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Simulation And Piloted Simulator Study Of An Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System For Performance Limited Aircraft, James D. Carpenter 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Simulation And Piloted Simulator Study Of An Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System For Performance Limited Aircraft, James D. Carpenter

Theses and Dissertations

The F-16 Automatic-Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto-GCAS) has been a resounding success since implementation in Nov 2014, saving 8 pilots and 7 aircraft from Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT). However, there is no implemented Auto- GCAS for "heavy" performance limited aircraft. This research endeavors to expand on the success of F-16 Auto-GCAS to other aircraft in the Air Force inventory such as the C-130, C-17, and B-1. MIL-STD-1797 classifies performance limited aircraft as large, heavy, and low to medium maneuverability. Using a stitched Learjet-25D model (LJ-25D), an Auto-GCAS algorithm was developed to predict multiple escape-maneuver trajectories, compare these paths to ...


Multi-Path Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System For Performance Limited Aircraft With Flight Tests: Project Have Medusa, Kenneth C. Gahan 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Multi-Path Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System For Performance Limited Aircraft With Flight Tests: Project Have Medusa, Kenneth C. Gahan

Theses and Dissertations

A multi-path automatic ground collision avoidance system (Auto-GCAS) for performance limited aircraft was further developed and improved to prevent controlled flight into terrain. This research includes flight test results from the United States Test Pilot School's Test Management Project (TMP) titled Have Multi-Path Escape Decisions Using Sophisticated Algorithms (MEDUSA). Currently, the bomber and mobility air- craft communities lack an Auto-GCAS. The F-16 Auto-GCAS was proven successful for fighter-type aircraft with seven aircraft and eight lives saved from 2014 to 2018. The newly developed and tested Rapidly Selectable Escape Trajectory (RSET) sys- tem included a 5-path implementation which continuously updated ...


Optimal And Robust Neural Network Controllers For Proximal Spacecraft Maneuvers, B. Cole George 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Optimal And Robust Neural Network Controllers For Proximal Spacecraft Maneuvers, B. Cole George

Theses and Dissertations

Recent successes in machine learning research, buoyed by advances in computational power, have revitalized interest in neural networks and demonstrated their potential in solving complex controls problems. In this research, the reinforcement learning framework is combined with traditional direct shooting methods to generate optimal proximal spacecraft maneuvers. Open-loop and closed-loop feedback controllers, parameterized by multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural networks, are developed with evolutionary and gradient-based optimization algorithms. Utilizing Clohessy- Wiltshire relative motion dynamics, terminally constrained fixed-time, fuel-optimal trajectories are solved for intercept, rendezvous, and natural motion circumnavigation transfer maneuvers using three different thrust models: impulsive, finite, and continuous. In addition ...


Flow Behavior In Radial Rotating Detonation Engines, Scott A. Boller 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Flow Behavior In Radial Rotating Detonation Engines, Scott A. Boller

Theses and Dissertations

Recent progress has been made in demonstrating Radial Rotating Detonation Engine (RRDE) technology for use in a compact Auxiliary Power Unit with a rapid response time. Investigation of RRDEs also suggests an increase in stable operating range, which is hypothesized to be due to the additional degree of freedom in the radial direction which the detonation wave can propagate. This investigation seeks to determine if the detonation wave is in fact changing its radial location. High speed photography was used to capture chemiluminescence of the detonation wave within the channel to examine its radial location, which was found to vary ...


Initial Stage Of Fluid-Structure Interaction Of A Celestial Icosahedron Shaped Vacuum Lighter Than Air Vehicle, Dustin P. Graves 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Initial Stage Of Fluid-Structure Interaction Of A Celestial Icosahedron Shaped Vacuum Lighter Than Air Vehicle, Dustin P. Graves

Theses and Dissertations

The analysis of a celestial icosahedron geometry is considered as a potential design for a Vacuum Lighter than Air Vehicle (VLTAV). The goal of the analysis is ultimately to understand the initial fluid-structure interaction of the VLTAV and the surrounding airflow. Up to this point, previous research analyzed the celestial icosahedron VLTAV in relation to withstanding a symmetric sea-level pressure applied to the membrane of the structure. This scenario simulates an internal vacuum being applied in the worst-case atmospheric environmental condition. The next step in analysis is to determine the aerodynamic effects of the geometry. The experimental setup for obtaining ...


Control Strategies For Multi-Evaporator Vapor Compression Cycles, Sunderlin D. Jackson 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Control Strategies For Multi-Evaporator Vapor Compression Cycles, Sunderlin D. Jackson

Theses and Dissertations

Next-generation military aircraft must be able to handle highly transient thermal loads that exceed the ability of current aircraft thermal subsystems. Vapor compression cycle systems are a particular refrigeration technology that is an attractive solution for dealing with this challenge, due primarily to their high efficiency. However, there are several barriers to realizing the benefits of vapor cycles systems for controlling thermal loads in military aircraft. This thesis focuses on addressing the challenge of controlling vapor cycles in the presence of highly transient evaporator heat loads. Specifically, a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) is designed for a simple vapor cycle system ...


Verification Of Autonomous Systems: Developmental Test And Evaluation Of An Autonomous Uas Swarming Algorithm Combining Simulation, Formulation And Live Flight, Corey A. Combs 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Verification Of Autonomous Systems: Developmental Test And Evaluation Of An Autonomous Uas Swarming Algorithm Combining Simulation, Formulation And Live Flight, Corey A. Combs

Theses and Dissertations

This research was driven by the increase of autonomous systems in the current millennium and the challenging nature of testing and evaluating their performance. A review of the current literature revealed proposed methods for verifying autonomous systems, but few implementations. It exposed several gaps in the current verification and validation methods and suggested goals for filling them. Through the use of modeling, software in the loop (SITL), and flight test, this research verified an autonomous swarming algorithm for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and validated an exemplar of a testing framework. Thirteen sets of three-vehicle swarm data produced over two days ...


Sheet Velocity Measurements Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy In A Xenon Hall Effect Thruster Plume, Avery W. Leonard 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Sheet Velocity Measurements Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy In A Xenon Hall Effect Thruster Plume, Avery W. Leonard

Theses and Dissertations

A new laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) velocimetry system, designed to obtain 2D planar velocity fields for ionized Xenon in the plume of a Hall effect thruster by probing the transition of Xe II at 834.72 nm, was implemented at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) Space Propulsion Analysis and System Simulator (SPASS) Lab vacuum chamber. A single horizontal laser sheet was used to probe singly-ionized Xenon in the plume of a Busek BHT-600 Hall thruster and obtain a histogram of estimated axial velocity, to validate the system. Similar velocities to those obtained by an earlier intrusive characterization of ...


Nde In-Process For Metal Parts Fabricated Using Powder Based Additive Manufacturing, Leonard J. Bond, Lucas W. Koester, Hossein Taheri 2019 Iowa State University

Nde In-Process For Metal Parts Fabricated Using Powder Based Additive Manufacturing, Leonard J. Bond, Lucas W. Koester, Hossein Taheri

Aerospace Engineering Publications

Ensuring adequate quality for additive manufactured (AM) materials presents unique metrology challenges to the on-line process measurement and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) communities. AM parts now have complex forms that are not possible using subtractive manufacturing and there are moves for their use in safety criticality components. This paper briefly reviews the status, challenges and metrology opportunities throughout the AM process from powder to finished parts. The primary focus is on new acoustic signatures that have been demonstrated to correlate process parameters with on-line measurement for monitoring and characterization during the build. In-process, quantitative characterization and monitoring of material state is ...


Incidence Of An Astronaut Not Sealing The Pressure Garment Visor On Reentry, Cameron M. Smith, Trent Tresch 2019 Portland State University

Incidence Of An Astronaut Not Sealing The Pressure Garment Visor On Reentry, Cameron M. Smith, Trent Tresch

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Audiovisual records of a Project Mercury pilot’s activities during an orbital flight indicate that his visor was left open during reentry and descent to the sea surface, phases of flight during which cabin pressure loss was to be mitigated by suit pressurization; however, the suit could not have been pressurized with the visor open. Thus, for a presently unknown reason, a critical safety step—sealing the visor and making a pressure suit integrity test before reentry—was overlooked in this flight. Later, Space Shuttle flights were carried out with visors unsealed for much of the launch and landing phases ...


Assessment Of Turbulence Models In A Hypersonic Cold-Wall Turbulent Boundary Layer, Junji Huang, Jorge-Valentino Bretzke, Lian Duan 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Assessment Of Turbulence Models In A Hypersonic Cold-Wall Turbulent Boundary Layer, Junji Huang, Jorge-Valentino Bretzke, Lian Duan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

In this study, the ability of standard one- or two-equation turbulence models to predict mean and turbulence profiles, the Reynolds stress, and the turbulent heat flux in hypersonic cold-wall boundary-layer applications is investigated. The turbulence models under investigation include the one-equation model of Spalart-Allmaras, the baseline k-ω model by Menter, as well as the shear-stress transport k-ω model by Menter. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations with the different turbulence models are conducted for a flat-plate, zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer with a nominal free-stream Mach number of 8 and wall-to-recovery temperature ratio of 0.48, and the RANS results are compared with ...


Sweep And Taper Analysis Of Surfboard Fins Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Brandon James Baldovin 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Sweep And Taper Analysis Of Surfboard Fins Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Brandon James Baldovin

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The research presented here provides a basis for understanding the hydrodynamics of surfboard fin geometries. While there have been select studies on fins there has been little correlation to the shape of the fin and its corresponding hydrodynamic performance. This research analyzes how changing the planform shape of a surfboard fin effects its performance and flow field. This was done by isolating the taper and sweep distribution of a baseline geometry and varying each parameter individually whilst maintaining a constant span and surface area. The baseline surfboard fin was used as a template in Matlab to generate a set of ...


Application Of Metamaterials For Multifunctional Satellite Bus Enabled Via Additive Manufacturing, Michael A. Macchia 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Application Of Metamaterials For Multifunctional Satellite Bus Enabled Via Additive Manufacturing, Michael A. Macchia

Theses and Dissertations

Space systems require materials with superior stiffness to weight ratios to provide structural integrity while minimizing mass. Additive manufacturing processes enable the design of metamaterials that exceed the performance of naturally occurring materials in addition to allowing the integration of non-structural functions. This research explored the use of a high stiffness, high density, small melt pool track width AM material, Inconel 718, to enable the production of metamaterials with finer features possible than can possibly be created using a lower density aluminum alloy material. Various metamaterials were designed utilizing thin wall triply periodic minimal surface infilled sandwich structures. The performance ...


Emerging Need For A European Approach To Space Traffic Management, Tomas Hrozensky 2019 European Space Policy Institute

Emerging Need For A European Approach To Space Traffic Management, Tomas Hrozensky

Space Traffic Management Conference

The intensification of space activities worldwide, together with the emergence of new actors and disruptive concepts (e.g. miniaturized satellites, mega-constellations, in-orbit operations), create new challenges to ensure the safety and security of space systems and operations as well as the long-term sustainability of space activities. Among policy responses to these challenges, the development of a new approach to space traffic management was recently brought to the forefront by the adoption of a policy directive in this domain by the United States.

A comparable STM policy has not yet been developed in Europe even though considerations for the safety, security ...


End To End Satellite Servicing And Space Debris Management, Aman Chandra, Himangshu Kalita, Roberto Furfaro, Jekan Thanga 2019 Univ. of Arizona

End To End Satellite Servicing And Space Debris Management, Aman Chandra, Himangshu Kalita, Roberto Furfaro, Jekan Thanga

Space Traffic Management Conference

There is growing demand for satellite swarms and constellations for global positioning, remote sensing and relay communication in higher LEO orbits. This will result in many obsolete, damaged and abandoned satellites that will remain on-orbit beyond 25 years. These abandoned satellites and space debris maybe economically valuable orbital real-estate and resources that can be reused, repaired or upgraded for future use. Space traffic management is critical to repair damaged satellites, divert satellites into warehouse orbits and effectively deorbit satellites and space debris that are beyond repair and salvage. Current methods for on-orbit capture, servicing and repair require a large service ...


Advanced Inflatable De-Orbit Solutions For Derelict Satellites And Orbital Debris, Aman Chandra, Greg Wilburn, Jekan Thanga 2019 University of Arizona

Advanced Inflatable De-Orbit Solutions For Derelict Satellites And Orbital Debris, Aman Chandra, Greg Wilburn, Jekan Thanga

Space Traffic Management Conference

The exponential rise in small-satellites and CubeSats in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) poses important challenges for future space traffic management. At altitudes of 600 km and lower, aerodynamic drag accelerates de-orbiting of satellites. However, placement of satellites at higher altitudes required for constellations pose important challenges. The satellites will require on-board propulsion to lower their orbits to 600 km and let aerodynamic drag take-over. In this work we analyze solutions for de-orbiting satellites at altitudes of up to 3000 km. We consider a modular robotic de-orbit device that has stowed volume of a regular CubeSat. The de-orbit device would be ...


Satellite Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis For “Dilution Region” Events: Issues And Operational Approaches, Matthew D. Hejduk 2019 Astrorum Consulting LLC

Satellite Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis For “Dilution Region” Events: Issues And Operational Approaches, Matthew D. Hejduk

Space Traffic Management Conference

An important activity within Space Traffic Management is the detection and prevention of possible on-orbit collisions between space objects. The principal parameter for assessing collision likelihood is the probability of collision, which is widely accepted among conjunction assessment practitioners; but it possesses a known deficiency in that it can produce a false sense of safety when the orbital position uncertainties for the conjuncting objects are high. The probability of collision is said to be “diluted” in such a situation and to understate the possible risk; certain approaches have been recommended by researchers to provide (largely conservative) risk estimates and remediation ...


Space Objects Classification And Characterization Via Deep Learning And Light Curves: Applications To Space Traffic Management, Roberto Furfaro, Richard Linares, Vishnu Reddy 2019 University of Arizona

Space Objects Classification And Characterization Via Deep Learning And Light Curves: Applications To Space Traffic Management, Roberto Furfaro, Richard Linares, Vishnu Reddy

Space Traffic Management Conference

Recent advancements in deep learning (e.g. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), Recurrent Neural networks (RNN)) have demonstrated impressive results in many practical and theoretical fields (e.g. speech recognition, computer vision, robotics). Whereas deep learning methods are becoming ubiquitous, they have been barely explored in SSA applications, in particular with regard to object characterization for Space Traffic Management (STM).

In this paper, we report the results obtained in designing and training a set of CNNs and RNNs for Space Object (SO) classification and characterization using light-curve measurements. More specifically, we provide a comparison between deep networks trained on both physically-based ...


Lasers For Communication And Coordination Control Of Spacecraft Swarms, Himangshu Kalita, Leonard Dean Vance, Vishnu Reddy, Jekan Thanga 2019 University of Arizona

Lasers For Communication And Coordination Control Of Spacecraft Swarms, Himangshu Kalita, Leonard Dean Vance, Vishnu Reddy, Jekan Thanga

Space Traffic Management Conference

Swarms of small spacecraft offer whole new capabilities in Earth observation, global positioning and communications compared to a large monolithic spacecraft. These small spacecraft can provide bigger apertures that increase gain in communication antennas, increase area coverage or effective resolution of distributed cameras and enable persistent observation of ground or space targets. However, there remain important challenges in operating large number of spacecrafts at once. Current methods would require a large number of ground operators monitor and actively control these spacecraft which poses challenges in terms of coordination and control which prevents the technology from scaled up in cost-effective manner ...


Nanosat Tracking And Identification Techniques And Technologies, Mark A. Skinner 2019 Aerospace

Nanosat Tracking And Identification Techniques And Technologies, Mark A. Skinner

Space Traffic Management Conference

Nanosats (and CubeSats, ‘Smallsats’, etc.) are of order 10 cm in size, and are at or near the limits of what can be tracked and characterized, using existing space surveillance assets. Additionally, given the CubeSat form-factor, they are often launched in large numbers (scores), and can be virtually identical. Thus are they difficult to track and to identify.

We have identified a number of technologies that future nanosat missions could employ that would enhance the trackability and/or identification of their satellites when on-orbit. Some of these technologies require active illumination of the satellite with electromagnetic energy, either in the ...


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