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Changes In Plasma Concentrations Of Growth Hormone And Luteinizing Hormone In Ewes Following Central And Peripheral Treatment With Kisspeptin, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Barbara P. Steele, James L. Sartin 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Changes In Plasma Concentrations Of Growth Hormone And Luteinizing Hormone In Ewes Following Central And Peripheral Treatment With Kisspeptin, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Barbara P. Steele, James L. Sartin

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Kisspeptin (KP), a neuroendocrine regulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone, has been hypothesized as an integrator of nutrition and hormones critical to metabolism and regulation of reproduction. Recent evidence suggests growth hormone (GH) secretion may be influenced by KP. The objective of this study was to determine if the GH stimulatory effect of KP is due to actions on the hypothalamus or anterior pituitary gland in ewes. Adult ovariectomized ewes (n=8) were fitted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula to facilitate central administration of experimental treatments. Ewes received one of eight treatments [four intravenously (IV) and four ICV]. Peripheral treatments [0 (Veh ...


Predicting Persuasion-Induced Behavior Change From The Brain, Emily B. Falk, Elliot T. Berkman, Traci Mann, Brittany Harrison, Matthew D. Lieberman 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Predicting Persuasion-Induced Behavior Change From The Brain, Emily B. Falk, Elliot T. Berkman, Traci Mann, Brittany Harrison, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Although persuasive messages often alter people's self-reported attitudes and intentions to perform behaviors, these self-reports do not necessarily predict behavior change. We demonstrate that neural responses to persuasive messages can predict variability in behavior change in the subsequent week. Specifically, an a priori region of interest (ROI) in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was reliably associated with behavior change (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Additionally, an iterative cross-validation approach using activity in this MPFC ROI predicted an average 23% of the variance in behavior change beyond the variance predicted by self-reported attitudes and intentions. Thus, neural signals can predict behavioral changes that are not predicted from self-reported attitudes and intentions alone. Additionally, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to demonstrate that a neural signal can predict complex real world behavior days in advance.


Rule-Based Categorization Deficits In Focal Basal Ganglia Lesion And Parkinson’S Disease Patients, Shawn W. Ell, Andrea Weinstein, Richard Ivry 2010 University of Maine

Rule-Based Categorization Deficits In Focal Basal Ganglia Lesion And Parkinson’S Disease Patients, Shawn W. Ell, Andrea Weinstein, Richard Ivry

Psychology Faculty Scholarship

Patients with basal ganglia (BG) pathology are consistently found to be impaired on rule-based category learning tasks in which learning is thought to depend upon the use of an explicit, hypothesis-guided strategy. The factors that influence this impairment remain unclear. Moreover, it remains unknown if the impairments observed in patients with degenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) are also observed in those with focal BG lesions. In the present study, we tested patients with either focal BG lesions or PD on two categorization tasks that varied in terms of their demands on selective attention and working memory. Individuals ...


Distinct Roles Of C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Isoforms In Neurite Initiation And Elongation During Axonal Regeneration, Monia Barnat, Herve Enslen, Friedrich Propst, Roger J. Davis, Sylvia Soares, Fatiha Nothias 2010 Université Pierre et Marie Curie

Distinct Roles Of C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Isoforms In Neurite Initiation And Elongation During Axonal Regeneration, Monia Barnat, Herve Enslen, Friedrich Propst, Roger J. Davis, Sylvia Soares, Fatiha Nothias

Davis Lab Publications

c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) (comprising JNK1-3 isoforms) are members of the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) family, activated in response to various stimuli including growth factors and inflammatory cytokines. Their activation is facilitated by scaffold proteins, notably JNK-interacting protein-1 (JIP1). Originally considered to be mediators of neuronal degeneration in response to stress and injury, recent studies support a role of JNKs in early stages of neurite outgrowth, including adult axonal regeneration. However, the function of individual JNK isoforms, and their potential effector molecules, remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the role of JNK signaling during axonal regeneration from adult mouse dorsal root ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Neurite Complexity In The Drosophila Brain: A Dissertation, Lei Shi 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Molecular Mechanisms Of Neurite Complexity In The Drosophila Brain: A Dissertation, Lei Shi

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Development of functional neural circuits involves a series of complicated steps, including neurogenesis and neuronal morphogenesis. To understand the molecular mechasnims of neurite complexity, especially neurite branching/arborization, the Drosophila brain, especially MBNs (mushroom body neurons) and PNs (projection neurons) in olfactory circuitry, was used in this dissertation work as the model system to study how two molecules, Dscam and Kr-h1 affect neurite complexity in the Drosophilabrain.

For the Drosophila Dscam, through alternative splicing it could encode up to 152,064 distinct immunoglobulin/fibronectin type cell adhesion molecules. Each Dscam isoform is derived from one of the 19,008 ...


Acoustic Cues For Sound Source Distance And Azimuth In Rabbits, A Racquetball And A Rigid Spherical Model, Duck O. Kim, Brian Bishop, SHIGEYUKI KUWADA 2010 University of Connecticut School of Medicine and Dentistry

Acoustic Cues For Sound Source Distance And Azimuth In Rabbits, A Racquetball And A Rigid Spherical Model, Duck O. Kim, Brian Bishop, Shigeyuki Kuwada

UCHC Articles - Research

There are numerous studies measuring the transfer functions representing signal transformation between a source and each ear canal, i.e., the
head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), for various species. However, only a handful of these address the effects of sound source distance on HRTFs. This
is the first study of HRTFs in the rabbit where the emphasis is on the effects of sound source distance and azimuth on HRTFs. With the rabbit placed in an
anechoic chamber, we made acoustic measurements with miniature microphones placed deep in each ear canal to a sound source at different positions (10–160 cm distance ...


Setdb1 Histone Methyltransferase Regulates Mood-Related Behaviors And Expression Of The Nmda Receptor Subunit Nr2b, Yan Jiang, Mira Jakovcevski, Rahul Bharadwaj, Caroline M. Connor, Frederick Albert Schroeder, Cong L. Lin, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Gilles E. Martin, Schahram Akbarian 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Setdb1 Histone Methyltransferase Regulates Mood-Related Behaviors And Expression Of The Nmda Receptor Subunit Nr2b, Yan Jiang, Mira Jakovcevski, Rahul Bharadwaj, Caroline M. Connor, Frederick Albert Schroeder, Cong L. Lin, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Gilles E. Martin, Schahram Akbarian

GSBS Student Publications

Histone methyltransferases specific for the histone H3-lysine 9 residue, including Setdb1 (Set domain, bifurcated 1)/Eset/Kmt1e are associated with repressive chromatin remodeling and expressed in adult brain, but potential effects on neuronal function and behavior remain unexplored. Here, we report that transgenic mice with increased Setdb1 expression in adult forebrain neurons show antidepressant-like phenotypes in behavioral paradigms for anhedonia, despair, and learned helplessness. Chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with DNA tiling arrays (ChIP-chip) revealed that genomic occupancies of neuronal Setdb1 are limited to


Sex Differences In Carbon Dioxide-Driven Activation Of The Retrotrapezoid Nucleus In Fos-Tau-Lacz Mice, Kelly Lohr 2010 Dickinson College

Sex Differences In Carbon Dioxide-Driven Activation Of The Retrotrapezoid Nucleus In Fos-Tau-Lacz Mice, Kelly Lohr

Student Honors Theses By Year

Central chemoreceptors are cells in the brain that regulate breathing through projections to respiratory control nuclei such as the ventral respiratory column (Guyenet et al., 2008). These cells have been found along the ventral surface of the brainstem including in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN). Central chemoreceptors are capable of detecting pH changes in cerebral spinal fluid resulting from changing carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the mouse’s surroundings. In the current study, central chemoreceptors were identified by exposing c-fos promoter driven tau-lacZ reporter (FTL) positive transgenic mice to room air, 5%, and 10% CO2 for 70 minutes. Activated ...


Structural, Biochemical, And Cell Biological Characterization Of Rab7 Mutants That Cause Peripheral Neuropathy, Brett A. McCray 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Structural, Biochemical, And Cell Biological Characterization Of Rab7 Mutants That Cause Peripheral Neuropathy, Brett A. Mccray

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Coordinated trafficking of intracellular vesicles is of critical importance for the maintenance of cellular health and homeostasis. Members of the Rab GTPase family serve as master regulators of vesicular trafficking, maturation, and fusion by reversibly associating with distinct target membranes and recruiting specific effector proteins. Rabs act as molecular switches by cycling between an active, GTP-bound form and an inactive, GDP-bound form. The activity cycle is coupled to GTP hydrolysis and is tightly controlled by regulatory proteins such as guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase activating proteins. Rab7 specifically regulates the trafficking and maturation of vesicle populations that are involved ...


Studies Of Dj-1, Parkin And Alpha-Synuclein Give Insights Into Plausible Mechanisms For Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis., Chenere P. Ramsey 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Studies Of Dj-1, Parkin And Alpha-Synuclein Give Insights Into Plausible Mechanisms For Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis., Chenere P. Ramsey

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an insidious neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a range of motor symptoms which develop predominantly as a consequence of striatal dopamine depletion. The majority of PD cases are idiopathic; however, discoveries of genetic mutations linked to familial forms of PD, including mutations in the genes encoding DJ-1, parkin, and α-synuclein (α-syn), have provided insights into sporadic PD pathogenesis.

Mutations in the gene encoding DJ-1 cause autosomal recessive early-onset PD (AREP). Though the physiological role for DJ-1 is not fully elucidated, it is thought that DJ-1 mutations contribute to disease as a consequence of a loss-of-function. Herein ...


Attention In The Brain Under Conditions Of Sub-Optimal Alertness: Neurobiological Effects And Individual Differences, Julian Lim 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Attention In The Brain Under Conditions Of Sub-Optimal Alertness: Neurobiological Effects And Individual Differences, Julian Lim

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Sleep deprivation (SD) is a prevalent problem in modern society, and one that can have serious adverse consequences for health and safety. Critically, even short periods of SD can lead to relatively large decrements in attention, which may in turn cause an individual to neglect important environmental stimuli. In this thesis, I report the results of three experiments designed to investigate the neural bases of attentional declines under conditions of sleep loss and mental fatigue. In two experiments using arterial spin labeled fMRI, a technique that enables the quantification of absolute levels of cerebral blood flow (CBF), it was found ...


Role Of Internal Calcium Stores In Exocytosis And Neurotransmission: A Dissertation, Jason J. Lefkowitz 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Role Of Internal Calcium Stores In Exocytosis And Neurotransmission: A Dissertation, Jason J. Lefkowitz

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

A central concept in the physiology of neurosecretion is that a rise in cytosolic [Ca2+] in the vicinity of plasmalemmal Ca2+ channels due to Ca2+ influx, elicits exocytosis. This dissertation examines the effect on both spontaneous and elicited exocytosis of a rise in focal cytosolic [Ca2+] in the vicinity of ryanodine receptors (RYRs) due to release from internal stores in the form of Ca2+ syntillas. Ca2+ syntillas are focal cytosolic transients mediated by RYRs, which we first found in hypothalamic magnocellular neuronal terminals. (Scintilla, Latin for spark, found in nerve terminals, normally synaptic structures ...


Microrna-29b Regulates The Expression Level Of Human Progranulin, A Secreted Glycoprotein Implicated In Frontotemporal Dementia, Jian Jiao, Lauren D. Herl, Robert V. Farese, Fen-Biao Gao 2010 University of California

Microrna-29b Regulates The Expression Level Of Human Progranulin, A Secreted Glycoprotein Implicated In Frontotemporal Dementia, Jian Jiao, Lauren D. Herl, Robert V. Farese, Fen-Biao Gao

Neurobiology Publications and Presentations

Progranulin deficiency is thought to cause some forms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a major early-onset age-dependent neurodegenerative disease. How progranulin (PGRN) expression is regulated is largely unknown. We identified an evolutionarily conserved binding site for microRNA-29b (miR-29b) in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the human PGRN (hPGRN) mRNA. miR-29b downregulates the expression of luciferase through hPGRN or mouse PGRN (mPGRN) 3'UTRs, and the regulation was abolished by mutations in the miR-29b binding site. To examine the direct effect of manipulating endogenous miR-29b on hPGRN expression, we established a stable NIH3T3 cell line that expresses hPGRN under the ...


Dopaminergic Innervation Of The Subventricular Zone In The Murine Brain, Linda Beth Drozdowicz 2010 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Dopaminergic Innervation Of The Subventricular Zone In The Murine Brain, Linda Beth Drozdowicz

Honors Scholar Theses

The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of two areas in the brain that, in a healthy mouse, continually generate neurons throughout adulthood. While it was previously thought that only the A9 neurons of the substantia nigra sent dopaminergic afferents to the SVZ, recent studies suggest that the A10 neurons of the ventral tegmental area may innervate this area. This project has aimed to discover which, if either, model is correct.

Examination of the Aphakia (AK) mouse was used to determine the role of distinct midbrain regions in SVZ regulation. Additionally, intraperitoneal injections of the chemical MPTP were used to deduce ...


Investigating The Diversity Of Radial Glia Fates In The Rat Neocortex, Abraham William Aron 2010 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Investigating The Diversity Of Radial Glia Fates In The Rat Neocortex, Abraham William Aron

Honors Scholar Theses

Radial Glia (RG) are a mitotically active population of cells which reside within the ventricular zone at the lateral ventricle and give rise to the pyramidal neurons and astrocytes of the neocortex. Through cellular divisions, RG produce two daughter cells, one which resides in the ventricular zone and becomes another RG while the other is an immature progenitor which migrates away from the ventricle and populates the growing cortex. RG have been found to be a heterogeneous population of cells which express different surface antigens and genetic promoters which may influence the cellular fate of their progeny. In this study ...


Oxygen Supplementing, Biocompatible Outer Membranes For Enhanced Performance Of Implantable Glucose Sensors, Hardeep Singh 2010 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Oxygen Supplementing, Biocompatible Outer Membranes For Enhanced Performance Of Implantable Glucose Sensors, Hardeep Singh

Honors Scholar Theses

Lack of linearity and sensitivity, oxygen dependence, biofouling and tissue inflammation hinder the development of implantable biosensors for continuous monitoring of glucose. Herein, we report the development of stacked outer membranes based on LBL/PVA hydrogels that improve sensor sensitivity, linearity, oxygen independence and counter biofouling and inflammation. While the inner LBL membrane affords tunable diffusivity, the outer PVA is capable of releasing anti-inflammatory drugs/tissue response modifying agents to counter acute and chronic inflammation, and to induce neo-angiogenesis at the implant site. Sensors were fabricated by immobilizing GOx enzyme on top of 50 μm platinum wires, followed by deposition ...


Effect Of Visual Input On Vowel Production In English Speakers, Amanda C. Richardson 2010 Macalester College

Effect Of Visual Input On Vowel Production In English Speakers, Amanda C. Richardson

Linguistics Honors Projects

This study analyzes whether there should be a visual component to a model of speech perception and production by comparing the jaw opening, advancement, and rounding of American English and non-English vowels in the presence and absence of a visual stimulus. Surprisingly, jaw opening did not change production, but the presence of the visual stimulus was found to be a significant factor in participants’ vowel advancement for non-English vowels. This may be explained by lip rounding, but requires further research in order to develop a full understanding of the impact of visual input on vowel production to be used in ...


A Longitudinal Study Of Neurocognitive Deficits And Functional Outcome In Bipolar Disorder, Brian D. Leany 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A Longitudinal Study Of Neurocognitive Deficits And Functional Outcome In Bipolar Disorder, Brian D. Leany

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Bipolar disorder is an affective disorder that, in addition to being characterized by depressive and expansive mood symptoms, often presents with neuropsychological deficits. Bipolar disorder not only impairs an individual’s cognitive abilities, but these cognitive impairments may also impact day-to-day activities causing functional impairment. In other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, it has been shown that the neuropsychological deficits are predictive of poor, long term treatment outcome and functioning. However, while bipolar disorder affects nearly 1 - 2% of the U.S. population (Keck, McElroy, & Arnold, 2001), little is known about the extent that neurocognitive deficits may play in the ...


Genes Involved In Mushroom Body Development And Behavior In Drosophila, Christine Nicole Serway 2010 University of Nevada Las Vegas

Genes Involved In Mushroom Body Development And Behavior In Drosophila, Christine Nicole Serway

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Mushroom bodies (MBs) are the site of multi modal sensory integration critical for associative conditioning in Drosophila. They have been central to research on the structure function relationship in the brain for over one hundred years due to their unique shape and readily accessible physiology. This dissertation incorporates three different approaches to further elucidate the genetic and molecular nature of this structure function relationship.

First, the suite of genetic and molecular tools available in Drosophila melanogaster, facilitated the molecular mapping of a 25-year old MB structural mutant called mushroom body miniature B (mbmB) to the gene Pendulin [Pen, also known ...


Congenital Lcmv Virus: Mechanism Of Brain Disease In A Rat Model Of Congenital Viral Infection, Hannah Washington Klein de Licona 2010 University of Iowa

Congenital Lcmv Virus: Mechanism Of Brain Disease In A Rat Model Of Congenital Viral Infection, Hannah Washington Klein De Licona

Theses and Dissertations

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection during pregnancy severely injures the human fetal brain. Neonatal rats inoculated with LCMV are an excellent model of congenital LCMV infection, as they develop neuropathology, including cerebellar injuries, similar to those seen in humans. The goal of this thesis was to determine what underlies brain injury and the differential immune response and to determine the role of T-cells in LCMV induced pathology. First, I examined whether cytokine and chemokine expression after LCMV infection was higher in the cerebellum and olfactory bulbs, which undergo destruction, compared to the hippocampus and septum, which undergo no acute destruction ...


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