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Perception Meets Action: Fmri And Behavioural Investigations Of Human Tool Use, Kenneth F. Valyear 2010 University of Western Ontario

Perception Meets Action: Fmri And Behavioural Investigations Of Human Tool Use, Kenneth F. Valyear

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tool use is essential and culturally universal to human life, common to hunter-gatherer and modern advanced societies alike. Although the neuroscience of simpler visuomotor behaviors like reaching and grasping have been studied extensively, relatively little is known about the brain mechanisms underlying learned tool use.

With learned tool use, stored knowledge of object function and use supervene requirements for action programming based on physical object properties. Contemporary models of tool use based primarily on evidence from the study of brain damaged individuals implicate a set of specialized brain areas underlying the planning and control of learned actions with objects, distinct ...


Regulation Of Akt And Wnt Signalling By The Dopamine D2 Receptor And Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2/3, Laurie P. Sutton 2010 The University of Western Ontario

Regulation Of Akt And Wnt Signalling By The Dopamine D2 Receptor And Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2/3, Laurie P. Sutton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Akt and the Wnt pathway, two cascades that regulate GSK-3, have been implicated in schizophrenia and antipsychotic drug action. Although it is known that antipsychotic drugs alleviate psychosis by blocking the dopamine D2 receptor (D2DR) and that metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGluR2/3) agonists may improve some of the symptoms of schizophrenia, it is unclear if both classes of drugs exert their effects through Akt, GSK-3 and/or the Wnt pathway or if changes in these pathways are mediated through the D2DR and mGluR2/3 respectively. In addition to antipsychotics, mood stabilizers and antidepressants also target GSK-3, suggesting that ...


The Social Origins Of Folk Epistemology, Hugo Mercier 2010 University of Pennsylvania

The Social Origins Of Folk Epistemology, Hugo Mercier

Goldstone Research Unit

Because reasoning allows us to justify our beliefs and evaluate these justifications it is central to folk epistemology. Following Sperber, and contrary to classical views, it will be argued that reasoning evolved not to complement individual cognition but as an argumentative device. This hypothesis is more consistent with the prevalence of the confirmation and disconfirmation biases. It will be suggested that these biases render the individual use of reasoning hazardous, but that when reasoning is used in its natural, argumentative, context they can represent a smart way to divide labor without loosing epistemic value.


Changes In The Proliferation Of The Subventricular Zone Neural Stem Cell Pool Throughout Aging In The Murine Brain, Olayinka Edwards 2010 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Changes In The Proliferation Of The Subventricular Zone Neural Stem Cell Pool Throughout Aging In The Murine Brain, Olayinka Edwards

Honors Scholar Theses

Previous studies regarding subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem cells (NSCs) have either observed global changes in the SVZ niche containing NSCs or an impure NSC population. By imaging wholemount preparations of mouse brains and staining with molecular markers specific for proliferating NSC nuclei, the study was able to give a more accurate depiction of the SVZ NSC population than its predecessors. This study will quantify the percentage of proliferating NSCs at various ages of adult murine brain development in order to elucidate a possible correlation between NSC division kinetics and the declining neurogenic output witnessed with aging.


Role Of Pp2a/Bβ2 And Pka/Akap1 In Brain Development And Function Via Dynamin-Related Protein 1 (Drp1) Control Of Mitochondria Shape And Bioenergetics, Audrey Sarah Dickey 2010 University of Iowa

Role Of Pp2a/Bβ2 And Pka/Akap1 In Brain Development And Function Via Dynamin-Related Protein 1 (Drp1) Control Of Mitochondria Shape And Bioenergetics, Audrey Sarah Dickey

Theses and Dissertations

Mitochondria are critical for energy production and Ca2+ homeostasis and undergo fission and fusion reactions, perturbation of which can contribute to neuronal injury and disease. Mitochondrial fission is catalyzed by Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1), a large GTPase tightly controlled by various posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation. Bβ2 is a neuron-specific postnatally induced protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit that mediates PP2A translocation to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) to promote mitochondrial fragmentation and sensitize neurons to various injuries. Opposing PP2A/Bβ2's effect on mitochondrial morphology and cell death is protein kinase A (PKA) anchored to the OMM via A kinase ...


Neural Coding Of Temporal Information And Its Topography In The Auditory Cortex, Thomas A. Terleph, Raphael Pinaud 2010 Sacred Heart University

Neural Coding Of Temporal Information And Its Topography In The Auditory Cortex, Thomas A. Terleph, Raphael Pinaud

Biology Faculty Publications

The article discusses a study that focused on neural coding of temporal information and topography in the auditory cortex. The quest for a thorough understanding how highly complex stimuli are encoded poses a significant challenge for auditory neurosciences, such as human speech and animal vocal signals. The characteristics of cortical neurons have been attributed to the coding of temporal stimulus which features precise spike timing in the coding and firing rate of repetition sounds.


Social Inference And The Evolution Of The Human Brain, Timothy Richard Koscik 2010 University of Iowa

Social Inference And The Evolution Of The Human Brain, Timothy Richard Koscik

Theses and Dissertations

The evolutionary forces that led to the unprecedented expansion of the human brain and the extreme cognitive prowess possessed by humans have always attracted a great deal of attention from the scientific community. Presented here is a novel theoretical perspective, where the driving force on human brain evolution was the need for enhanced ability to infer social values of conspecifics in the face of degradation and loss of chemosensory signalling mechanisms necessary for social communication present in most mammals.

The lack of chemosensory communication of biologically relevant information between humans in the face of the need to make adaptive and ...


Cebus Cf. Apella Exhibits Rapid Acquisition Of Complex Stimulus Relations And Emergent Performance By Exclusion, Ana Leda F. Brino, Ana Paula Bemerguy Assumpcao, Rodolfo da Silva Campos, Olavo F. Galvao, William J. McIlvane 2010 Universidade Federal do Para

Cebus Cf. Apella Exhibits Rapid Acquisition Of Complex Stimulus Relations And Emergent Performance By Exclusion, Ana Leda F. Brino, Ana Paula Bemerguy Assumpcao, Rodolfo Da Silva Campos, Olavo F. Galvao, William J. Mcilvane

Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center Publications

A “second generation” matching-to-sample procedure that minimizes past sources of artifacts involves (1) successive discrimination between sample stimuli, (2) stimulus displays ranging from four to 16 comparisons, (3) variable stimulus locations to avoid unwanted stimulus-location control, and (4) high accuracy levels (e.g., 90% correct on a 16-choice task in which chance accuracy is 6%). Examples of behavioral engineering with experienced capuchin monkeys included four-choice matching problems with video images of monkeys with substantially above-chance matching in a single session and 90% matching within six sessions. Exclusion performance was demonstrated by interspersing non-identical sample-comparison pairs within a baseline of a ...


Tracking The Flow Of Information Through The Hippocampal Formation In The Rat, Joshua P. Neunuebel 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Tracking The Flow Of Information Through The Hippocampal Formation In The Rat, Joshua P. Neunuebel

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The hippocampus receives input from upper levels of the association cortex and is implicated in many mnemonic processes, but the exact mechanisms by which it codes and stores information is an unresolved topic. This work examines the flow of information through the hippocampal formation while attempting to determine the computations that each of the hippocampal subfields performs in learning and memory. The formation, storage, and recall of hippocampal-dependent memories theoretically utilize an autoassociative attractor network that functions by implementing two competitive, yet complementary, processes. Pattern separation, hypothesized to occur in the dentate gyrus (DG), refers to the ability to decrease ...


Characterizing And Treating The Neuropathology Of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex In The Mouse, Sharon W. Way 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Characterizing And Treating The Neuropathology Of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex In The Mouse, Sharon W. Way

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem, autosomal dominant disorder affecting approximately 1 in 6000 births. Developmental brain abnormalities cause substantial morbidity and mortality and often lead to neurological disease including epilepsy, cognitive disabilities, and autism. TSC is caused by inactivating mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2, whose protein products are known inhibitors of mTORC1, an important kinase regulating translation and cell growth. Nonetheless, neither the pathophysiology of the neurological manifestations of TSC nor the extent of mTORC1 involvement in the development of these lesions is known. Murine models would greatly advance the study of this debilitating disorder. This thesis ...


Effect Of Social Status On Behavioral And Neural Response To Stress, Daniel W. Curry, Kathleen E. Morrison, Matthew A. Cooper 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effect Of Social Status On Behavioral And Neural Response To Stress, Daniel W. Curry, Kathleen E. Morrison, Matthew A. Cooper

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of Neuronal Groups Regulating Sexual And Agonistic Behavior In Male Chicken (Gallus Gallus), Jingjing Xie 2010 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Neuronal Groups Regulating Sexual And Agonistic Behavior In Male Chicken (Gallus Gallus), Jingjing Xie

Theses and Dissertations

The study aimed to understand the neuronal regulation of male sexual and agonistic behavior in broiler breeders. First, brain structures associated with sexual and agonistic behavior were identified by mapping Fos expression. The ventromedial subnucleus of medial portion of bed nucleus of the stria teriminalis (BSTM2) was specifically activated by male courtship behavior. The medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and lateral septum (SL) were associated with both sexual and agonistic behaviors. The bed nucleus of the pallial commissure (NCPa) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were closely related to stress. Second, Fos-ir neurons were phenotyped by double labeling Fos with aromatase (ARO ...


Environmental Influence On Brain, Behavior, And Gene Expression In Drosophila, Xia Wang 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Environmental Influence On Brain, Behavior, And Gene Expression In Drosophila, Xia Wang

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Brain development and behavior are sensitive to environmental stimuli. To gain an understanding of how and to what extent environmental variations, particularly with regard to thermal stress and sensory input, affect brain development, function, and genomic activity, in this dissertation, three interrelated studies were conducted in Drosophila melanogaster.

The first study examined the effects of ecologically-relevant hyperthermia stress on development of the Drosophila mushroom body (MB), a conserved sensory integration and associative center in the insect brain. A daily hyperthermic episode throughout larval and pupal development was shown to severely disrupt MB anatomy by reducing intrinsic Kenyon cell neuron numbers ...


Mental Blocks: The Behavioural Effects And Neural Encoding Of Obstacles When Reaching And Grasping, Craig S. Chapman 2010 University of Western Ontario

Mental Blocks: The Behavioural Effects And Neural Encoding Of Obstacles When Reaching And Grasping, Craig S. Chapman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The ability to adeptly interact with a cluttered and dynamic world requires that the brain simultaneously encode multiple objects. Theoretical frameworks of selective visuomotor attention provide evidence for parallel encoding (Baldauf & Deubel, 2010; Cisek & Kalaska, 2010; Duncan, 2006) where concurrent object processing results in neural competition. Since the end goal of object representation is usually action, these frameworks argue that the competitive activity is best characterized as the development of visuomotor biases. While some behavioural and neural evidence has been accumulated in favour of this explanation, one of the most striking, yet deceptively common, demonstrations of this capacity is often overlooked; the movement of ...


When Bad Stress Goes Good: Increased Threat Reactivity Predicts Improved Category Learning Performance, Shawn W. Ell, Brandon Cosley, Shannon L. McCoy 2010 University of Maine

When Bad Stress Goes Good: Increased Threat Reactivity Predicts Improved Category Learning Performance, Shawn W. Ell, Brandon Cosley, Shannon L. Mccoy

Psychology Faculty Scholarship

The way in which we respond to everyday stressors can have a profound impact on cognitive functioning. Maladaptive stress responses in particular are generally associated with impaired cognitive performance. We argue, however, that the cognitive system mediating task performance is also a critical determinant of the stress-cognition relationship. Consistent with this prediction, we observed that stress reactivity consistent with a maladaptive, threat response differentially predicted performance on two categorization tasks. Increased threat reactivity predicted enhanced performance on an information-integration task (i.e., learning is thought to depend upon a procedural-based memory system), and a (nonsignificant) trend for impaired performance on ...


Meg And Fmri Fusion For Non-Linear Estimation Of Neural And Bold Signal Changes, Sergey M. Plis, Vince D. Calhoun, Michael Patrick Weisend, Tom Eichele, Terran D.R. Lane 2010 Wright State University - Main Campus

Meg And Fmri Fusion For Non-Linear Estimation Of Neural And Bold Signal Changes, Sergey M. Plis, Vince D. Calhoun, Michael Patrick Weisend, Tom Eichele, Terran D.R. Lane

Wright State Research Institute Publications

The combined analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG)/electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements can lead to improvement in the description of the dynamical and spatial properties of brain activity. In this paper we empirically demonstrate this improvement using simulated and recorded task related MEG and fMRI activity. Neural activity estimates were derived using a dynamic Bayesian network with continuous real valued parameters by means of a sequential Monte Carlo technique. In synthetic data, we show that MEG and fMRI fusion improves estimation of the indirectly observed neural activity and smooths tracking of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response ...


The Neural Correlates Of Persuasion: A Common Network Across Cultures And Media, Emily B. Falk, Lian Rameson, Elliot T. Berkman, Betty Liao, Yoona Kang, Tristen K. Inagaki, Matthew D. Lieberman 2010 University of Pennsylvania

The Neural Correlates Of Persuasion: A Common Network Across Cultures And Media, Emily B. Falk, Lian Rameson, Elliot T. Berkman, Betty Liao, Yoona Kang, Tristen K. Inagaki, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Persuasion is at the root of countless social exchanges in which one person or group is motivated to have another share its beliefs, desires, or behavioral intentions. Here, we report the first three functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to investigate the neurocognitive networks associated with feeling persuaded by an argument. In the first two studies, American and Korean participants, respectively, were exposed to a number of text-based persuasive messages. In both Study 1 and Study 2, feeling persuaded was associated with increased activity in posterior superior temporal sulcus bilaterally, temporal pole bilaterally, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The findings suggest a ...


A Dominant Mutation In A Neuronal Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit Leads To Motor Neuron Degeneration In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Belinda Barbagallo, Hilary A. Prescott, Patrick Boyle, Jason Climer, Michael M. Francis 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Dominant Mutation In A Neuronal Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit Leads To Motor Neuron Degeneration In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Belinda Barbagallo, Hilary A. Prescott, Patrick Boyle, Jason Climer, Michael M. Francis

GSBS Student Publications

Inappropriate or excessive activation of ionotropic receptors can have dramatic consequences for neuronal function and, in many instances, leads to cell death. In Caenorhabditis elegans, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits are highly expressed in a neural circuit that controls movement. Here, we show that heteromeric nAChRs containing the acr-2 subunit are diffusely localized in the processes of excitatory motor neurons and act to modulate motor neuron activity. Excessive signaling through these receptors leads to cell-autonomous degeneration of cholinergic motor neurons and paralysis. C. elegans double mutants lacking calreticulin and calnexin-two genes previously implicated in the cellular events leading to necrotic-like ...


Cortical Representation Of Lateralized Grasping In Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes): A Combined Mri And Pet Study, William D. Hopkins, Jared P. Taglialatela, Jamie L. Russell, Talia M. Nir, Jennifer Schaeffer 2010 Emory University

Cortical Representation Of Lateralized Grasping In Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes): A Combined Mri And Pet Study, William D. Hopkins, Jared P. Taglialatela, Jamie L. Russell, Talia M. Nir, Jennifer Schaeffer

Faculty Publications

Functional imaging studies in humans have localized the motor-hand region to a neuroanatomical landmark call the KNOB within the precentral gyrus. It has also been reported that the KNOB is larger in the hemisphere contralateral to an individual's preferred hand, and therefore may represent the neural substrate for handedness. The KNOB has also been neuronatomically described in chimpanzees and other great apes and is similarly associated with handedness. However, whether the chimpanzee KNOB represents the hand region is unclear from the extant literature. Here, we used PET to quantify neural metabolic activity in chimpanzees when engaged in unilateral reach-and-grasping ...


Hippocampal C-Jun-N-Terminal Kinases Serve As Negative Regulators Of Associative Learning, Tessi Sherrin, Thomas Blank, Cathrin Hippel, Martin Rayner, Roger J. Davis, Cedomir Todorovic 2010 University of Hawaii

Hippocampal C-Jun-N-Terminal Kinases Serve As Negative Regulators Of Associative Learning, Tessi Sherrin, Thomas Blank, Cathrin Hippel, Martin Rayner, Roger J. Davis, Cedomir Todorovic

Davis Lab Publications

In the adult mouse, signaling through c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) links exposure to acute stress to various physiological responses. Inflammatory cytokines, brain injury and ischemic insult, or exposure to psychological acute stressors induce activation of hippocampal JNKs. Here we report that exposure to acute stress caused activation of JNKs in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields, and impaired contextual fear conditioning. Conversely, intrahippocampal injection of JNKs inhibitors sp600125 (30 mum) or D-JNKI1 (8 mum) reduced activity of hippocampal JNKs and rescued stress-induced deficits in contextual fear. In addition, intrahippocampal administration of anisomycin (100 mug/mul), a potent JNKs activator, mimicked ...


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