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Exploring The Early Solar System With Cometary Gases: Observations Of Spontaneous Activity Around Comet 67p/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Post-Perihelion With The R-Alice Ultraviolet Spectrograph, John W. Noonan 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Exploring The Early Solar System With Cometary Gases: Observations Of Spontaneous Activity Around Comet 67p/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Post-Perihelion With The R-Alice Ultraviolet Spectrograph, John W. Noonan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Rosetta Alice (R-Alice) ultraviolet spectrograph on the European Space Agency Rosetta spacecraft, currently escorting the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in its orbit around the Sun, has observed the activity of the comet since encounter in August 2014. Fortuitous observations taken in October and November 2015, two and three months after perihelion respectively, show large increases in the Lyman-Beta, OI 1304, CII 1335, OI] 1356, and CI 1657 atomic emission lines that indicate gas outbursts. Due to the electron impact on gases in the cometary coma the data is compared to measured cross sections and line ratios to put constraints on ...


Pre-Mission Input Requirements To Enable Successful Sample Collection By A Remote Field/Eva Team, Barbara A. Cohen, Darlene S. S. Lim, Kelsey E. Young, Anna Brunner, Richard C. Elphic, Audrey Horne, Mary C. Kerrigan, Gordon O. Osinski, John R. Skok, Steven W. Squyres, David Saint-Jacques, Jennifer L. Heldmann 2015 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

Pre-Mission Input Requirements To Enable Successful Sample Collection By A Remote Field/Eva Team, Barbara A. Cohen, Darlene S. S. Lim, Kelsey E. Young, Anna Brunner, Richard C. Elphic, Audrey Horne, Mary C. Kerrigan, Gordon O. Osinski, John R. Skok, Steven W. Squyres, David Saint-Jacques, Jennifer L. Heldmann

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

We used a field excursion to the West Clearwater Lake Impact structure as an opportunity to test factors that contribute to the decisions a remote field team (for example, astronauts conducting extravehicular activities (EVA) on planetary surfaces) makes while collecting samples for return to Earth. We found that detailed background on the analytical purpose of the samples, provided to the field team, enables them to identify and collect samples that meet specific analytical objectives. However, such samples are not always identifiable during field reconnaissance activities, and may only be recognized after outcrop characterization and interpretation by crew and/or science ...


Solar Modulation Of The Cosmic Ray Intensity And The Measurement Of The Cerenkov Reemission In Nova’S Liquid Scintillator, Philip James Mason 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Solar Modulation Of The Cosmic Ray Intensity And The Measurement Of The Cerenkov Reemission In Nova’S Liquid Scintillator, Philip James Mason

Doctoral Dissertations

The NOνA (NuMI Off-axis electron neutrino Appearance) experiment is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Its purpose is to observe the oscillation of νμ (muon neutrino) to νe (electron neutrino) and to investigate the neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in the neutrino sector. Two detectors have been built for this purpose, a Near Detector 300 feet underground at Fermilab, and a Far Detector, on the surface at Ash River, Minnesota.

The completion of NOνA’s Far Detector in October 2014 enabled not only the recent measurement of neutrino oscillations, but an array ...


New Benzene Absorption Cross Sections In The Vuv, Relevance For Titan’S, Fernando J. Capalbo, Yves Bénilan, Nicolas Fray, Martin Schwell, Norbert Champion, Et-touhami Es-sebbar, Tommi T. Koskinen, Ivan Lehocki, Roger V. Yelle 2015 Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)

New Benzene Absorption Cross Sections In The Vuv, Relevance For Titan’S, Fernando J. Capalbo, Yves Bénilan, Nicolas Fray, Martin Schwell, Norbert Champion, Et-Touhami Es-Sebbar, Tommi T. Koskinen, Ivan Lehocki, Roger V. Yelle

Dr. Et-touhami Es-sebbar

Benzene is an important molecule in Titan’s atmosphere because it is a potential link between the gas phase and the organic solid phase. We measured photoabsorption in the ultraviolet by benzene gas at temperatures covering the range from room temperature to 215 K. We derived benzene absorption cross sections and analyzed them in terms of the transitions observed. No significant variation with measurement temperature was observed. We discuss the implications of our measurements for the derivation of benzene abundance profiles in Titan’s thermosphere, by the Cassini/Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS). The use of absorption cross sections at low ...


Variations In Solar Wind Fractionation As Seen By Ace/Swics And The Implications For Genesis Mission Results, P. Pilleri, Daniel B. Reisenfeld, T. H. Zurbuchen, S. T. Lepri, P. Shearer, J. A. Gilbert, R. von Steiger, R. C. Wiens 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory

Variations In Solar Wind Fractionation As Seen By Ace/Swics And The Implications For Genesis Mission Results, P. Pilleri, Daniel B. Reisenfeld, T. H. Zurbuchen, S. T. Lepri, P. Shearer, J. A. Gilbert, R. Von Steiger, R. C. Wiens

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We use Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) elemental composition data to compare the variations in solar wind (SW) fractionation as measured by SWICS during the last solar maximum (1999-2001), the solar minimum (2006-2009), and the period in which the Genesis spacecraft was collecting SW (late 2001-early 2004). We differentiate our analysis in terms in SW regimes (i.e., originating from interstream or coronal hole flows, or coronal mass ejecta). Abundances are normalized to the low-first ionization potential (low-FIP) ion magnesium to uncover correlations that are not apparent when normalizing to high-FIP ions. We find that ...


Low Intensity Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy Of The Lake Labyrinth Meteorite, Tristan C. Paul 2015 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Low Intensity Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy Of The Lake Labyrinth Meteorite, Tristan C. Paul

Physics

A 23.7g fragment of the Lake Labyrinth Meteorite (fell in 1924, collected in 1934 at Lake Labyrinth in South Australia, Australia) was re-investigated for evidence of the presence of 98Tc using a two dimensional low-intensity gamma-ray spectrometer. A new calibration technique using 26Al sources found the gamma-rays previously thought to be due to 98Tc are more likely from 166Ho. The presence of 166Ho is most likely due to activation of the stable 165Ho in the meteorite from terrestrial background sources where it was stored.


Photometric Trends In The Visible Solar Continuum And Their Sensitivity To The Center-To-Limb Profile, C. L. Peck, M.P. Rast 2015 University of Colorado, Boulder

Photometric Trends In The Visible Solar Continuum And Their Sensitivity To The Center-To-Limb Profile, C. L. Peck, M.P. Rast

Astrophysical & Planetary Sciences Faculty Contributions

Solar irradiance variations over solar rotational timescales are largely determined by the passage of magnetic structures across the visible solar disk. Variations on solar cycle timescales are thought to be similarly due to changes in surface magnetism with activity. Understanding the contribution of magnetic structures to total solar irradiance and solar spectral irradiance requires assessing their contributions as a function of disk position. Since only relative photometry is possible from the ground, the contrasts of image pixels are measured with respect to a center-to-limb intensity profile. Using nine years of full-disk red and blue continuum images from the Precision Solar ...


Resolving Emission Lines Of Sodiumlike Fe Xvi Using Ebit, Sandi Lavito 2015 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Resolving Emission Lines Of Sodiumlike Fe Xvi Using Ebit, Sandi Lavito

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

High resolution crystal spectrometers on sounding rockets and orbiting satellites, such as the Solar Maximum Mission, show strong X-ray emission from the n= 3 to 2 transitions in neon-like Fe XVII. Two of the strongest lines are the 3d to 2p resonance and inter combination lines at 15.01 Å (3C) and 15.26 Å (3D).

Intensity ratios of these solar lines range from ~ 1.6 to 2.8. The lower ratios are a result of a line from Na-like Fe XVI inner shell satellite line blending with the Fe XVII inter combination line, 3D. The wavelength of the Na-like ...


Detecting Cosmic Rays Using Cemos Sensors In Consumer Devices, Matthew M. Plewa 2015 Iowa State University

Detecting Cosmic Rays Using Cemos Sensors In Consumer Devices, Matthew M. Plewa

2016 Academic High Altitude Conference

Since the time of Victor Hess and his balloon flight that demonstrated that cosmic rays increased with altitude, new detection methods have become widely available to be used on current day flights. One such method is to utilize CCDs with long duration exposures. During the exposures the CCD is exposed to cosmic rays which then leave a track. This phenomenon is caused by the CCD's inability to distinguish between photons of light and charged particles. Such tracks can then be separated from the CCD's background noise and classified.


Optimization Of A Solar Simulator For Planetary-Photochemical Studies, Et-touhami Es-sebbar, Yves Bénilan, Nicolas Fray, Hervé Cottin, Antoine Jolly, Marie-Claire Gazeau 2015 Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)

Optimization Of A Solar Simulator For Planetary-Photochemical Studies, Et-Touhami Es-Sebbar, Yves Bénilan, Nicolas Fray, Hervé Cottin, Antoine Jolly, Marie-Claire Gazeau

Dr. Et-touhami Es-sebbar

Low-temperature microwave-powered plasma based on hydrogen and hydrogen with noble gas mixtures are widely used as a continuous vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) source in laboratory experiments carried out to mimic the photochemistry in astrophysical environments. In this work, we present a study dedicated to optimizing such sources in terms of mono-chromaticity at Lyα (H(Lyα) line at 121.6 nm ~ 10.2 eV) and high spectral irradiance. We report the influence on the emission spectrum of a wide range of experimental conditions including gas composition (pure H2, pure He, and H2/He mixture), gas pressure, flow rates, and microwave power. The ...


Observations Of Solar Cyclical Variations In Geocoronal Hα Column Emission Intensities, S. Nossal, F. Roesler, Edwin Mierkiewicz, R. Reynolds 2015 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Observations Of Solar Cyclical Variations In Geocoronal Hα Column Emission Intensities, S. Nossal, F. Roesler, Edwin Mierkiewicz, R. Reynolds

Edwin J. Mierkiewicz

Observations of thermospheric + exospheric Hα column emissions by the Wisconsin Hα Mapper (WHAM) Fabry-Perot (Kitt Peak, Arizona) over the 1997–2001 rise in solar cycle 23 show a statistically significant solar cyclical variation. The higher signal-to-noise WHAM observations corroborate suggestions of a solar cycle trend in the Hα emissions seen in Wisconsin observations over solar cycle 22. Here we compare WHAM 1997 and 2000–2001 winter solstice geocoronal Hα observations toward regions of the sky with low galactic emission. The observed variation in geocoronal hydrogen column emission intensities over the solar cycle is small compared with variations in hydrogen exobase ...


Radial Velocity Observations Of The Extended Lunar Sodium Tail, Edwin Mierkiewicz, M. Line, F. Roesler, R. Oliversen 2015 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Radial Velocity Observations Of The Extended Lunar Sodium Tail, Edwin Mierkiewicz, M. Line, F. Roesler, R. Oliversen

Edwin J. Mierkiewicz

We report the first velocity resolved sodium 5889.950 Å line profile observations of the lunar sodium tail observed in the anti-lunar direction near new Moon. These observations were made on 29 March 2006, 27 April 2006 and 28 April 2006 from Pine Bluff (WI) observatory with a double etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer at a resolving power of ∼80,000. The observations were made within 2–14 hours from new Moon, pointing near the anti-lunar point. The average observed radial velocity of the lunar sodium tail in the vicinity of the anti-lunar point for the three nights reported was 12.4 ...


Detection Of Diffuse Interstellar [O Ii] Emission From The Milky Way Using Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy, Edwin Mierkiewicz, R. Reynolds, F. Roesler, J. Harlander, K. Jaehnig 2015 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Detection Of Diffuse Interstellar [O Ii] Emission From The Milky Way Using Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy, Edwin Mierkiewicz, R. Reynolds, F. Roesler, J. Harlander, K. Jaehnig

Edwin J. Mierkiewicz

Using a newly developed spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS), we have obtained the first radial velocity resolved emission-line profiles of diffuse [O II] 3726 and 3729 angstrom emission lines from the warm (10,000 K) ionized component of our Galaxy's interstellar medium. These [O II] lines are a principal coolant for this widespread, photoionized gas and are a potential tracer of variations in the gas temperature resulting from unidentified heating processes that appear to be acting within the Galaxy's disk and halo. By spectrally isolating for the first time Galactic [O II] from atmospheric [O II] emission, we were ...


Production, Outflow, Velocity, And Radial Distribution Of H2o And Oh In The Coma Of Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) From Wide-Field Imaging Of Oh, Walter Harris, Frank Scherb, Edwin Mierkiewicz, Ronald Oliversen, Jeffrey Morgenthaler 2015 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Production, Outflow, Velocity, And Radial Distribution Of H2o And Oh In The Coma Of Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) From Wide-Field Imaging Of Oh, Walter Harris, Frank Scherb, Edwin Mierkiewicz, Ronald Oliversen, Jeffrey Morgenthaler

Edwin J. Mierkiewicz

Observations of OH are a useful proxy of the water production rate (Q H2O) and outflow velocity (VH2O) in comets. From wide-field images taken on 1997 March 28 and April 8 that capture the entire scale length of the OH coma of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), we obtain Q OH from the model-independent method of aperture summation and Q H2O from the OH photochemical branching ratio, BROH. Using an adaptive ring summation algorithm, we extract the radial brightness distribution of OH 0-0 band emission out to cometocentric distances of up to 10 to the sixth power km, both as ...


Sodium Atoms In The Lunar Exotail: Observed Velocity And Spatial Distributions, Michael Line, Edwin Mierkiewicz, R. Oliversen, J. Wilson, L. Haffner, F. Roesler 2015 California Institute of Technology

Sodium Atoms In The Lunar Exotail: Observed Velocity And Spatial Distributions, Michael Line, Edwin Mierkiewicz, R. Oliversen, J. Wilson, L. Haffner, F. Roesler

Edwin J. Mierkiewicz

The lunar sodium tail extends long distances due to radiation pressure on sodium atoms in the lunar exosphere. Our earlier observations measured the average radial velocity of sodium atoms moving down the lunar tail beyond Earth (i.e., near the anti-lunar point) to be ∼12.5. km/s. Here we use the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper to obtain the first kinematically resolved maps of the intensity and velocity distribution of this emission over a 15° × 15 ° region on the sky near the anti-lunar point. We present both spatially and spectrally resolved observations obtained over four nights bracketing new Moon in October ...


Search For Life, John W. Delano PhD 2015 University at Albany, State University of New York

Search For Life, John W. Delano Phd

Atmospheric and Environmental Science Faculty Scholarship

NASA's Astrobiology program seeks to determine the origin and distribution of life in the Milky Way galaxy using scientific expertise from many disciplines (e.g., astronomy, biochemistry, geochemistry). This presentation, which provides an overview of the progress that has been made in this effort, was delivered on 23 June 2015 at the Green Mountain Academy for Lifelong Learning in Manchester, VT. With NASA's development of the Space Launch System (SLS), vigorous multi-disciplinary scientific research, and additional spacecraft (e.g., TESS) for finding and analyzing planets orbiting other stars, exciting discoveries will continue.


Investigating The Correlation Between Inclination Of Coronal Loops And Solar Flare Activity, John-Paul Mann 2015 Central Washington University

Investigating The Correlation Between Inclination Of Coronal Loops And Solar Flare Activity, John-Paul Mann

Symposium Of University Research and Creative Expression (SOURCE)

The purpose of this research is to investigate changes in the coronal loop structures during the life cycle of a solar flare. Coronal loops are intricate and complicated magnetic features on the solar surface that are the source of large solar flares. Understanding the dynamics of these coronal loops provides better models for predicting solar flare activity. By obtaining the magnetogram, or magnetic field strength, along with the inclination of these coronal loops, the full structure of the coronal loop can be obtained. Therefore, we studied how the coronal loops inclination angle, as it emerges from the photosphere, changes in ...


Predicting Solar Sigmoid Lifetimes Based On Shearing In The Photosphere, Austen Stone 2015 Central Washington University

Predicting Solar Sigmoid Lifetimes Based On Shearing In The Photosphere, Austen Stone

Symposium Of University Research and Creative Expression (SOURCE)

This project’s purpose was to study how the speed at which the plasma in the photosphere of the sun affects the lifetime and shape of a solar sigmoid. Solar sigmoids are S-shaped, twisted magnetic structures that are due to the shifting magnetic field lines emerging from the surface of the sun. The photosphere is the visible layer of the sun’s surface and is made up of cells of plasma that are highly conductive and influenced by the magnetic field of the sun. Sigmoids form when shearing (a lateral shift between two objects in directions opposite each other) occurs ...


The Effects Of Magnetic Field Morphology On The Determination Of Oxygen And Iron Abundances In The Solar Atmosphere, C. S. Moore, H. Uitenbroek, M. Rempel, S. Criscuoli, M. P. Rast 2015 University of Colorado, Boulder

The Effects Of Magnetic Field Morphology On The Determination Of Oxygen And Iron Abundances In The Solar Atmosphere, C. S. Moore, H. Uitenbroek, M. Rempel, S. Criscuoli, M. P. Rast

Astrophysical & Planetary Sciences Faculty Contributions

We have explored the impact of magnetic fields on the determination of the solar photospheric oxygen and iron abundances using three-dimensional radiation–magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of convection. Specifically, we examined differences in abundance deduced from three classes of atmospheres simulated with theMURaM code: a pure hydrodynamic (HD) simulation, anMHDsimulation with a local dynamomagnetic field that has saturatedwith an unsigned vertical field strength of 80 G at τ = 1, and an MHD simulation with an initially imposed vertical mean field of 80 G. We use differential equivalent width analysis for diagnosing abundances derived from five oxygen and four iron lines of ...


Empyreal Radiance: An Application Of Sonification In The Field Of Astrophysics, Ryan Loth 2015 Otterbein University

Empyreal Radiance: An Application Of Sonification In The Field Of Astrophysics, Ryan Loth

Distinction Papers

Broadly, this paper discusses the application of sonification and its potential for increasing knowledge. The paper is broken up into three sections: the theory of sonification, sonification for artistic purposes, and lastly an extensive look at one process of sonification dealing with solar winds in space. Concerning the theory of sonification, the paper will divulge into the process of sonification and ask questions about the limitations of it as well. The second section discusses how sonification is a way to build the curiosity of not just scientists, but also the general public. The final section addresses my composition Empyreal Radiance ...


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