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Kallikrein-Related Peptidases Are Dysregulated In Pleomorphic Adenoma, Matthew D. Morrison 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Kallikrein-Related Peptidases Are Dysregulated In Pleomorphic Adenoma, Matthew D. Morrison

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Objectives: Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign salivary gland tumor. Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) have been identified as biomarkers in many human tumors and may influence tumor behavior. We investigated KLK1-15 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and proteins in PA specimens to determine a KLK expression profile for this tumor.

Methods: Fresh frozen PA tissue specimens (n = 26) and matched controls were subjected to RT-qPCR to detect KLK1-15 mRNA. Expression of KLK1, KLK12, KLK13 and KLK8 proteins were then evaluated via immunostaining techniques. Statistical analyses were performed with the level of significance set at P < .05.

Results: We observed downregulation of ...


Aloe Vera: A Multipurpose Healer And Bacterial Eradicator, Mary X. Tran, Leira N. Jimenez, Linda K. Blackburn 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Aloe Vera: A Multipurpose Healer And Bacterial Eradicator, Mary X. Tran, Leira N. Jimenez, Linda K. Blackburn

Dental Hygiene Student Scholarship

The Aloe vera plant is a succulent known for its rich content in vitamins and minerals, thus gaining popularity over the years in healthcare products. With advancements in alternative medicine, it has been recently found useful in dentistry due to properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial actions that contribute to wound healing. The purpose of this study was to examine and discover how Aloe vera can be used as an alternative therapy in the dental field. The PubMed, Google Scholar and Dentistry & Oral Sciences (DOSS) databases were utilized to find current scientific evidence on the effects of Aloe vera ...


Potential Antimicrobial Methods For Provisionalizing Teeth After Endodontic Treatment, Laura T. Garden 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Potential Antimicrobial Methods For Provisionalizing Teeth After Endodontic Treatment, Laura T. Garden

Theses and Dissertations

POTENTIAL ANTIMICROBIAL METHODS FOR PROVISIONALIZING TEETH AFTER ENDODONTIC TREATMENT

By Laura T. Garden, DDS

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Dentistry at Virginia Commonwealth University.

Virginia Commonwealth University, 2018

Thesis Advisor: Garry Myers, DDS

Department of Endodontics

Objective:To evaluate the effectiveness of a Chlorhexidine soaked cotton pellet on bacterial leakage.

Methods: Fifty-one extracted teeth, including six controls, were instrumented, obturated, and sealed with either a cotton pellet (CP), 2% Chlorhexidine soaked cotton pellet (CHX), or a Permaflo orifice barrier (OB). Each root was suspended between two chambers: the ...


The Role Of Kinases And Phosphatases In The Pathobiology Of Porphyromonas Gingivalis., Sarah Whitmore 2017 University of Louisville

The Role Of Kinases And Phosphatases In The Pathobiology Of Porphyromonas Gingivalis., Sarah Whitmore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Periodontal diseases result from the interplay between the dysregulation of the host inflammatory response and the actions of a dysbiotic bacterial community. These chronic inflammatory conditions affect persons on a worldwide scale. P. gingivalis is strongly implicated as a key periodontal pathogen in the more severe manifestations of periodontal diseases such as periodontitis. A core element of P. gingivalis pathogenicity is its dysregulation of innate immunity, including suppression of IL-8 production by gingival epithelial cells. The NF-κB family of related transcription factors plays a central role in regulating many important aspects of innate immune responses. NF-κB RelA/p65 homodimers regulate ...


Deficiency Of Rdh10 Causes Cleft Secondary Palate In Mouse., Swetha Raja 2017 University of Louisville

Deficiency Of Rdh10 Causes Cleft Secondary Palate In Mouse., Swetha Raja

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this project is to understand the role of Retinoic Acid (RA) produced by RDH10-mediated metabolism of Vitamin A in palate development. For 80 years now, we have known that dietary restriction of RA/Vitamin A can cause cleft palate but we have failed to understand how RA deficiency causes cleft palate. Our gap in knowledge about how RA deficiency causes cleft palate is mainly owing to the fact that we lack a model system to study such defects. The aim of this thesis research project was to determine if conditional inactivation of the Vitamin A metabolic gene ...


Type Ix Secretion System : Characterization Of An Effector Protein And An Insight Into The Role Of C-Terminal Domain Dimeration In Outer Membrane Translocation., Lahari Koneru 2017 University of Louisville

Type Ix Secretion System : Characterization Of An Effector Protein And An Insight Into The Role Of C-Terminal Domain Dimeration In Outer Membrane Translocation., Lahari Koneru

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are two of the primary pathogens that are associated in the etiology and progression of chronic periodontitis. In T. forsythia, KLIKK proteases are the recently identified group of proteolytic enzymes that are secreted through Type IX secretion system (T9SS). Among, these KLIKK proteases a synergistic relationship was observed between karilysin and mirolysin in invading the host complement system for the survival of the bacteria. Since, karilysin has been already characterized, in this study we propose to study about mirolysin through structural, biochemical and biological characterization. The obtained results from the experiments has shown the propensity ...


Cumulative Trauma, Emotion Reactivity And Salivary Cytokine Response Following Acute Stress Among Healthy Women., Yvette Z. Szabo 2017 University of Louisville

Cumulative Trauma, Emotion Reactivity And Salivary Cytokine Response Following Acute Stress Among Healthy Women., Yvette Z. Szabo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study furthers understanding of how trauma exposure may be connected to the development and maintenance of poor health by focusing on cytokines, tightly regulated proteins of the immune system. Cytokine responses to acute stress have been associated with the onset of poorer mental health in physically healthy women. The present study examined how two factors recently associated with cytokine reactivity –cumulative trauma and emotion reactivity– are associated with salivary cytokine reactivity among healthy women. Seventy-one women, screened to be physically and mentally healthy, completed a laboratory acute stress paradigm and self-report measures of state emotion and trauma exposure. Participants ...


Prospective, Comparative Assessment Of Alveolar Ridge Preservation Using Guidor® Easy-Graft® Classic In Atrumatic Extraction Socket, Kelsey S. Tengan 2017 University of Iowa

Prospective, Comparative Assessment Of Alveolar Ridge Preservation Using Guidor® Easy-Graft® Classic In Atrumatic Extraction Socket, Kelsey S. Tengan

Theses and Dissertations

Objectives: Tooth extraction initiates a cascade of biological events leading to the reduction of alveolar ridge volume. Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) is a surgical treatment which aims at minimizing hard and soft tissue changes following tooth extraction. Several techniques and materials have been studied and used clinically in ARP. The selection of the biomaterials used for this technique is determined by several factors, such as features of the extraction site, inherent biomaterial properties and handling preferences by the surgeon, among others. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of alveolar ridge preservation via the application of Easy-graft ...


Periodontal Phenotype And Supracrestal Soft Tissue Dimensions – Clinical Correlations And Their Impact On Post-Extraction Volumetric Changes, Sarah Rinehart 2017 University of Iowa

Periodontal Phenotype And Supracrestal Soft Tissue Dimensions – Clinical Correlations And Their Impact On Post-Extraction Volumetric Changes, Sarah Rinehart

Theses and Dissertations

Objectives:

Extraction of a tooth leads to a series of healing events that are intimately associated with dimensional changes in the alveolar ridge that typically result in a net volume loss. Previous studies have evaluated the extent and pattern of those resorptive changes, however it remains challenging to predict the degree of change that will occur, as numerous local and systemic factors may play a role in the biologic events that follow tooth extraction. The purpose of this study was to assess the role that phenotypic characteristics of the periodontium play in the alveolar ridge remodeling processes that take place ...


Expression Of Human Tissue Kallikreins (Klks) In Polymorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma (Plga), Jacqueline M. Cox 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Expression Of Human Tissue Kallikreins (Klks) In Polymorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma (Plga), Jacqueline M. Cox

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is the second most common malignant salivary gland tumour of the minor salivary glands. Human tissue kallikreins (KLKs) are a family of highly conserved serine proteases expressed by various tissues throughout the body. KLKs have become powerful tumour markers for the diagnosis of the cancer patient (e.g. PSA (KLK3)). The literature demonstrates a link between KLKs and salivary gland neoplasms. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of KLK mRNA in tissue samples of formalin fixed paraffin embedded polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA). Secondly, we wish to determine if KLK expression is ...


Using An Audience Response System To Calibrate Dental Faculty Assessing Student Clinical Competence., Sean A. Aiken 2017 University of Louisville

Using An Audience Response System To Calibrate Dental Faculty Assessing Student Clinical Competence., Sean A. Aiken

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In order to best prepare students to become competent and confident practitioners in a clinical environment upon graduating dental school, it is imperative for them to receive consistent and productive feedback from the supervising faculty. Through academic engagement, and more specifically faculty calibration, it may be possible to eliminate the disconnect that sometimes exists between faculty expectations and terminology, and those of the students. In terms of definitions, academic engagement reflects faculty scholarly development activities that support integration of relevant, current theory of best practices consistent with the school's mission, expected learner outcomes, and supporting strategies.1-6, 32 The ...


Expression Of Zeb Factors In Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma., Saira Ahmed 2017 University of Louisville

Expression Of Zeb Factors In Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma., Saira Ahmed

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objectives: The ZEB family of transcription factors (ZEB1 and ZEB2) have been demonstrated to play a role in metastatic progression of several cancers, and may also influence the initial transformation and generation of cancer stem cells. However, the expression pattern of ZEB proteins in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to define changes in expression and subcellular localization of the ZEB family in both precancerous lesions and different grades of OSCC. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine tongue biopsies were subjected to immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence to determine the expression and subcellular ...


Treg Regulation In Periodontal Disease During Pregnancy., Aislinn Leah Hays 2017 University of Louisville

Treg Regulation In Periodontal Disease During Pregnancy., Aislinn Leah Hays

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Although pregnancy is prone to induce more severe periodontal inflammation and tissue damage, its mechanism remains elusive. Periodontal diseases during pregnancy are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth or low birth weight. Animal models are ideal for investigating immunological mechanisms in periodontal disease. With a newly modified ligature-induced disease model, we managed to develop periodontal disease in pregnant mice and investigate the immunological mechanism of more severe symptoms during pregnancy. Hypothesis: We hypothesis that P. gingivalis infection during pregnancy will lead to a down-regulation of Treg cells, therefore causing increased inflammation and disease severity. Methods: A ligature-induced ...


Management Of Initial Caries Lesions: Iowa Survey, Amira Elgreatly 2017 University of Iowa

Management Of Initial Caries Lesions: Iowa Survey, Amira Elgreatly

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to Iowa dentists’ management of initial caries lesions for low, moderate and high-risk patients and their agreement with the International Caries Classification and Management System (ICCMS) Guidelines.

A survey with three patient scenarios (low, moderate and high-risk) was electronically sent to 916 University of Iowa alumni dentists who were in active practice. Information on dentists’ demographics and practice characteristics were also collected in the survey. Descriptive statistics were conducted to profile the variables of interest. Bivariate analyses were performed to assess the factors associated with the management of initial caries ...


Inhibition Of Chemotherapeutic-Induced Apoptosis In Esophageal Squamous Cancer Cells By The Keystone Periodontal Pathogen, Porphyromonas Gingivalis., Atul Kumar Agrawal 2017 University of Louisville

Inhibition Of Chemotherapeutic-Induced Apoptosis In Esophageal Squamous Cancer Cells By The Keystone Periodontal Pathogen, Porphyromonas Gingivalis., Atul Kumar Agrawal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recent evidence has shown that P. gingivalis, a Gram-negative, anaerobic oral bacterium, is negatively associated with the presence and outcome of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). While potential underlying mechanisms are yet to be established, P. gingivalis infection is known to inhibit apoptosis in gingival epithelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that P. gingivalis may also inhibit of the induction of apoptosis in human ESCC cells exposed to the commonly employed anti-ESCC chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin. The capacity of P. gingivalis, at variant multiplicities of infection, to suppress cisplatin-induced necrosis and apoptosis in EC9706 ESCC cells was established by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH ...


Student Self-Assessment Of Operative Dentistry Experiences : A Time Dependent Exercise In Best Practice Outcomes., Celine Joyce Cornelius Timothius 2017 University of Louisville

Student Self-Assessment Of Operative Dentistry Experiences : A Time Dependent Exercise In Best Practice Outcomes., Celine Joyce Cornelius Timothius

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to evaluate student self-assessment of operative dentistry experiences. Methods: First, a retrospective analysis of student self-assessment and faculty assessment grade sheets were evaluated for mean differences and correlations across time. Both preclinical (D2: n=120) and clinical (D3: n=120; D4: n=120) grades sheets were evaluated. Secondly, twenty-five (n=25) students from each of the D1, D2, D3 and D4 classes were asked to evaluate dentoform work. Twenty-five (n=25) operative calibrated faculty graded the same two dentoforms. Results: D2 student’s self-assessment scores were significantly higher than the faculty assessment scores ...


Prevalence, Incidence And Risk Factors For Dental Caries In Preschool And School-Aged African American Children: A Prospective Cohort Study, Tariq Ghazal 2017 University of Iowa

Prevalence, Incidence And Risk Factors For Dental Caries In Preschool And School-Aged African American Children: A Prospective Cohort Study, Tariq Ghazal

Theses and Dissertations

My PhD projects were secondary analyses of data from a prospective study conducted at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Two cohorts of low socioeconomic status, African-American children from Perry County, Alabama, were invited to participate. Children in the 1st Cohort (Cohort 1, n=98) were approximately six years old at baseline and followed for 6 years, while children in the 2nd Cohort (Cohort 2, n=95) were approximately one-year-old at baseline and followed for five years.

For the first dissertation project, the prevalence and incidence of dental decay were assessed for children in Cohort 1. The findings of this ...


Mechanical Preparation Of Oval-Shaped Root Canals In Mandibular Premolars With The Trushape 3d Conforming File: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study, Lauren Elizabeth Jensen 2017 University of Iowa

Mechanical Preparation Of Oval-Shaped Root Canals In Mandibular Premolars With The Trushape 3d Conforming File: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study, Lauren Elizabeth Jensen

Theses and Dissertations

The TRUShape 3D Conforming File (TRUShape), a novel, S-shaped nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file, was developed to facilitate cleaning and shaping of irregular-shaped root canals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shaping ability of TRUShape compared to Vortex Blue (VB) when used in non-round, oval-shaped root canals by micro-computed tomography (MCT).

Thirty single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth with radiographically similar root canal size and curvature were randomly allocated to two groups (N=15), and mechanically prepared with TRUShape or VB. Each tooth was submitted to MCT at 20 μm resolution at three time intervals: before shaping, and after ...


Comparative Assessment Of Conventional Vs. Cad/Cam Complete Denture Fabrication Techniques On Patient Satisfaction, Quality Of Life And Prosthesis Biofilm, Wissanee Jia-mahasap 2017 University of Iowa

Comparative Assessment Of Conventional Vs. Cad/Cam Complete Denture Fabrication Techniques On Patient Satisfaction, Quality Of Life And Prosthesis Biofilm, Wissanee Jia-Mahasap

Theses and Dissertations

Objectives: The primary objective was to assess the impact of two denture fabrication techniques, conventional and CAD/CAM, on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and patient satisfaction in complete denture wearers. The secondary objective was to compare the level of microorganisms present on complete dentures from the two fabrication techniques.

Methods: Twenty-eight completely edentulous subjects (16 men and 21 women, age range from 49 to 87 years old.), who had been edentulous for at least 6 months, were wearing ill-fitting complete dentures, or unsatisfied with their existing complete dentures were recruited. Subjects were randomized to conventional and computer-aided design ...


The Use Of Topical Subgingival Application Of Simvastatin Gel In Treatment Of Peri Implant Mucisitis : A Pilot Study, Ahmed Mahrous 2017 University of Iowa

The Use Of Topical Subgingival Application Of Simvastatin Gel In Treatment Of Peri Implant Mucisitis : A Pilot Study, Ahmed Mahrous

Theses and Dissertations

Dentistry has come a long way from its humble beginnings. Like all other healthcare specialties, dentistry has evolved through the years. The understanding of physiology of dental health and disease has evolved allowing us to treat dental diseases much more efficiently. However not all dental problems are fully understood.

Diseases that affect the bone and soft tissue around teeth and dental implants, also known as “periodontal” and peri-implant” diseases respectively, have proven to be among the least understood and challenging dental diseases to treat. Recent advancements in microbiology and immunology have revealed that periodontal and peri implant disease have a ...


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