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Perspectives For Titanium-Derived Fillers Usage On Denture Base Composite Construction, Nidal Elshereksi 2014 SelectedWorks

Perspectives For Titanium-Derived Fillers Usage On Denture Base Composite Construction, Nidal Elshereksi

Nidal Elshereksi

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is an extensively used material in dentistry because of its aesthetics, processability, and reparability. However, PMMA is still far from being ideal in fulfilling the mechanical requirements of prosthesis. PMMA-based denture base polymers exhibit low fracture resistance and radiopacity behavior. Efforts to improve the mechanical and radiopacity properties of denture base materials through inclusion of silica-based fillers are ongoing. Although silane-treated siliceous fillers are commonly used, they are not sufficiently strong.They also exhibit cracks, which either cut through the glass fillers or propagate around the filler particles. This defect occurs when the dental composites are ...


Reinforcement Of Flowable Dental Composites With Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes, Manal Dafar 2014 Western University

Reinforcement Of Flowable Dental Composites With Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes, Manal Dafar

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Flowable composites are widely used in dentistry. However, they suffer from poor mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to reinforce a flowable composite with TiO2 nanotubes (n-TiO2), which were synthesized using an alkaline hydrothermal technique then functionalized with silane or methacrylic acid (MA). The synthesized n-TiO2 was characterized using X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Electron microscopy revealed a tubular morphology of n-TiO2. Commercially available flowable composite was reinforced with varying amounts of nanotubes (0-5%). Dynamic Young’s moduli (E) and fracture toughness (KIC) of composites reinforced with 3 ...


Effect Of Post Materials On The Biomechanical Behaviour Of Endodontically Treated Tooth., Ahmed A. Madfa 2014 SelectedWorks

Effect Of Post Materials On The Biomechanical Behaviour Of Endodontically Treated Tooth., Ahmed A. Madfa

Ahmed A. Madfa

Objectives: To study the stress distributions in maxillary central incisor restored with Ni-Cr custom-made, gold custom-made, prefabricated titanium and prefabricated glass fibre dental posts subjected to oblique occlusal load at 100 N. Materials and Methods: Four three dimensional finite element models of a maxillary central incisor restored with Ni-Cr (Model I), gold custom-made (Model II), prefabricated titanium (Model III) and prefabricated glass fibre (Model IV) dental posts were constructed and oblique loading of 100 N was applied. Stress analysing at the along the centre of the post and post-surrounding structure interfaces were computed. Results: The result of this study indicates ...


Alumina Ceramic For Dental Applications: A Review Article., Ahmed A. Madfa 2014 SelectedWorks

Alumina Ceramic For Dental Applications: A Review Article., Ahmed A. Madfa

Ahmed A. Madfa

Alumina has received considerable attention and has been historically wellaccepted as biomaterials for dental and medical applications. This article reviews the applications of this material in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications and methods for improving the mechanical properties of aluminabased materials. It also offers perspectives on recent research aimed at the further development of alumina for clinical uses, at their evaluation and selection, and very importantly, their clinical performance. This article also stated about the Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) which has been conceived as a new material design approach to improve performance compared to traditional homogeneous and ...


Endodontic Repair Filling Materials: A Review Article., Ahmed A. Madfa 2014 SelectedWorks

Endodontic Repair Filling Materials: A Review Article., Ahmed A. Madfa

Ahmed A. Madfa

The emergence of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) as endodontic repair filling material has generated a lot of interest due to its superior sealing ability and biocompatibility. Although MTA possesses superior sealing ability to traditional endodontic repair filling materials, such as calcium hydroxide, but it has poor handling characteristics. A novel endodontic repair filling materials with similar chemical composition, but improved handling characteristics, was recently developed. Recently, BioAggregate repair filling materials is claimed as biocompatible material and promotes cementogenesis and forms a hermetic seal inside the root canal. More recently, Biodentine and EndoSequence endodontic repair materials introduced to the market. Both ...


Bioerodible Calcium Sulfate Bone Grafting Substitutes With Tailored Drug Delivery Capabilities, Bryan R. Orellana 2014 University of Kentucky

Bioerodible Calcium Sulfate Bone Grafting Substitutes With Tailored Drug Delivery Capabilities, Bryan R. Orellana

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Bone regeneration or augmentation is often required prior to or concomitant with implant placement. With the limitations of many existing technologies, a biologically compatible synthetic bone grafting substitute that is osteogenic, bioerodible, and provides spacing-making functionality while acting as a drug delivery vehicle for bioactive molecules could provide an alternative to ‘gold standard’ techniques.

In the first part of this work, calcium sulfate (CS) space-making synthetic bone grafts with uniformly embedded poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) biodegradable hydrogel particles was developed to allow controlled release of bioactive agents. The embedded gel particles’ influence on the physical and chemical characteristics of CS ...


Glass-Ceramics For Non-Metallic Dental Implant Applications, Selma Saadaldin 2013 Western University

Glass-Ceramics For Non-Metallic Dental Implant Applications, Selma Saadaldin

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Metallic dental implants are an important treatment for the replacement of missing teeth. However, for esthetic and environmental issues, there is a need to develop non-metallic dental implant materials. In this thesis, two novel glass-ceramics (GCs), miserite and wollastonite, were synthesized for one-piece dental implant applications. Glasses were synthesized by wet chemical methods, followed by calcination, melting and quenching. The crystallization kinetics of these glasses were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA). GC specimens were produced by cold pressing of the glass powder and sintering using schedules determined by DTA. The crystalline phases and microstructure of the GC samples were ...


Protaper Rotary Instrument Fracture During Root Canal Preparation: A Comparison Between Rotary And Hybrid Techniques, Huma Farid, Farhan Raza Khan, Munawar Rahman 2013 The Aga Khan University

Protaper Rotary Instrument Fracture During Root Canal Preparation: A Comparison Between Rotary And Hybrid Techniques, Huma Farid, Farhan Raza Khan, Munawar Rahman

Section of Dental-Oral Maxillofacial Surgery

AIMS:

This study aimed to compare the frequency of ProTaper rotary instrument fracture with rotary (conventional) and hybrid (rotary and hand files) canal preparation techniques. Secondary objectives were to determine whether there was an association of ProTaper file fracture with the canal curvature and to compare the mean time required for canal preparation in the two techniques.

METHODS:

An in vitro experiment was conducted on 216 buccal canals of extracted maxillary and mandibular first molars. After creating an access cavity and a glide path for each canal, a periapical radiograph was taken and the canal curvature was measured with Schneider ...


Micromechanical Analysis Of Nanoparticle-Reinforced Dental Composites, Yi Hua, Linxia Gu, Hidehiko Watanabe 2013 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Micromechanical Analysis Of Nanoparticle-Reinforced Dental Composites, Yi Hua, Linxia Gu, Hidehiko Watanabe

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The mechanical behavior of TiO2 nanoparticle-reinforced resin-based dental composites was characterized in this work using a three-dimensional nanoscale representative volume element. The impacts of nanoparticle volume fraction, aspect ratio, stiffness, and interphase zone between the resin matrix and nanoparticle on the bulk properties of the composite were characterized. Results clearly demonstrated the mechanical advantage of nanocomposites in comparison to microfiber-reinforced composites. The bulk response of the nanocomposite could be further enhanced with the increased nanoparticle volume fraction, or aspect ratio, while the influence of nanoparticle stiffness was minimal. The effective Young’s modulus and yield strength of the composite ...


Application Of Calcium Phosphate Materials In Dentistry, Ahmed A. Madfa 2013 SelectedWorks

Application Of Calcium Phosphate Materials In Dentistry, Ahmed A. Madfa

Ahmed A. Madfa

Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials ...


Advantage Of Combined Amalgam-Composite Restoration: In Vitro Leakage Study, Ahmed A. Madfa 2013 SelectedWorks

Advantage Of Combined Amalgam-Composite Restoration: In Vitro Leakage Study, Ahmed A. Madfa

Ahmed A. Madfa

Purpose: Evalute the leakage of Class II box composite restorations and compared with composite lined by flowable composite and combined amalgam-composite restoration. Method: Fifty-four Class II box shaped cavities were on the distal (1 mm below CEJ) surfaces, 18 cavities for each. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive system, Filtek Z250 composite, and a metal band system were used for all. After thermocycling test (1000 cycles, 5–55°C with 30 s) and dye immersion, the teeth were sectioned longitudinally in a mesio-distal direction and dye penetration was recorded. Results: Combine amalgam-composite restorations showed less gingival leakage than composite alone and composite lined ...


An Analysis Of Adhesion Promoters On Shear Bond Strength Of Orthodontic Brackets To Teeth, Loren Andrew Cadelinia 2012 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

An Analysis Of Adhesion Promoters On Shear Bond Strength Of Orthodontic Brackets To Teeth, Loren Andrew Cadelinia

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

Purpose:The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of two adhesion promoters, EnhancetmLC and AssureRUniversal Bonding Resin, and their effects with two different adhesion systems (Light Bondtmand TransbondtmXT). To better understand their behavior upon failure, the amount of adhesive remnant remaining on the tooth surface was also observed.

Methods:One-hundred forty human premolars, which were extracted for reasons other than this study, were utilized and divided into seven groups of 20 teeth each. Groups A1 and B1 were bonded without adhesion promoters and with two different adhesive systems - Light Bondtmand TransbondtmXT. Groups A2 and B2 ...


Frictional Forces Of A Fixed, Esthetic Orthodontic Appliance System, Brady Michael Nance 2012 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Frictional Forces Of A Fixed, Esthetic Orthodontic Appliance System, Brady Michael Nance

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

Purpose: The demands of an all esthetic fixed orthodontic appliance system are ever increasing in today's world. Frictional values of an esthetic, fixed orthodontic appliance system are needed to evaluate their clinical effectiveness for orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frictional values of various esthetic orthodontic archwires ligated to an esthetic orthodontic bracket.

Methods: Three types of stainless steel and nickel titanium alloy (niti) esthetic orthodontic archwires (epoxy, poly, plastic) in four sizes (.016, .018, .017 x .025, .019 x .025 inches) were ligated to both a stainless steel bracket system and a ceramic ...


Effect Of Gingival Margin Design On Retention Of Thermoformed Orthodontic Aligners, Daniel P. Cowley 2012 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Effect Of Gingival Margin Design On Retention Of Thermoformed Orthodontic Aligners, Daniel P. Cowley

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

Purpose: The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of gingival margin design (scalloped vs. straight cut at gingival zenith vs. straight cut 2mm above gingival zenith) on the retention of thermoformed aligners. Retention of aligners is a critical requirement for efficient tooth movement.

Methods: Two thermoform aligner materials were used, Invisacryl A and Invisacryl C, in 0.040 mil (1mm) thickness. Six aligner designs were fabricated for each of the two aligner materials (12 total aligner designs). Aligner designs are scalloped, straight cut at gingival zenith (0mm), and straight cut 2mm above gingival zenith on a model with ...


Shining A New Light On Selective Polishing, Caren M. Barnes 2012 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Shining A New Light On Selective Polishing, Caren M. Barnes

Faculty Publications, College of Dentistry

The era of selective polishing is over. Polishing is an integral procedure provided by dental hygienists. Patients look forward to the resultant smooth, clean feeling, and dental hygienists must ensure that all patients are polished according to their individual needs—ensuring the safety of their teeth and restorations.


Bacterial Adherence Of Streptococcus Mutans And Lactobacillus Acidophilus On Poly-Methyl Methacrylate And Thermoplastic Polypropene Used In Orthodontic Retention, Lindsay Ann Pfepper 2011 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Bacterial Adherence Of Streptococcus Mutans And Lactobacillus Acidophilus On Poly-Methyl Methacrylate And Thermoplastic Polypropene Used In Orthodontic Retention, Lindsay Ann Pfepper

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

Retention is required in the majority of orthodontic patients throughout the remainder of their life. The two primary removable appliances are known as the traditional Hawley retainer or the vacuum formed retainer. These appliances were developed to maintain the position of the dentition without sacrificing oral health. The orthodontic population is at a higher risk for caries due to plaque accumulation from poor diet, suboptimal oral hygiene and often lack of motivation. These two retainers occupy different niches and are comprised of different materials; therefore the retainers' effect on oral health could be very different. An understanding of which bacteria ...


Practicing Orthodontists' Use And Perceived Efficacy Of Self-Ligating Brackets, John-David Beuhler 2011 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Practicing Orthodontists' Use And Perceived Efficacy Of Self-Ligating Brackets, John-David Beuhler

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

Introduction.

The purpose of this study was to compare perceptions of efficacy and efficiency of Self-Ligating Brackets vs. conventional brackets between practicing Orthodontists and Orthodontic Residents.

Methods.

Cross-sectional survey research using a three-wave emailing of addresses from the current American Association of Orthodontists directory. The directors of all orthodontic residency programs in the US were asked to also distribute to all residents. The survey included five sections: (1) respondents' experience, (2) factors that influence, (3) positive or negative factors, (4) the perceived efficiency/efficacy, and (5) demographics. A 39% response rate (N=707) was obtained.

Results.

Over half (51.8 ...


Effect Of Toothbrush Abrasion On Frictional Resistance Of Aesthetic Orthodontic Archwires, Stephen Alexander Yamodis 2011 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Effect Of Toothbrush Abrasion On Frictional Resistance Of Aesthetic Orthodontic Archwires, Stephen Alexander Yamodis

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

Fixed orthodontic appliances (braces) are one of the most widely used appliances to correct malocclusion, however many patients prefer less metal display. To meet this demand more esthetically pleasing brackets and archwires have been developed. These esthetic components are often clear, white or tooth colored. Coatings of various types are commonly used to produce an esthetic archwire. However, these coating materials tend to wear and degrade, which may cause binding and increased resistance to friction, thereby potentially reducing the efficiency of tooth movement. Therefore, in vitro testing of tooth brush abrasion on frictional resistance of various aesthetic archwires was tested ...


Performance Of Melamine Modified Urea-Formaldehyde Microcapsules In A Dental Host Material, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim Abu Kasim N.H. 2011 SelectedWorks

Performance Of Melamine Modified Urea-Formaldehyde Microcapsules In A Dental Host Material, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim Abu Kasim N.H.

Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim Abu Kasim N.H.

Urea-formaldehyde (UF) microcapsules filled with dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) show potential for making self-healing dental restorative materials. To enhance the physical properties of the capsules, the urea was partially replaced with 0-5% melamine. The microcapsules were analyzed by different microscopic techniques. DSC was used to examine the capsule shell, and the core content was confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Capsules in the range of 50-300 mu m were then embedded in a dental composite matrix consisting of bisphenol-A-glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and triethylene-glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). Flexural strength, microhardness, and nanoindentation hardness measurements were performed on the light-cured specimens. Optical microscopy (OM) examination ...


Human Platelet Lysate Permits Scale-Up Of Dental Pulp Stromal Cells For Clinical Applications, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim Abu Kasim N.H. 2011 SelectedWorks

Human Platelet Lysate Permits Scale-Up Of Dental Pulp Stromal Cells For Clinical Applications, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim Abu Kasim N.H.

Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim Abu Kasim N.H.

Background aims. Dental pulp stromal cells (DPSC) are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in the field of regenerative therapy. However, the usage of DPSC in transplantation requires large-scale expansion to cater for the need for clinical quantity without compromising current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). Existing protocols for cell culturing make use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a nutritional supplement. Unfortunately, FBS is an undesirable additive to cells because it carries the risk of transmitting viral and prion diseases. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of human platelet lysate (HPL) as a ...


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