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Gamma Oscillations In The Mouse Primary Visual Cortex As An Endophenotype Of Schizophrenia, Cristin G. Welle 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Gamma Oscillations In The Mouse Primary Visual Cortex As An Endophenotype Of Schizophrenia, Cristin G. Welle

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Gamma oscillations (20-50 Hz) are a robust component of brain activity associated with information processing, but are also part of the background spontaneous activity during various brain states including sleep and anesthesia. Our goal was to examine the changes in gamma oscillations that result from pharmacological and genetic manipulations of glutamatergic transmission which produce endophenotypes of schizophrenia. We recorded local field potentials (LFP) and single units through the depth of the mouse primary visual cortex in vivo and examined the alterations in gamma frequency activity under both normal and pathological conditions. Our results indicate that both in awake and anesthetized ...


Fmrfamide-Like Peptides (Flps) Enhance Voltage-Gated Calcium Currents To Elicit Muscle Contraction In The Human Parasite Schistosoma Mansoni, Ekaterina Novozhilova, Michael J. Kimber, Hai Qian, Paul McVeigh, Alan P. Robertson, Mostafa Zamanian, Aaron G. Maule, Timothy A. Day 2010 Iowa State University

Fmrfamide-Like Peptides (Flps) Enhance Voltage-Gated Calcium Currents To Elicit Muscle Contraction In The Human Parasite Schistosoma Mansoni, Ekaterina Novozhilova, Michael J. Kimber, Hai Qian, Paul Mcveigh, Alan P. Robertson, Mostafa Zamanian, Aaron G. Maule, Timothy A. Day

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Schistosomes are amongst the most important and neglected pathogens in the world, and schistosomiasis control relies almost exclusively on a single drug. The neuromuscular system of schistosomes is fertile ground for therapeutic intervention, yet the details of physiological events involved in neuromuscular function remain largely unknown. Short amidated neuropeptides, FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), are distributed abundantly throughout the nervous system of every flatworm examined and they produce potent myoexcitation. Our goal here was to determine the mechanism by which FLPs elicit contractions of schistosome muscle fibers. Contraction studies showed that the FLP Tyr-Ile-Arg-Phe-amide (YIRFamide) contracts the muscle fibers through a mechanism ...


Heritable Birth Defects In Cattle, Brian Whitlock 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Heritable Birth Defects In Cattle, Brian Whitlock

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection. In some breeds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Veterinarians, animal scientists, and cattle breeders should be aware of inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal phenotypes. This review will describe the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of testing for selected (newly described) heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.


Exogenous Modulation Of Intrinsic Optic Nerve Neuroprotective Activity, Sinisa D. Grozdanic, Tatjana Lazic, Markus H. Kuehn, Matthew M. Harper, Randy H. Kardon, Young H. Kwon, Erin B. Lavik, Donald S. Sakaguchi 2010 Iowa State University

Exogenous Modulation Of Intrinsic Optic Nerve Neuroprotective Activity, Sinisa D. Grozdanic, Tatjana Lazic, Markus H. Kuehn, Matthew M. Harper, Randy H. Kardon, Young H. Kwon, Erin B. Lavik, Donald S. Sakaguchi

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Background

To characterize the molecular and functional status of the rat retina and optic nerve after acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP).

Methods

Retinal ischemia was induced in rats by increasing the IOP (110 mmHg/60 minutes). Microarray analysis, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to characterize retinal tissue. PLGA microspheres containing neurotrophic factors (BDNF, GDNF, or CNTF) or empty microspheres were injected into the vitreous of operated animals 1 day after elevation of IOP. Pupil light reflex (PLR) parameters and electroretinograms (ERG) were monitored at multiple time points during the 60-day postoperative recovery period.

Results

Molecular analysis showed ...


Fibrinolytic Proteins And Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Modulation Of Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Circadian Clock, Xiang Mou 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Fibrinolytic Proteins And Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Modulation Of Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Circadian Clock, Xiang Mou

Doctoral Dissertations

Mammalian circadian rhythms are controlled by a clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The mechanisms through which light phase-shifts the SCN circadian clock are similar to those underlying memory formation and long-term potentiation (LTP). Several secreted proteins, including tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have been implicated in this process. These same proteins are important for photic phase-shifts of the SCN circadian clock. Early night glutamate application to SCN containing brain slices resets the circadian clock. Our experiments find that the endogenous tPA inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1(PAI-1), blocked these shifts in slices from ...


Neuroprotective Effects Of Anthocyanins On Neuronal Death Induced By Inhibition Of Bcl-2 And Oxidative Stress, Natalie A. Kelsey 2010 University of Denver

Neuroprotective Effects Of Anthocyanins On Neuronal Death Induced By Inhibition Of Bcl-2 And Oxidative Stress, Natalie A. Kelsey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have devastating consequences to the afflicted patients. A major cellular pathophysiology underlying these diseases is mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS) leading to neuronal death. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of a novel class of nutraceuticals, anthocyanins, against MOS-induced death in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Anthocyanins are natural antioxidants whose neuroprotective potential has yet to be examined in detail. Kuromanin and callistephin are anthocyanins derived from black rice and strawberries, respectively. Glutathione (GSH)-sensitive MOS and intrinsic apoptosis were induced in CGNs by the Bcl-2 inhibitor, HA14-1 ...


Overexpression Of Amyloid Precursor Protein Induces Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress And Activates The Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway, Matthew G. Bartley 2010 University of Denver

Overexpression Of Amyloid Precursor Protein Induces Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress And Activates The Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway, Matthew G. Bartley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic form of cognitive disability and is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. Within chromosome 21 is the gene, amyloid precursor protein (APP). Proteolysis of APP into toxic and aggregate-prone, beta-amyloid fragments underlies the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individuals with DS develop the neuropathology that can be diagnosed as AD; however, the role of APP overexpression in this comorbidity is presently unclear. Here, we elucidated the mechanism of cell death induced by overexpression of wild type APP. Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with a DsRed-APP fusion construct displayed caspase-3 activation and ...


Genetic Analysis Of The Function Of The Drosophila Doublesex-Related Factor Dmrt93b, Diana O'Day 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Genetic Analysis Of The Function Of The Drosophila Doublesex-Related Factor Dmrt93b, Diana O'Day

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

DMRT (Doublesex and Mab-3 related transcription factor) proteins generally associated with sexual differentiation in many organisms share a common DNA binding domain and are often expressed in reproductive tissues. Aside from doublesex, which is a central factor in the regulation of sex determination, Drosophila possesses three different dmrt genes that are of unknown function. Because the association with sexual differentiation and reproduction is not universal and some DMRT proteins have been found to play other developmental roles we chose to further characterize one of these Drosophila genes. We carried out genetic analysis of dmrt93B, which was previously found to be ...


Direct Inputs To Off Α And G9 Ganglion Cells From Aii Amacrine Cells In Rabbit Retina, Wei-Li Liu 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Direct Inputs To Off Α And G9 Ganglion Cells From Aii Amacrine Cells In Rabbit Retina, Wei-Li Liu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In the mammalian retina, AII amacrine cells are essential in the rod pathway for dark-adapted vision. But they also have a “day job”, to provide inhibitory inputs to certain OFF ganglion cells in photopic conditions. This is known as crossover inhibition. Physiological evidence from several different labs implies that AII amacrine cells provide direct input to certain OFF ganglion cells. However, previous EM analysis of the rabbit retina suggests that the dominant output of the AII amacrine cell in sublamina a goes to OFF cone bipolar cells (Strettoi et al., 1992).

Two OFF ganglion cell types in the rabbit retina ...


Presenilin Is Necessary For The Function Of Cbp In The Adult Drosophila Cns, Randy S. Boyles 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Presenilin Is Necessary For The Function Of Cbp In The Adult Drosophila Cns, Randy S. Boyles

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Dominant mutations in Presenilin (Psn) have been correlated with the formation of Aß- containing plaques in patients with inherited forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, a clear mechanism directly linking amyloid plaques to the pathology of familial or sporadic forms of AD has remained elusive. Thus, recent discoveries of several new substrates for Psn protease activity have sparked alternative hypotheses to explain the preclinical symptoms of AD. CBP (CREB-binding protein) is a haplo- insufficient transcriptional co-activator with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity that has been proposed to be a downstream target for Psn signaling. Individuals with reduced CBP levels have ...


Neuropsychological And Emotion Processing Abnormalities In Bipolar Disorder I And Ii, Carol Randall 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Neuropsychological And Emotion Processing Abnormalities In Bipolar Disorder I And Ii, Carol Randall

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Bipolar disorder illness is marked by emotional lability and mood disturbance, as well as various neuropsychological deficits, and the neuroanatomical correlates of many of these deficits are beginning to be identified. Numerous studies have implicated specific cortical and sub-cortical abnormalities in areas associated with executive function, memory, motor function, and the processing of emotion. Although a large body of research has been devoted to the investigation of cognitive and emotion-processing deficits in bipolar disorder, relatively few studies have been devoted to the investigation of how these deficits differ among bipolar disorder subtypes. This is surprising in light of known symptomatological ...


Cortical Vein Thrombosis As A Mimic For Isolated Cortical Subarachnoid Hemorrhage And Transient Ischemic Attack, Jane G. Morris, Marc Fisher, Raphael A. Carandang 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical Center

Cortical Vein Thrombosis As A Mimic For Isolated Cortical Subarachnoid Hemorrhage And Transient Ischemic Attack, Jane G. Morris, Marc Fisher, Raphael A. Carandang

Neurology Publications and Presentations

Isolated cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage is rare and poorly understood. Differential diagnoses and proposed pathophysiology vary widely and the diagnostic work-up for these patients who present with transient ischemic attack-like episodes and characteristic imaging findings is still unclear. We report a case of isolated subarachnoid hemorrhage and transient neurologic deficits due to isolated cortical vein thrombosis that was not detected by noninvasive tests. A 75-year-old woman with a history of a lobar intracerebral hemorrhage presented to the Academic Medical Center with sudden-onset transient left upper extremity weakness. Head CT showed a linear hyperdensity in the right precentral gyrus suggestive of isolated ...


Activation Of Alpha4* Nachrs Is Necessary And Sufficient For Varenicline-Induced Reduction Of Alcohol Consumption, Linzy M. Hendrickson, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Xueyan Pang, Paul D. Gardner, Andrew R. Tapper 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Activation Of Alpha4* Nachrs Is Necessary And Sufficient For Varenicline-Induced Reduction Of Alcohol Consumption, Linzy M. Hendrickson, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Xueyan Pang, Paul D. Gardner, Andrew R. Tapper

GSBS Student Publications

Recently, the smoking cessation therapeutic varenicline, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist, has been shown to reduce alcohol consumption. However, the mechanism and nAChR subtype(s) involved are unknown. Here we demonstrate that varenicline and alcohol exposure, either alone or in combination, selectively activates dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons within the posterior, but not the anterior, ventral tegmental area (VTA). To gain insight into which nAChR subtypes may be involved in the response to alcohol, we analyzed nAChR subunit gene expression in posterior VTA DAergic neurons. Ethanol-activated DAergic neurons expressed higher levels of alpha4, alpha6, and beta3 subunit genes compared with ...


Pharmacological And Genetic Reversal Of Age-Dependent Cognitive Deficits Attributable To Decreased Presenilin Function, S. M.J. McBride, C. H. Choi, B. P. Schoenfeld, A. J. Bell, D. A. Liebelt, D. Ferreiro, R. J. Choi, P. Hinchey, M. Kollaros, A. M. Terlizzi, N. J. Ferrick, E. Koenigsberg, R. L. Rudominer, A. Sumida, S. Chiorean, Kathleen King Siwicki, H. T. Nguyen, M. E. Fortini, T. V. McDonald, T. A. Jongens 2010 Swarthmore College

Pharmacological And Genetic Reversal Of Age-Dependent Cognitive Deficits Attributable To Decreased Presenilin Function, S. M.J. Mcbride, C. H. Choi, B. P. Schoenfeld, A. J. Bell, D. A. Liebelt, D. Ferreiro, R. J. Choi, P. Hinchey, M. Kollaros, A. M. Terlizzi, N. J. Ferrick, E. Koenigsberg, R. L. Rudominer, A. Sumida, S. Chiorean, Kathleen King Siwicki, H. T. Nguyen, M. E. Fortini, T. V. Mcdonald, T. A. Jongens

Biology Faculty Works

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of cognitive loss and neurodegeneration in the developed world. Although its genetic and environmental causes are not generally known, familial forms of the disease (FAD) are attributable to mutations in a single copy of the Presenilin (PS) and amyloid precursor protein genes. The dominant inheritance pattern of FAD indicates that it may be attributable to gain or change of function mutations. Studies of FAD-linked forms of presenilin (psn) in model organisms, however, indicate that they are loss of function, leading to the possibility that a reduction in PS activity might contribute to ...


Acute Responses To Estradiol Replacement In The Olfactory System Of Apoe-Deficient And Wild-Type Mice, Britto P. Nathan, Michael Tonsor, Robert G. Struble 2010 Eastern Illinois University

Acute Responses To Estradiol Replacement In The Olfactory System Of Apoe-Deficient And Wild-Type Mice, Britto P. Nathan, Michael Tonsor, Robert G. Struble

Britto P. Nathan

Epidemiological studies suggest that estrogen therapy protects against clinical expression of chronic neurological diseases. These beneficial effects of estrogen therapy are highly modified by apolipoprotein E (apoE) through an unknown mechanism. We examined the short-term effects of estradiol replacement in ovariectomized mice on apoE expression and markers for cell proliferation, reactive gliosis, neuronal maturation, and synaptogenesis in the primary olfactory pathway of wild-type (WT) and apoE knockout (KO) mice. Three days of estradiol replacement increased apoE expression in the olfactory nerve and in the glomerular layer. Estradiol treatment also increased cell proliferation, total cell numbers, number of mature neurons in ...


Acute Responses To Estradiol Replacement In The Olfactory System Of Apoe-Deficient And Wild-Type Mice, Britto P. Nathan, Michael Tonsor, Robert G. Struble 2010 Eastern Illinois University

Acute Responses To Estradiol Replacement In The Olfactory System Of Apoe-Deficient And Wild-Type Mice, Britto P. Nathan, Michael Tonsor, Robert G. Struble

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Epidemiological studies suggest that estrogen therapy protects against clinical expression of chronic neurological diseases. These beneficial effects of estrogen therapy are highly modified by apolipoprotein E (apoE) through an unknown mechanism. We examined the short-term effects of estradiol replacement in ovariectomized mice on apoE expression and markers for cell proliferation, reactive gliosis, neuronal maturation, and synaptogenesis in the primary olfactory pathway of wild-type (WT) and apoE knockout (KO) mice. Three days of estradiol replacement increased apoE expression in the olfactory nerve and in the glomerular layer. Estradiol treatment also increased cell proliferation, total cell numbers, number of mature neurons in ...


Striatal Microrna Controls Cocaine Intake Through Creb Signalling, Jonathan A. Hollander, Heh-In Im, Antonio L. Amelio, Jannet Kocerha, Purva Bali, Qun Lu, David Willoughby, Claes Wahlestedt, Michael D. Conkright, Paul J. Kenny 2010 The Scripps Research Institute

Striatal Microrna Controls Cocaine Intake Through Creb Signalling, Jonathan A. Hollander, Heh-In Im, Antonio L. Amelio, Jannet Kocerha, Purva Bali, Qun Lu, David Willoughby, Claes Wahlestedt, Michael D. Conkright, Paul J. Kenny

Jannet Kocerha

Cocaine addiction is characterized by a gradual loss of control over drug use, but the molecular mechanisms regulating vulnerability to this process remain unclear. Here we report that microRNA-212 (miR-212) is upregulated in the dorsal striatum of rats with a history of extended access to cocaine. Striatal miR-212 decreases responsiveness to the motivational properties of cocaine by markedly amplifying the stimulatory effects of the drug on cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) signalling. This action occurs through miR-212-enhanced Raf1 activity, resulting in adenylyl cyclase sensitization and increased expression of the essential CREB co-activator TORC (transducer of regulated CREB; also known ...


Changes In Plasma Concentrations Of Growth Hormone And Luteinizing Hormone In Ewes Following Central And Peripheral Treatment With Kisspeptin, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Barbara P. Steele, James L. Sartin 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Changes In Plasma Concentrations Of Growth Hormone And Luteinizing Hormone In Ewes Following Central And Peripheral Treatment With Kisspeptin, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Barbara P. Steele, James L. Sartin

Animal Science Publications and Other Works

Kisspeptin (KP), a neuroendocrine regulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone, has been hypothesized as an integrator of nutrition and hormones critical to metabolism and regulation of reproduction. Recent evidence suggests growth hormone (GH) secretion may be influenced by KP. The objective of this study was to determine if the GH stimulatory effect of KP is due to actions on the hypothalamus or anterior pituitary gland in ewes. Adult ovariectomized ewes (n=8) were fitted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula to facilitate central administration of experimental treatments. Ewes received one of eight treatments [four intravenously (IV) and four ICV]. Peripheral treatments [0 (Veh ...


Changes In Plasma Concentrations Of Leptin In Ewes During Pregnancy, Joseph A. Daniel, A B. Milam, M E. Gafnea, Brian K. Whitlock, D H. Keisler 2010 Berry College

Changes In Plasma Concentrations Of Leptin In Ewes During Pregnancy, Joseph A. Daniel, A B. Milam, M E. Gafnea, Brian K. Whitlock, D H. Keisler

Animal Science Publications and Other Works

Previous research has demonstrated circulating concentrations of leptin increase in ewes during mid pregnancy then decline in late pregnancy and early lactation. The objective of this study was to more narrowly define the timing of changes in circulating concentrations of leptin with pregnancy in ewes. Katahdin ewes (n= 19) located at latitude 34.275 and longitude -85.183 (Mount Berry, GA) were utilized. Blood samples were collected weekly via jugular veinpuncture beginning immediately before ram exposure on September 23 and continuing until 4 weeks post-lambing. Ewes were exposed to a ram fitted with a marking harness for a 63 day ...


Effect Of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor On Feed Intake And Body Temperature In Sheep, James L. Sartin, D L. Marks, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Barbara P. Steele 2010 Auburn University Main Campus

Effect Of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor On Feed Intake And Body Temperature In Sheep, James L. Sartin, D L. Marks, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Barbara P. Steele

Animal Science Publications and Other Works

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been suggested to function as a potent inhibitor of feed intake in rodents. These studies were designed to determine whether LIF was found in the ovine hypothalamus and whether LIF inhibited feed intake in sheep. Sheep hypothalami were used to clone LIF to indicate presence of the gene in the hypothalamus. The sequence was similar to published data. Another group of sheep were provided intraventricular (ICV) cannulas and injected with doses of LIF at 250, 500, 1000 and 2500 ng per sheep, ICV. Feed intake was inhibited by the 1000 and 2500 ng dose (trt ...


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