Characteristics And Optimal Design Of Variable Airgap Linear Force Motors, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Characteristics And Optimal Design Of Variable Airgap Linear Force Motors, Ming-Chuan Leu, E. V. Scorza, D. L. Bartel

*Ming C. Leu*

An analytical model for predicting the characteristics of variable airgap linear force motors is developed. the model takes into account magnetic losses including the leakage and fringing effects and the reluctance existing at the contacts between permanent magnets and pole pieces. the model is validated by comparing its predicted characteristics with the results obtained from experiments and a finite element program. with the use of the modelled characteristics, computer programs based on the method of constrained steepest descent with state equations are developed for automating and optimising the design of linear force motors. Numerical studies are made for both minimisation ...

Cell Mapping Based Fuzzy Control Of Car Parking, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Cell Mapping Based Fuzzy Control Of Car Parking, Tea-Quin Kim, Ming-Chuan Leu

*Ming C. Leu*

This paper describes the development of a near-optimal fuzzy controller for maneuvering a car in a parking lot. To generate the rules of the fuzzy controller, a cell mapping method is utilized to systematically generate near-optimal trajectories for all possible initial states in the parking lot. Based on the input-output relations of these trajectories, which represent the states and controls of the corresponding cells, a set of fuzzy rules are generated automatically. In order to result in a small number of fuzzy rules from the large amount of numerical information generated by cell mapping, grouping of trajectories is proposed and ...

An Internet Based Intelligent Argumentation System For Collaborative Engineering Design, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### An Internet Based Intelligent Argumentation System For Collaborative Engineering Design, Xiaoqing Frank Liu, Samir Raorane, Man Zheng, Ming-Chuan Leu

*Ming C. Leu*

Modern product design is a very complicated process which involves groups of designers, manufacturers, suppliers, and customer representatives. Conflicts are unavoidable in collaboration among multiple stakeholders, who have different objectives, requirements, and priorities. Unfortunately, current web-based collaborative engineering design systems do not support collaborative conflict resolution. In this paper, we will develop an intelligent computational argumentation model to enable management of a large scale argumentation network, and resolution of conflicts based on argumentation from many participants. A web-based intelligent argumentation tool is developed as a part of a web-based collaborative engineering design system based on the above model to resolve ...

Amplitude Modulated Droplet Formation In High Precision Solder Droplet Printing, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Amplitude Modulated Droplet Formation In High Precision Solder Droplet Printing, Qingbin Liu, M. Orme, Ming-Chuan Leu

*Ming C. Leu*

There are many methods used at present to apply solder to wafers, ceramics, laminate and flex circuit boards, and other substrates. Among these, high-precision solder droplet printing technology, which is noncontact, data driven, flexible and environmentally friendly, is a key enabling technology. This technology selectively deposits solder droplets only where required, and therefore needs no mask or secondary resist removal, uses materials more efficiently and creates less waste than other methods. Currently, continuous droplet formation from capillary streams is mainly achieved by application of the well-known Rayleigh instability in which a sinusoidal disturbance is applied to the stream, resulting in ...

Adaptive Control Of Freeze-Form Extrusion Fabrication Processes, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Adaptive Control Of Freeze-Form Extrusion Fabrication Processes, Xiyue Zhao, Robert G. Landers, Ming-Chuan Leu

*Ming C. Leu*

Freeze-form Extrusion Fabrication (FEF) is an additive manufacturing process that extrudes high solids loading aqueous ceramic pastes in a layer-by-layer fashion below the paste freezing temperature for component fabrication. Due to effects such as the air bubble release, agglomerate breakdown, change in paste properties during extrusion as a result of liquid phase migration, etc., the extrusion force is difficult to control. In this paper, an adaptive controller is proposed to regulate the extrusion force. Recursive Least Squares is used to estimate extrusion force model parameters during fabrication and a low-order control scheme capable of tracking general reference trajectories is designed ...

A New Contour Reconstruction Approach From Dexel Data In Virtual Sculpting, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### A New Contour Reconstruction Approach From Dexel Data In Virtual Sculpting, Kemal Yuksek, Weihan Zhang, Boryslaw Iwo Ridzalski, Ming-Chuan Leu

*Ming C. Leu*

This paper presents a novel method of contour reconstruction from dexel data solving the shape anomalies for the complex geometry in virtual sculpting. Grouping and traversing processes are developed to find connectivity between dexels along every two adjacent rays. After traveling through all the rays on one slice, sub-boundaries are connected into full boundaries which are desired contours. The complexity of the new method has been investigated and determined as O(n). We also demonstrate the ability of the described method for viewing a sculpted model from different directions.

A Differential Equation Approach To Swept Volumes, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### A Differential Equation Approach To Swept Volumes, Ming-Chuan Leu, Denis Blackmore

*Ming C. Leu*

An approach to the analysis of swept volumes is introduced. It is shown that every smooth Euclidean motion or sweep, can be identified with a first-order, linear, ordinary differential equation. This sweep differential equation provides useful insights into the topological and geometrical nature of the swept volume of an object. A certain class, autonomous sweeps, is identified by the form of the associated differential equation, and several properties of the swept volumes of the members of this class are analyzed. The results are applied to generate swept volumes for a number of objects. Implementation of the sweep differential equation approach ...

A Complete Model Characterization Of Brushless Dc Motors, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### A Complete Model Characterization Of Brushless Dc Motors, N. Hemati, Ming-Chuan Leu

*Ming C. Leu*

The authors address the modeling problem associated with brushless DC motors (BLDCMs) with nonuniform air gaps that operate in a range where magnetic saturation may exist. The mathematical model includes the effects of reluctance variations as well as magnetic saturation to guarantee proper modeling of the system. An experimental procedure is developed and implemented in a laboratory environment to identify the electromagnetic characteristics of a BLDCM in the presence of magnetic saturation. It is demonstrated that the modeling problem associated with the class of BLDCMs can be formulated in terms of mathematically modeling a set of multidimensional surfaces corresponding to ...

A Complete Model Characterization Of Brushless Dc Motors, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### A Complete Model Characterization Of Brushless Dc Motors, N. Hemati, Ming-Chuan Leu

*Ming C. Leu*

The modeling problem associated with brushless DC motors (BLDCMs) with nonuniform air gaps which operate in a range where magnetic saturation may exist is addressed. The mathematical model, includes the effects of reluctance variations and magnetic saturation to guarantee proper modeling of the system. An experimental procedure is developed and implemented in a laboratory environment to identify the electromagnetic characteristics of a BLDCM in the presence of magnetic saturation. It is demonstrated that the modeling problem associated with this class of BLDCM can be formulated in terms of mathematically modeling a set of multidimensional surfaces corresponding to the electromagnetic torque ...

System Modeling And Control Of Smart Structures, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### System Modeling And Control Of Smart Structures, Frank J. Kern, Leslie Robert Koval, K. Chandrashekhara, Vittal S. Rao

*K. Chandrashekhara*

This paper presents multidisciplinary research and curriculum efforts at the University of Missouri-Rolla in the smart structures area. The primary objective of our project is to integrate research results with curriculum development for the benefit of students in electrical, and mechanical and aerospace engineering and engineering mechanics. The approach to the accomplishment of curriculum objectives is the development of a two-course sequence in the smart structures area with an integrated laboratory. The research portion of the project addresses structural identification and robust control methods for smart structures. A brief summary of the research results and a description of curriculum development ...

Detection And Classification Of Impact-Induced Damage In Composite Plates Using Neural Networks, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Detection And Classification Of Impact-Induced Damage In Composite Plates Using Neural Networks, Rohit Dua, Steve Eugene Watkins, Donald C. Wunsch, K. Chandrashekhara, Farhad Akhavan

*K. Chandrashekhara*

Artificial neutral networks (ANN) can be used as an online health monitoring systems (involving damage assessment, fatigue monitoring and delamination detection) for composite structures owing to their inherent fast computing speeds, parallel processing and ability to learn and adapt to the experimental data. The amount of impact-induced strain on a composite structure can be found using strain sensors attached to composite structures. Prior work has shown that strain-based ANN can characterize impact energy on composite plates and that strain signatures can be associated with damage types and severity. This paper reports the extension of this approach for damage classification using ...

Design And Technologies For A Smart Composite Bridge, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Design And Technologies For A Smart Composite Bridge, K. Chandrashekhara, Prakash Kumar, Steve Eugene Watkins, Antonio Nanni

*K. Chandrashekhara*

An all-composite, smart bridge design for shortspan applications is described. The bridge dimensions are 9.14-m (30-ft.) long and 2.74-m (9-ft.) wide. A modular construction based on assemblies of pultruded fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP) composite tubes is used to meet American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) H20 highway load ratings. The hollow tubes are 76 mm (3 in.) square and are made of carbon/vinyl-ester and glass/vinyl-ester. An extensive experimental study was carried out to obtain and compare properties (stiffness, strength, and failure modes) for a quarter portion of the full-sized bridge. The bridge response was measured ...

Thermoelastic Problems Of Multilayered Cylinders, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Thermoelastic Problems Of Multilayered Cylinders, Victor Birman

*Victor Birman*

Thermoelastic problems of long multilayered cylinders manufactured from isotropic materials are considered. The steady-state thermal field corresponding to a constant difference between temperature outside and inside the assembly is used in the analysis. Both the case of a hollow cylinder and that of a solid multilayered assembly are discussed. A closed-form exact solution is shown for an arbitrary number of layers if the properties of constituent materials remain unaffected by temperature. Various strategies leading to an analytical solution are proposed for the case where material properties depend on temperature. The stresses in a dual-coated optical fiber subject to a uniform ...

Stability Analysis Of Nonlinear Machining Force Controllers, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Stability Analysis Of Nonlinear Machining Force Controllers, Robert G. Landers, Yen-Wen Lu

*Robert G. Landers*

Model parameters vary significantly during a normal operation, thus, adaptive techniques have predominately been used. However, model-based techniques that carefully account for changes in the force process have again been examined due to the reduced complexity afforded by such techniques. In this paper, the effect of model parameter variations on the closed-loop stability for two model-based force controllers is examined. It was found that the stability boundary in the process parameter space can be exactly determined for force control systems designed for static force processes. For force control systems designed for first-order force processes, it was found that the stability ...

Regulation Of Powder Mass Flow Rate In Gravity-Fed Powder Feeder Systems, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Regulation Of Powder Mass Flow Rate In Gravity-Fed Powder Feeder Systems, Vishnu Thayalan, Robert G. Landers

*Robert G. Landers*

Precise regulation of powder mass flow in laser-based manufacturing processes is critical to achieving excellent part dimensional and microstructure quality. Control of powder mass flow is challenging because low flow rates, where nonlinear effects are significant, are typically required. Also, gravity-fed powder feeder systems have significant material transport delays, making the control of powder mass flow even more challenging. This paper presents a control strategy for regulating the powder mass flow rate in a gravity-fed powder feeder system. A dynamic model of the powder feeder system, including material transport delay, is constructed, and a modified proportional plus integral (PI) controller ...

Output Feedback Force Control For A Parallel Turning Operation, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Output Feedback Force Control For A Parallel Turning Operation, Raghusimha Sudhakara, Robert G. Landers

*Robert G. Landers*

Parallel machine tools (i.e., machine tools capable of cutting a part with multiple tools simultaneously but independently) are being utilized more and more to increase operation productivity, decrease setups, and reduce floor space. Process control is the utilization of real-time process sensor information to automatically adjust process parameters (e.g., feed, spindle speed) to increase operation productivity and quality. To date, however, these two technologies have not been combined. This paper describes the design of an output feedback controller for a parallel turning operation that accounts for the inherent nonlinearities in the force process. An analysis of the process ...

Modular Control Laboratory System With Integrated Simulation, Animation, Emulation, And Experimental Components, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Modular Control Laboratory System With Integrated Simulation, Animation, Emulation, And Experimental Components, J. Liu, Robert G. Landers

*Robert G. Landers*

A typical sequence for the design of a controller, given the desired objectives, is the following: system modeling, design and mathematical analysis, simulation studies, emulation, and experimental implementation. Most control courses thoroughly cover design and mathematical analysis and utilize a simulation or experimental project at the end of the course. However, animation and emulation are seldom utilized and projects rarely cover the entire controller design sequence. This paper presents a control laboratory system developed at the University of Missouri at Rolla that integrates simulation, animation, emulation, and experimental components. The laboratory system may be applied to a wide variety of ...

Hierarchical Optimal Force-Position Control Of A Turning Process, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Hierarchical Optimal Force-Position Control Of A Turning Process, B. Pandurangan, Robert G. Landers, S. N. Balakrishnan

*Robert G. Landers*

Machining process control technologies are currently not well integrated into machine tool controllers and, thus, servomechanism dynamics are often ignored when designing and implementing process controllers. In this brief, a hierarchical controller is developed that simultaneously regulates the servomechanism motions and cutting forces in a turning operation. The force process and servomechanism system are separated into high and low levels, respectively, in the hierarchy. The high-level goal is to maintain a constant cutting force to maximize productivity while not violating a spindle power constraint. This goal is systematically propagated to the lower level and combined with the low-level goal to ...

Hierarchical Optimal Control Of A Turning Process - Linearization Approach, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Hierarchical Optimal Control Of A Turning Process - Linearization Approach, Anand Dasgupta, B. Pandurangan, Robert G. Landers, S. N. Balakrishnan

*Robert G. Landers*

Machining process control technologies are currently not well integrated into machine tool controllers and, thus, servomechanism dynamics are often ignored when designing and implementing process controllers. In this paper, a hierarchical controller is developed that simultaneously regulates the servomechanism positions and cutting forces in a lathing operation. The force process and servomechanism system are separated into high and low levels, respectively, in the hierarchy. The high level goal is to maintain a constant cutting force to maximize productivity while not violating a spindle power constraint. This goal is systematically propagated to the lower level and combined with the low level ...

Hierarchical Optimal Force-Position-Contour Control Of Machining Processes. Part I. Controller Methodology, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Hierarchical Optimal Force-Position-Contour Control Of Machining Processes. Part I. Controller Methodology, Yan Tang, Robert G. Landers, S. N. Balakrishnan

*Robert G. Landers*

There has been a tremendous amount of research in machine tool servomechanism control, contour control, and machining force control; however, to date these technologies have not been tightly integrated. This paper develops a hierarchical optimal control methodology for the simultaneous regulation of servomechanism positions, contour error, and machining forces. The contour error and machining force process reside in the top level of the hierarchy where the goals are to 1) drive the contour error to zero to maximize quality and 2) maintain a constant cutting force to maximize productivity. These goals are systematically propagated to the bottom level, via aggregation ...