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Changes In Plasma Concentrations Of Growth Hormone And Luteinizing Hormone In Ewes Following Central And Peripheral Treatment With Kisspeptin, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Barbara P. Steele, James L. Sartin 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Changes In Plasma Concentrations Of Growth Hormone And Luteinizing Hormone In Ewes Following Central And Peripheral Treatment With Kisspeptin, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Barbara P. Steele, James L. Sartin

Animal Science Publications and Other Works

Kisspeptin (KP), a neuroendocrine regulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone, has been hypothesized as an integrator of nutrition and hormones critical to metabolism and regulation of reproduction. Recent evidence suggests growth hormone (GH) secretion may be influenced by KP. The objective of this study was to determine if the GH stimulatory effect of KP is due to actions on the hypothalamus or anterior pituitary gland in ewes. Adult ovariectomized ewes (n=8) were fitted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula to facilitate central administration of experimental treatments. Ewes received one of eight treatments [four intravenously (IV) and four ICV]. Peripheral treatments [0 (Veh ...


Changes In Plasma Concentrations Of Leptin In Ewes During Pregnancy, Joseph A. Daniel, A B. Milam, M E. Gafnea, Brian K. Whitlock, D H. Keisler 2010 Berry College

Changes In Plasma Concentrations Of Leptin In Ewes During Pregnancy, Joseph A. Daniel, A B. Milam, M E. Gafnea, Brian K. Whitlock, D H. Keisler

Animal Science Publications and Other Works

Previous research has demonstrated circulating concentrations of leptin increase in ewes during mid pregnancy then decline in late pregnancy and early lactation. The objective of this study was to more narrowly define the timing of changes in circulating concentrations of leptin with pregnancy in ewes. Katahdin ewes (n= 19) located at latitude 34.275 and longitude -85.183 (Mount Berry, GA) were utilized. Blood samples were collected weekly via jugular veinpuncture beginning immediately before ram exposure on September 23 and continuing until 4 weeks post-lambing. Ewes were exposed to a ram fitted with a marking harness for a 63 day ...


Effect Of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor On Feed Intake And Body Temperature In Sheep, James L. Sartin, D L. Marks, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Barbara P. Steele 2010 Auburn University Main Campus

Effect Of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor On Feed Intake And Body Temperature In Sheep, James L. Sartin, D L. Marks, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Barbara P. Steele

Animal Science Publications and Other Works

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been suggested to function as a potent inhibitor of feed intake in rodents. These studies were designed to determine whether LIF was found in the ovine hypothalamus and whether LIF inhibited feed intake in sheep. Sheep hypothalami were used to clone LIF to indicate presence of the gene in the hypothalamus. The sequence was similar to published data. Another group of sheep were provided intraventricular (ICV) cannulas and injected with doses of LIF at 250, 500, 1000 and 2500 ng per sheep, ICV. Feed intake was inhibited by the 1000 and 2500 ng dose (trt ...


Symmetries Of The Central Vestibular System: Forming Movements For Gravity And A Three-Dimensional World, Gin McCollum, Douglas Hanes 2010 Portland State University

Symmetries Of The Central Vestibular System: Forming Movements For Gravity And A Three-Dimensional World, Gin Mccollum, Douglas Hanes

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Intrinsic dynamics of the central vestibular system (CVS) appear to be at least partly determined by the symmetries of its connections. The CVS contributes to whole-body functions such as upright balance and maintenance of gaze direction. These functions coordinate disparate senses (visual, inertial, somatosensory, auditory) and body movements (leg, trunk, head/neck, eye). They are also unified by geometric conditions. Symmetry groups have been found to structure experimentally-recorded pathways of the central vestibular system. When related to geometric conditions in three-dimensional physical space, these symmetry groups make sense as a logical foundation for sensorimotor coordination.


Computational Modeling Of Biological Neural Networks On Gpus: Strategies And Performance, Byron Galbraith 2010 Marquette University

Computational Modeling Of Biological Neural Networks On Gpus: Strategies And Performance, Byron Galbraith

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Simulating biological neural networks is an important task for computational neuroscientists attempting to model and analyze brain activity and function. As these networks become larger and more complex, the computational power required grows significantly, often requiring the use of supercomputers or compute clusters. An emerging low-cost, highly accessible alternative to many of these resources is the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) - specialized massively-parallel graphics hardware that has seen increasing use as a general purpose computational accelerator thanks largely due to NVIDIA's CUDA programming interface. We evaluated the relative benefits and limitations of GPU-based tools for large-scale neural network simulation and ...


A Simple Method For Improving The Specificity Of Anti-Methyl Histone Antibodies, Caroline M. Connor, Iris Cheung, Andrew Simon, Mira Jakovcevski, Zhiping Weng, Schahram Akbarian 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Simple Method For Improving The Specificity Of Anti-Methyl Histone Antibodies, Caroline M. Connor, Iris Cheung, Andrew Simon, Mira Jakovcevski, Zhiping Weng, Schahram Akbarian

GSBS Student Publications

Antibodies differentiating between the mono-, di- and trimethylated forms of specific histone lysine residues are a critical tool in epigenome research, but show variable specificity, potentially limiting comparisons across studies and between samples. Using trimethyl histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3)-a mark enriched at transcription start sites (TSS) of active genes-as an example, we describe how simple co-incubation with synthetic peptide of the K4me2 modification leads to increased specificity for K4me3 and a much sharper peak distribution proximal to TSS following chromatin immunoprecipitation and massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq).


Effect Of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor On Feed Intake And Body Temperature In Sheep, James L. Sartin, D L. Marks, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Barbara P. Steele 2010 Auburn University Main Campus

Effect Of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor On Feed Intake And Body Temperature In Sheep, James L. Sartin, D L. Marks, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Barbara P. Steele

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been suggested to function as a potent inhibitor of feed intake in rodents. These studies were designed to determine whether LIF was found in the ovine hypothalamus and whether LIF inhibited feed intake in sheep. Sheep hypothalami were used to clone LIF to indicate presence of the gene in the hypothalamus. The sequence was similar to published data. Another group of sheep were provided intraventricular (ICV) cannulas and injected with doses of LIF at 250, 500, 1000 and 2500 ng per sheep, ICV. Feed intake was inhibited by the 1000 and 2500 ng dose (trt ...


Changes In Plasma Concentrations Of Leptin In Ewes During Pregnancy, Joseph A. Daniel, A B. Milam, M E. Gafnea, Brian K. Whitlock, D H. Keisler 2010 Berry College

Changes In Plasma Concentrations Of Leptin In Ewes During Pregnancy, Joseph A. Daniel, A B. Milam, M E. Gafnea, Brian K. Whitlock, D H. Keisler

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Previous research has demonstrated circulating concentrations of leptin increase in ewes during mid pregnancy then decline in late pregnancy and early lactation. The objective of this study was to more narrowly define the timing of changes in circulating concentrations of leptin with pregnancy in ewes. Katahdin ewes (n= 19) located at latitude 34.275 and longitude -85.183 (Mount Berry, GA) were utilized. Blood samples were collected weekly via jugular veinpuncture beginning immediately before ram exposure on September 23 and continuing until 4 weeks post-lambing. Ewes were exposed to a ram fitted with a marking harness for a 63 day ...


Changes In Plasma Concentrations Of Growth Hormone And Luteinizing Hormone In Ewes Following Central And Peripheral Treatment With Kisspeptin, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Barbara P. Steele, James L. Sartin 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Changes In Plasma Concentrations Of Growth Hormone And Luteinizing Hormone In Ewes Following Central And Peripheral Treatment With Kisspeptin, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Barbara P. Steele, James L. Sartin

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Kisspeptin (KP), a neuroendocrine regulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone, has been hypothesized as an integrator of nutrition and hormones critical to metabolism and regulation of reproduction. Recent evidence suggests growth hormone (GH) secretion may be influenced by KP. The objective of this study was to determine if the GH stimulatory effect of KP is due to actions on the hypothalamus or anterior pituitary gland in ewes. Adult ovariectomized ewes (n=8) were fitted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula to facilitate central administration of experimental treatments. Ewes received one of eight treatments [four intravenously (IV) and four ICV]. Peripheral treatments [0 (Veh ...


Predicting Persuasion-Induced Behavior Change From The Brain, Emily B. Falk, Elliot T. Berkman, Traci Mann, Brittany Harrison, Matthew D. Lieberman 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Predicting Persuasion-Induced Behavior Change From The Brain, Emily B. Falk, Elliot T. Berkman, Traci Mann, Brittany Harrison, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Although persuasive messages often alter people's self-reported attitudes and intentions to perform behaviors, these self-reports do not necessarily predict behavior change. We demonstrate that neural responses to persuasive messages can predict variability in behavior change in the subsequent week. Specifically, an a priori region of interest (ROI) in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was reliably associated with behavior change (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Additionally, an iterative cross-validation approach using activity in this MPFC ROI predicted an average 23% of the variance in behavior change beyond the variance predicted by self-reported attitudes and intentions. Thus, neural signals can predict behavioral changes that are not predicted from self-reported attitudes and intentions alone. Additionally, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to demonstrate that a neural signal can predict complex real world behavior days in advance.


Rule-Based Categorization Deficits In Focal Basal Ganglia Lesion And Parkinson’S Disease Patients, Shawn W. Ell, Andrea Weinstein, Richard Ivry 2010 University of Maine

Rule-Based Categorization Deficits In Focal Basal Ganglia Lesion And Parkinson’S Disease Patients, Shawn W. Ell, Andrea Weinstein, Richard Ivry

Psychology Faculty Scholarship

Patients with basal ganglia (BG) pathology are consistently found to be impaired on rule-based category learning tasks in which learning is thought to depend upon the use of an explicit, hypothesis-guided strategy. The factors that influence this impairment remain unclear. Moreover, it remains unknown if the impairments observed in patients with degenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) are also observed in those with focal BG lesions. In the present study, we tested patients with either focal BG lesions or PD on two categorization tasks that varied in terms of their demands on selective attention and working memory. Individuals ...


Distinct Roles Of C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Isoforms In Neurite Initiation And Elongation During Axonal Regeneration, Monia Barnat, Herve Enslen, Friedrich Propst, Roger J. Davis, Sylvia Soares, Fatiha Nothias 2010 Université Pierre et Marie Curie

Distinct Roles Of C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Isoforms In Neurite Initiation And Elongation During Axonal Regeneration, Monia Barnat, Herve Enslen, Friedrich Propst, Roger J. Davis, Sylvia Soares, Fatiha Nothias

Davis Lab Publications

c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) (comprising JNK1-3 isoforms) are members of the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) family, activated in response to various stimuli including growth factors and inflammatory cytokines. Their activation is facilitated by scaffold proteins, notably JNK-interacting protein-1 (JIP1). Originally considered to be mediators of neuronal degeneration in response to stress and injury, recent studies support a role of JNKs in early stages of neurite outgrowth, including adult axonal regeneration. However, the function of individual JNK isoforms, and their potential effector molecules, remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the role of JNK signaling during axonal regeneration from adult mouse dorsal root ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Neurite Complexity In The Drosophila Brain: A Dissertation, Lei Shi 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Molecular Mechanisms Of Neurite Complexity In The Drosophila Brain: A Dissertation, Lei Shi

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Development of functional neural circuits involves a series of complicated steps, including neurogenesis and neuronal morphogenesis. To understand the molecular mechasnims of neurite complexity, especially neurite branching/arborization, the Drosophila brain, especially MBNs (mushroom body neurons) and PNs (projection neurons) in olfactory circuitry, was used in this dissertation work as the model system to study how two molecules, Dscam and Kr-h1 affect neurite complexity in the Drosophilabrain.

For the Drosophila Dscam, through alternative splicing it could encode up to 152,064 distinct immunoglobulin/fibronectin type cell adhesion molecules. Each Dscam isoform is derived from one of the 19,008 ...


Acoustic Cues For Sound Source Distance And Azimuth In Rabbits, A Racquetball And A Rigid Spherical Model, Duck O. Kim, Brian Bishop, SHIGEYUKI KUWADA 2010 University of Connecticut School of Medicine and Dentistry

Acoustic Cues For Sound Source Distance And Azimuth In Rabbits, A Racquetball And A Rigid Spherical Model, Duck O. Kim, Brian Bishop, Shigeyuki Kuwada

UCHC Articles - Research

There are numerous studies measuring the transfer functions representing signal transformation between a source and each ear canal, i.e., the
head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), for various species. However, only a handful of these address the effects of sound source distance on HRTFs. This
is the first study of HRTFs in the rabbit where the emphasis is on the effects of sound source distance and azimuth on HRTFs. With the rabbit placed in an
anechoic chamber, we made acoustic measurements with miniature microphones placed deep in each ear canal to a sound source at different positions (10–160 cm distance ...


Setdb1 Histone Methyltransferase Regulates Mood-Related Behaviors And Expression Of The Nmda Receptor Subunit Nr2b, Yan Jiang, Mira Jakovcevski, Rahul Bharadwaj, Caroline M. Connor, Frederick Albert Schroeder, Cong L. Lin, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Gilles E. Martin, Schahram Akbarian 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Setdb1 Histone Methyltransferase Regulates Mood-Related Behaviors And Expression Of The Nmda Receptor Subunit Nr2b, Yan Jiang, Mira Jakovcevski, Rahul Bharadwaj, Caroline M. Connor, Frederick Albert Schroeder, Cong L. Lin, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Gilles E. Martin, Schahram Akbarian

GSBS Student Publications

Histone methyltransferases specific for the histone H3-lysine 9 residue, including Setdb1 (Set domain, bifurcated 1)/Eset/Kmt1e are associated with repressive chromatin remodeling and expressed in adult brain, but potential effects on neuronal function and behavior remain unexplored. Here, we report that transgenic mice with increased Setdb1 expression in adult forebrain neurons show antidepressant-like phenotypes in behavioral paradigms for anhedonia, despair, and learned helplessness. Chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with DNA tiling arrays (ChIP-chip) revealed that genomic occupancies of neuronal Setdb1 are limited to


Sex Differences In Carbon Dioxide-Driven Activation Of The Retrotrapezoid Nucleus In Fos-Tau-Lacz Mice, Kelly Lohr 2010 Dickinson College

Sex Differences In Carbon Dioxide-Driven Activation Of The Retrotrapezoid Nucleus In Fos-Tau-Lacz Mice, Kelly Lohr

Student Honors Theses By Year

Central chemoreceptors are cells in the brain that regulate breathing through projections to respiratory control nuclei such as the ventral respiratory column (Guyenet et al., 2008). These cells have been found along the ventral surface of the brainstem including in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN). Central chemoreceptors are capable of detecting pH changes in cerebral spinal fluid resulting from changing carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the mouse’s surroundings. In the current study, central chemoreceptors were identified by exposing c-fos promoter driven tau-lacZ reporter (FTL) positive transgenic mice to room air, 5%, and 10% CO2 for 70 minutes. Activated ...


Structural, Biochemical, And Cell Biological Characterization Of Rab7 Mutants That Cause Peripheral Neuropathy, Brett A. McCray 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Structural, Biochemical, And Cell Biological Characterization Of Rab7 Mutants That Cause Peripheral Neuropathy, Brett A. Mccray

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Coordinated trafficking of intracellular vesicles is of critical importance for the maintenance of cellular health and homeostasis. Members of the Rab GTPase family serve as master regulators of vesicular trafficking, maturation, and fusion by reversibly associating with distinct target membranes and recruiting specific effector proteins. Rabs act as molecular switches by cycling between an active, GTP-bound form and an inactive, GDP-bound form. The activity cycle is coupled to GTP hydrolysis and is tightly controlled by regulatory proteins such as guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase activating proteins. Rab7 specifically regulates the trafficking and maturation of vesicle populations that are involved ...


Studies Of Dj-1, Parkin And Alpha-Synuclein Give Insights Into Plausible Mechanisms For Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis., Chenere P. Ramsey 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Studies Of Dj-1, Parkin And Alpha-Synuclein Give Insights Into Plausible Mechanisms For Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis., Chenere P. Ramsey

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an insidious neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a range of motor symptoms which develop predominantly as a consequence of striatal dopamine depletion. The majority of PD cases are idiopathic; however, discoveries of genetic mutations linked to familial forms of PD, including mutations in the genes encoding DJ-1, parkin, and α-synuclein (α-syn), have provided insights into sporadic PD pathogenesis.

Mutations in the gene encoding DJ-1 cause autosomal recessive early-onset PD (AREP). Though the physiological role for DJ-1 is not fully elucidated, it is thought that DJ-1 mutations contribute to disease as a consequence of a loss-of-function. Herein ...


Attention In The Brain Under Conditions Of Sub-Optimal Alertness: Neurobiological Effects And Individual Differences, Julian Lim 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Attention In The Brain Under Conditions Of Sub-Optimal Alertness: Neurobiological Effects And Individual Differences, Julian Lim

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Sleep deprivation (SD) is a prevalent problem in modern society, and one that can have serious adverse consequences for health and safety. Critically, even short periods of SD can lead to relatively large decrements in attention, which may in turn cause an individual to neglect important environmental stimuli. In this thesis, I report the results of three experiments designed to investigate the neural bases of attentional declines under conditions of sleep loss and mental fatigue. In two experiments using arterial spin labeled fMRI, a technique that enables the quantification of absolute levels of cerebral blood flow (CBF), it was found ...


Role Of Internal Calcium Stores In Exocytosis And Neurotransmission: A Dissertation, Jason J. Lefkowitz 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Role Of Internal Calcium Stores In Exocytosis And Neurotransmission: A Dissertation, Jason J. Lefkowitz

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

A central concept in the physiology of neurosecretion is that a rise in cytosolic [Ca2+] in the vicinity of plasmalemmal Ca2+ channels due to Ca2+ influx, elicits exocytosis. This dissertation examines the effect on both spontaneous and elicited exocytosis of a rise in focal cytosolic [Ca2+] in the vicinity of ryanodine receptors (RYRs) due to release from internal stores in the form of Ca2+ syntillas. Ca2+ syntillas are focal cytosolic transients mediated by RYRs, which we first found in hypothalamic magnocellular neuronal terminals. (Scintilla, Latin for spark, found in nerve terminals, normally synaptic structures ...


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