager, J. N. Winn, J. M. Jenkins, D. R. Anderson, T. Barclay, F. Bouchy, J. A. Burt, R. P. Butler, D. A. Caldwell, K. I. Collins, J. D. Crane, C. Dorn, E. Flowers, J. Haldemann, R. Helled, C. Hellier, Eric L.N. Jensen, S. R. Kane, N. Law, J. J. Lissauer, A. W. Mann, M. Marmier, L. D. Nielsen, M. E. Rose, S. A. Shectman, A. Shporer, G. Torres, S. X. Wang, A. Wolfgang, I. Wong, C. Ziegler

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Works

The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite mission was designed to find transiting planets around bright, nearby stars. Here, we present the detection and mass measurement of a small, short-period (≈4 days) transiting planet around the bright (V = 7.9), solar-type star HD 86226 (TOI-652, TIC 22221375), previously known to host a long-period (~1600 days) giant planet. HD 86226c (TOI-652.01) has a radius of 2.16 ± 0.08 R⊕ and a mass of ${7.25}_{-1.12}^{+1.19}$M⊕, based on archival and new radial velocity data. We also update the parameters of the longer-period, not-known-to-transit planet, and find ...


Galileo's Verse, Bruce F. McGuffin 2020 Claremont Colleges

Galileo's Verse, Bruce F. Mcguffin

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

A response to Thomas Hardy's statement "If Galileo had said in verse that the world moved, the inquisition might have let him alone."


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