Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Philosophy of Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

873 Full-Text Articles 520 Authors 252,513 Downloads 120 Institutions

All Articles in Philosophy of Science

Faceted Search

873 full-text articles. Page 4 of 29.

The Similarity Of Division, Gedalia Zemel 2018 Bard College

The Similarity Of Division, Gedalia Zemel

Senior Projects Fall 2018

We propose an empiricist criterion for dividing claims into two disjoint sets. We contest the argument that our criterion presumes the existence of a mind-independent external world. Finally, we compare and contrast our criterion with similar empiricist criterions.


Respecting Public Investment: The Problems With Democratic Endorsement As A Criterion For Legitimate Value Influence In Science, Rebecca Korf 2018 University of Montana

Respecting Public Investment: The Problems With Democratic Endorsement As A Criterion For Legitimate Value Influence In Science, Rebecca Korf

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Criticism of the value-free ideal has motivated attempts to formulate a criterion for the legitimacy of non-epistemic value influence in science. I argue that this search aims to protect two main components of legitimacy, scientific integrity and justice. While integrity is primary, justice remains important, especially in setting scientific goals. One of the main proposals for setting legitimate goals is to rely on democratic endorsement (Intemann 2015). I critically assess four interpretations of this criterion, finding that all are problematic. I then propose and evaluate three alternative models that seek to better balance respect for the public with scientific expertise.


The Sylvan Blindspot: The Archaeological Value Of Surface Vegetation And A Critique Of Its Documentation, John S. Harris 2018 The University Of Montana

The Sylvan Blindspot: The Archaeological Value Of Surface Vegetation And A Critique Of Its Documentation, John S. Harris

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Surface vegetation at archaeological sites is a resource overlooked in cultural resource management. Drawing upon comparative documentary surveys of site forms and human surveys of 161 archaeologists in 12 U.S. states, this thesis explores why surface vegetation offers archaeological data potential; how archaeological documentation is an artifact of archaeologists, shaped by various subjectivities; and how improvements can be made for vegetal description in cultural inventory site forms. The surveys offer a critique on how the site form records are a product of disciplinary training oversights, differing work background experience, cultural bias, limitations in botanical knowledge, regional differences in U ...


Book Review: Creatively Undecided: Toward A History And Philosophy Of Scientific Agency, David B. Levy 2018 Touro College

Book Review: Creatively Undecided: Toward A History And Philosophy Of Scientific Agency, David B. Levy

Touro College Libraries Publications and Research

The author reviews the book Creatively Undecided: Toward a History and Philosophy of Scientific Agency.


Digitization Of The World: A Phenomenology Of Digitization, Thomas C. Adolphs 2018 Michigan Technological University

Digitization Of The World: A Phenomenology Of Digitization, Thomas C. Adolphs

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The dissertation analyzes digitization through a phenomenological lens, understanding the digitization as an “outgrowth” of a potential that was always already latent within our being as the human-being. The analysis primarily utilizes the philosophic work of the 20th century philosophers, Martin Heidegger and Maurice Merleau-Ponty.

Through their philosophies, I seek to synthesize Heidegger’s concept of de-severance with Merleau-Ponty’s concepts of embodiment and the world as possessing depth. In doing so, I bring these theoretical concepts together to build a phenomenological “picture” of how it is that the digitization of the world came into being. All the while ...


Ideology In Physics: Ontological Naturalism And Theism Confront The Big Bang, Cosmic Fine-Tuning, And The Multiverse Of M-Theory, Anthony Walsh 2018 Boise State University

Ideology In Physics: Ontological Naturalism And Theism Confront The Big Bang, Cosmic Fine-Tuning, And The Multiverse Of M-Theory, Anthony Walsh

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications and Presentations

The most profound questions that philosophers and scientists have asked across the centuries have been metaphysical and existential, such as “What is the meaning and purpose of life, why are we here, and why is there something rather than nothing?” There can be no definitive answers to these questions, so those who pose and propose answers to them necessarily engage ideology. Some physicists have become philosophers in that they are attempting to answer these profound questions with highly speculative theories as, for instance, Hawking and Mlodonow’s book The Grand Design (2010) which they tout as providing new answers to ...


Biosemiotics As An Argument For The Recontextualization Of Biological Discoveries: A Critical Analysis Of The Biosemiotic Model Of Marcello Barbieri., Augustus Morrissey Snyder 2018 James Madison University

Biosemiotics As An Argument For The Recontextualization Of Biological Discoveries: A Critical Analysis Of The Biosemiotic Model Of Marcello Barbieri., Augustus Morrissey Snyder

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

The primary purpose of this project was to investigate and explain the philosophical approach of biosemiotics to understanding living systems in contrast to the current scientific paradigm. Secondary goals were to evaluate the potential merits and relevance of this approach to biology and to introduce such a topic for discussion to biologists in a formal academic setting. My method consisted of critical textual analysis supplemented by analogy and biological examples where appropriate. In general, contemporary biosemiotics argues for a teleologic recontextualization of biological discoveries in practice and education. This is accomplished in a sophisticated fashion through the application and modification ...


Caterpillar/Basil-Plant Tandems, Paco Calvo 2018 University of Murcia

Caterpillar/Basil-Plant Tandems, Paco Calvo

Animal Sentience

According to Reber (2016), subjectivity springs from primitive life itself. Granting his non-neurocentric stance, I shall try to show that his framework falls prey to zoocentric preconceptions that divest certain non-animal life-forms of mentality. There is no reason to exclude the possibility that plants have evolved different structures that underlie their own subjective experiences, all according to Reber’s model. It is the degree of phenotypic flexibility and integration that we observe in the behavioral repertoire of plants that may end up supporting their capacity for subjective experience. This remains an open empirical question.


Animal Suicide: An Account Worth Giving?, Irina Mikhalevich 2018 Rochester Institute of Technology

Animal Suicide: An Account Worth Giving?, Irina Mikhalevich

Animal Sentience

Peña-Guzmán (2017) argues that empirical evidence and evolutionary theory compel us to treat the phenomenon of suicide as continuous in the animal kingdom. He defends a “continuist” account in which suicide is a multiply-realizable phenomenon characterized by self-injurious and self-annihilative behaviors. This view is problematic for several reasons. First, it appears to mischaracterize the Darwinian view that mind is continuous in nature. Second, by focusing only on surface-level features of behavior, it groups causally and etiologically disparate phenomena under a single conceptual umbrella, thereby reducing the account’s explanatory power. Third, it obscures existing analyses of suicide in biomedical ethics ...


Scientific Revolution In The Development Of The Rutherford-Bohr Model Of The Atom, Toby Bollig 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Scientific Revolution In The Development Of The Rutherford-Bohr Model Of The Atom, Toby Bollig

Undergraduate Honors Theses

1897-1914 was a period of rapid scientific progress with respect to atomic modeling. In just seventeen years Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr would transform the world’s conception of the atom from a simple, indivisible building block of matter to a semi-classical, complex system of interacting positive and negatively charged particles that could explain experimentally observed phenomena ranging from the periodicity of the elements to the large angle scattering of α-particles and the atomic spectrum of hydrogen. After offering a detailed historical investigation of this period, this thesis considers whether any of the events of period constituted a Kuhnian scientific revolution ...


Empiricism And Rationalism In The Advancement Of Astronomy, Odysseus Quarles 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Empiricism And Rationalism In The Advancement Of Astronomy, Odysseus Quarles

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Astronomy is advancing quickly, with resources being allocated to the cutting edge of our understanding of the universe while the more basic understanding and confirmation aspects of astronomy research are still underway. Research in both areas is conducted according to two differing philosophies of knowledge: empiricism, which holds observation and direct experiment as the most reliable source of information, and rationalism, which holds conclusions reached through pure reasoning from first principles above all others. This investigation seeks to explore how the empiricist and rationalist approaches each serve the pursuit and advancement of astronomy as a science. Using a thorough analysis ...


Explaining Stability And Change In Natural Systems, Stephen Esser 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Explaining Stability And Change In Natural Systems, Stephen Esser

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

An aim of science is to increase our understanding of the natural world. A primary means for doing so is by providing explanations, which often proceed by tracing the causes of phenomena. How can a causal explanation lead to understanding? While explanations can take many forms, I argue that to succeed they must embody a conception of causation shared with their audience. The challenge then, is to describe this conception and detail its role in explanation. While there is good evidence that scientists employ more than one causal concept, I argue that the concept of productive causation (centered on the ...


Actually Embodied Emotions, Jordan Christopher Victor Taylor 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Actually Embodied Emotions, Jordan Christopher Victor Taylor

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation offers a theory of emotion called the primitivist theory. Emotions are defined as bodily caused affective states. It derives key principles from William James’s feeling theory of emotion, which states that emotions are felt experiences of bodily changes triggered by sensory stimuli (James, 1884; James, 1890). However, James’s theory is commonly misinterpreted, leading to its dismissal by contemporary philosophers and psychologists. Chapter 1 therefore analyzes James’s theory and compares it against contemporary treatments. It demonstrates that a rehabilitated Jamesian theory promises to benefit contemporary emotion research. Chapter 2 investigates James’s legacy, as numerous alterations ...


Performing Posthuman Spectatorship: Contemporary Technogenesis And Experiential Architectures Of Exchange, William Woodall Lewis 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Performing Posthuman Spectatorship: Contemporary Technogenesis And Experiential Architectures Of Exchange, William Woodall Lewis

Theatre and Dance Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The project offers an analytical lens for use when studying the operations and aesthetics of contemporary spectatorship. This lens is informed by the ecological and relational methodology found in critical posthumanism and is useful when considering the relationships between spectatorship, contemporary performance, and digital media/technology under paradigms of deep mediatization. The form of spectatorship considered involves active participation and relational exchange between event and individual. The project argues for an interdisciplinary model for looking at the influence of digital technologies on the subjective condition of human beings who perform the role of spectator in various performative events. As a ...


The Participating Mind In The Quantum Universe, Menas Kafatos, Keun-Hang Susan Yang 2018 Chapman University

The Participating Mind In The Quantum Universe, Menas Kafatos, Keun-Hang Susan Yang

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The Orthodox interpretation of quantum mechanics, which followed the Copenhagen Interpretation but was enhanced by primarily Werner Heisenberg and John von Neumann into a fully developed theory, brought in, among others, the role of measurement, available choices and response of the quantum system. It is, more consistent and clear than other interpretations of quantum mechanics as it provides account of the interactions of observers with the external world. As such, the Orthodox interpretation does a lot more than just account for physical interactions in the atomic world, which was the original goal of quantum mechanics in the early part of ...


Lessons From Brave New World, Rachel Moore 2017 Lynchburg College

Lessons From Brave New World, Rachel Moore

Agora

No abstract provided.


Hermeneutic Philosophies Of Social Science: Introduction, Babette Babich 2017 Fordham University

Hermeneutic Philosophies Of Social Science: Introduction, Babette Babich

Articles and Chapters in Academic Book Collections

No abstract provided.


Hermeneutics And Its Discontents In Philosophy Of Science: On Bruno Latour, The “Science Wars”, Mockery, And Immortal Models, Babette Babich 2017 Fordham University

Hermeneutics And Its Discontents In Philosophy Of Science: On Bruno Latour, The “Science Wars”, Mockery, And Immortal Models, Babette Babich

Articles and Chapters in Academic Book Collections

Themes discussed include a hermeneutic of hermeneutic philosophy of science, along with the hegemony of analytic style in university philosophy in the US and Europe as well as the rhetoric of power, highlighting the politics of mockery using the example of Alan Sokal’s hoax as this sought to exclude other voices in the academy, especially philosophy of science. In addition to reviewing Sokal’s attack on Bruno Latour, Latour’s own “biography” of an investigation is read as articulating a doubled hermeneutic reflection on modernity including both field ethnography and lab-ethnography. The further question of the viability of a ...


The Possibility Of An Afterlife As Examined Through Near-Death Experiences, Anastasia N. Semenov 2017 Gettysburg College

The Possibility Of An Afterlife As Examined Through Near-Death Experiences, Anastasia N. Semenov

Student Publications

Approximately five percent of the world’s population has dealt with a near-death experience, which is the unusual phenomenon after temporarily dying or coming close to death, where people feel like they have left their body and see an afterlife. Millions of accounts from people around the world who have experienced this occurrence tell of seeing an afterlife, which should allow for the possibility of a life after death. Although peoples’ experiences in another realm differ, they all have similar features such as travelling in a fast tunnel and encountering loving light beings. These experiences are so intense that they ...


Syntax And Semantics Of Perceptual Representation, James K. Quilty-Dunn 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Syntax And Semantics Of Perceptual Representation, James K. Quilty-Dunn

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a defense of perceptual pluralism, the thesis that perceptual systems deliver multiple types of representations including those used in thought. In particular, it argues that perceptual systems output iconic (i.e., image-like, analog) representations as well as discursive (i.e., language-like, digital) states. A central thesis is that perceptual representations of objects are propositional and composed of concepts. It also develops a compositional syntax of iconic representation called the coordination model, according to which icons are sets of primitive parts, each of which determines values along multiple analog feature dimensions simultaneously. The dissertation supports the conclusion that ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress