Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

History of Philosophy Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,412 Full-Text Articles 757 Authors 431,354 Downloads 103 Institutions

All Articles in History of Philosophy

Faceted Search

1,412 full-text articles. Page 1 of 34.

Mapping The Modern History Of The Philosophy Of Religion With Machine Learning, Jackson C. Foster 2020 The University of Alabama

Mapping The Modern History Of The Philosophy Of Religion With Machine Learning, Jackson C. Foster

The Macksey Journal

A current debate in the philosophy of religion (PoR) is about future routes for scholarship. While many scholars have assessed where the subfield could expand, few have consulted the discipline’s modern history in their evaluations. Thus the aim of “Mapping the Modern History of the Philosophy of Religion” is to propose a computationally-based history of PoR as a foundation for future growth. To that end, this research processes over three-thousand articles from three journals in PoR with latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), a machine-learning algorithm. LDA creates groups of related terms, exhibiting the most historically significant topics in the philosophy ...


Izutsu’S Zen Metaphysics Of I-Consciousness Vis-À-Vis Cartesian Cogito, Takaharu ODA, Alessio BUCCI 2020 San Jose State University

Izutsu’S Zen Metaphysics Of I-Consciousness Vis-À-Vis Cartesian Cogito, Takaharu Oda, Alessio Bucci

Comparative Philosophy

Chief amongst the issues Toshihiko Izutsu broached is the philosophisation of Zen Buddhism in his book Toward a Philosophy of Zen Buddhism. This article aims to critically compare Izutsu’s reconstruction of Zen metaphysics with another metaphysical tradition rooted in Descartes’ cogito ergo sum. Putting Izutsu’s terminological choices into the context of Zen Buddhism, we review his argument based on the subject-object distinction and establish a comparison with the Cartesian cogito. A critical analysis is conducted on the functional relationship between subject and object in Izutsu’s metaphysics of Zen (meditation). This is examined step by step from the ...


A Russellian Analysis Of Buddhist Catuskoti, Nicholaos JONES 2020 San Jose State University

A Russellian Analysis Of Buddhist Catuskoti, Nicholaos Jones

Comparative Philosophy

Names name, but there are no individuals who are named by names. This is the key to an elegant and ideologically parsimonious strategy for analyzing the Buddhist catuṣkoṭi. The strategy is ideologically parsimonious, because it appeals to no analytic resources beyond those of standard predicate logic. The strategy is elegant, because it is, in effect, an application of Bertrand Russell's theory of definite descriptions to Buddhist contexts. The strategy imposes some minor adjustments upon Russell's theory. Attention to familiar catuṣkoṭi from Vacchagotta and Nagarjuna as well as more obscure catuṣkoṭi from Khema, Zhi Yi, and Fa Zang motivates ...


‘I Have Regained Memory’ (Smṛtir Labdhā): The Bhagavad Gītā As A Parrhesiastic Journey Against Forgetfulness, Raquel FERRÁNDEZ-FORMOSO 2020 San Jose State University

‘I Have Regained Memory’ (Smṛtir Labdhā): The Bhagavad Gītā As A Parrhesiastic Journey Against Forgetfulness, Raquel Ferrández-Formoso

Comparative Philosophy

This paper proposes an interdisciplinary reading of the Bhagavad Gītā, presenting it as a parrhesiastic dialogue between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, and focusing on the importance attached to memory. Foucault’s studies on the exercise of parrhesia (“true speech”) in the Greco-Roman context, but also Heidegger's views on the original memory, and Abhinavagupta’s commentary to the Bhagavad Gītā have been used as important tools of interpretation. Devotion is described as the constant memory of Kṛṣṇa, through which the practitioner succeeds in substituting some subconscious dispositions (saṃskāras) for others, building a psychic memory that allows for liberation at the time ...


The Yi-Jing Cosmic Model: With An Application Of An Alternative To Neoliberalism, Harry DONKERS 2020 San Jose State University

The Yi-Jing Cosmic Model: With An Application Of An Alternative To Neoliberalism, Harry Donkers

Comparative Philosophy

Based on Yi-Jing we present an elaborated version of the Diagram of the Supreme Polarity that consists of immanent and transcendent processes via the void (Wu-ji), the oneness (Tai-ji), the twofold (Yin and Yang), the fourfold (duograms) and the Five Phases in combination with the eight trigrams (Ba-Gua) to reproduction and the innumerable beings. The duograms are further discussed in a quadrant system with axes derived from pattern li and vital energy qi. The model has similarities with Libbrecht’s model of comparative philosophy, but also differences. It is further consistent with the quadrant system of Wilber’s integral theory ...


De Libero Conscientia: Martin Luther’S Rediscovery Of Liberty Of Conscience And Its Synthesis Of The Ancients And The Influence Of The Moderns, Bessie S. Blackburn 2020 Liberty University

De Libero Conscientia: Martin Luther’S Rediscovery Of Liberty Of Conscience And Its Synthesis Of The Ancients And The Influence Of The Moderns, Bessie S. Blackburn

Liberty University Journal of Statesmanship & Public Policy

One fateful day on March 26, 1521, a lowly Augustinian monk was cited to appear before the Diet of Worms.[1] His habit trailed behind him as he braced for the questioning. He was firm, yet troubled. He boldly proclaimed: “If I am not convinced by proofs from Scripture, or clear theological reasons, I remain convinced by the passages which I have quoted from Scripture, and my conscience is held captive by the Word of God. I cannot and will not retract, for it is neither prudent nor right to go against one’s conscience. So help me God, Amen ...


Berkeley On Infinite Divisibility, David Mwakima 2020 University of California, Irvine

Berkeley On Infinite Divisibility, David Mwakima

Western E-Vent in Early Modern Philosophy

Berkeley, arguing against Barrow, claims that the infinite divisibility of finite lines is neither an axiom nor a theorem in Euclid The Thirteen Books of The Elements. Instead, he suggests that it is rooted in ancient prejudice. In this paper, I attempt to substantiate Berkeley’s claims by looking carefully at the history and practice of ancient geometry as a first step towards understanding Berkeley’s mathematical atomism.


Berkeley On Perceptual Discrimination Of Physical Objects, Keota Fields 2020 Western University

Berkeley On Perceptual Discrimination Of Physical Objects, Keota Fields

Western E-Vent in Early Modern Philosophy

Commentators are divided over whether Berkeley holds that physical objects are immediately perceived by sense. As I read Berkeley, discrimination is necessary for perceiving physical objects by sense. Berkeley says that discrimination requires perceiving motion. Since motions can only be mediately perceived according to Berkeley, physical objects can only be mediately perceived by sense. I defend this reading against the following objections. First, that perception of physical objects is non-conceptual. Second, that physical objects are divinely instituted collections of ideas rather than psychologically associated collections of ideas. Third, that some physical objects are small enough to be immediately perceptually discriminated ...


Browne’S Critique Of Religious Propositions In Berkeley: A Reply To Pearce, Benjamin Formanek 2020 Western University

Browne’S Critique Of Religious Propositions In Berkeley: A Reply To Pearce, Benjamin Formanek

Western E-Vent in Early Modern Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Does Berkeley Anthropomorphize God, Kenneth Pearce 2020 Western University

Does Berkeley Anthropomorphize God, Kenneth Pearce

Western E-Vent in Early Modern Philosophy

Berkeley occasionally says that we use analogy in thinking and speaking of God (Alc, §4.21). However, the scholarly consensus is that Berkeley rejects the traditional doctrine of divine analogy and holds instead that words like ‘wise’ apply to God in precisely the same way as they apply to Socrates. The difference is only a matter of degree (Daniel 2011; Curtin 2014; Pearce 2018; Fasko 2018). Univocal theories of the divine attributes have historically been charged with anthropomorphism—that is, with imagining God to be too similar to human beings (see Maimonides, Guide, ch. 1.1). Can Berkeley fairly be ...


Day 3 Schedule, Benjamin Hill 2020 Western

Day 3 Schedule, Benjamin Hill

Western E-Vent in Early Modern Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Thomas Reid And The Priority Thesis: A Defence Against Turri, Benjamin Formanek, Lewis Powell 2020 Western

Thomas Reid And The Priority Thesis: A Defence Against Turri, Benjamin Formanek, Lewis Powell

Western E-Vent in Early Modern Philosophy

No abstract provided.


What Makes Hume An External World Skeptic?, Graham Clay, David Landy, Nathan Rockwood 2020 Notre Dame

What Makes Hume An External World Skeptic?, Graham Clay, David Landy, Nathan Rockwood

Western E-Vent in Early Modern Philosophy

What would it take for Hume to be an external world skeptic? Is Hume's position on knowledge sufficient to force him to deny that we can acquire knowledge of (non-logical) propositions about the external world? After all, Hume is extremely restrictive about what can be known because he requires knowledge to be immune to error. In this paper, I will argue that if Hume were a skeptic, then he must also deny a particular kind of view about what is immediately present to the mind. I will argue that direct realisms—views that maintain that mind-independent (i.e. ontologically ...


Cancelled - Berkeley's A Priori Argument For God's Exstence, Stephen H. Daniel, Alberto Luis Lopez 2020 Texas A&M University, Collage Station

Cancelled - Berkeley's A Priori Argument For God's Exstence, Stephen H. Daniel, Alberto Luis Lopez

Western E-Vent in Early Modern Philosophy

Berkeley’s appeal to a posteriori arguments for God’s existence supports belief only in a God who is finite. But by appealing to an a priori argument for God’s existence, Berkeley emphasizes God’s infinity. In this latter argument, God is not the efficient cause of particular finite things in the world, for such an explanation does not provide a justification or rationale for why the totality of finite things would exist in the first place. Instead, God is understood as the creator of the total unity of all there is, the whole of creation. In this a ...


Kant’S Long Shadow On The Interpretation Of Swedenborg, Hasse Hämäläinen, Alin Varciu 2020 Jagiellonian University in Kraków

Kant’S Long Shadow On The Interpretation Of Swedenborg, Hasse Hämäläinen, Alin Varciu

Western E-Vent in Early Modern Philosophy

Among the readers of Swedenborg, the Swedish thinker’s ‘theory of correspondences’ is often interpreted as treating empirical realities as only imperfect manifestations of spiritual realities (e.g. Lamm 1915, Benz 1948, Beiser 2002). This interpretation that ascribes (Platonic) idealism to Swedenborg was originally proposed by Kant in the Dreams of a Spirit-Seer (1766). Although Kant criticizes Swedenborg’s theory, he considers it no inferior to the theories of Leibniz and Wolf, which can entice a reader of Swedenborg to take Kant’s interpretation at face value: even if Kant did not agree with Swedenborg, at least he took him ...


Cavendish And Berkeley On Inconceivability And Impossibility, Peter West, Colin Chamberlain 2020 Trinity College Dublin

Cavendish And Berkeley On Inconceivability And Impossibility, Peter West, Colin Chamberlain

Western E-Vent in Early Modern Philosophy

In this paper, I compare Margaret Cavendish’s argument for the view that colours of objects are inseparable from their ‘physical’ qualities (such as size and shape) with George Berkeley’s argument for the view that secondary qualities of objects (such as colours, tastes, and sounds) are inseparable from their primary qualities (such as size and shape). By reconstructing their respective arguments, I show that both thinkers rely on the ‘inconceivability principle’: the claim that inconceivability entails impossibility. That is, both premise their arguments on the claim that it is impossible to conceive of an object that has size and ...


Day 2 Schedule, Benjamin Hill 2020 Western

Day 2 Schedule, Benjamin Hill

Western E-Vent in Early Modern Philosophy

No abstract provided.


The Middle Standpoint In Spinoza’S Ethics, Raphael Krut-Landau, Kristin Primus 2020 University of Pennsylvania

The Middle Standpoint In Spinoza’S Ethics, Raphael Krut-Landau, Kristin Primus

Western E-Vent in Early Modern Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Spinoza’S Formal Essence, Christopher Martin 2020 University of Toledo

Spinoza’S Formal Essence, Christopher Martin

Western E-Vent in Early Modern Philosophy

Spinoza stipulates in E2def2, his definition of the essence of a thing, that the essence of each particular can neither exist nor, even, be conceived, except alongside its particular. Yet a mere eight propositions later states that God maintains an idea of the essence of nonactual particulars “in the same way as the formal essences of the singular things are contained in God’s attributes” (E2p8). While there are known interpretive controversies with each of these claims, I argue that according to E2def2, essences of particulars can only be and can only be conceived alongside the actual existence of their ...


Informal Discussion, Benjamin Hill 2020 Western

Informal Discussion, Benjamin Hill

Western E-Vent in Early Modern Philosophy

“Do your students struggle with Spinoza’s geometric exposition, and if so, how do you get them past it?”


Digital Commons powered by bepress