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Catholic Terminal Sedation-A New Framework For Providing Terminal Palliative Sedation As A Requirement In Catholic Healthcare Organizations, Noah Dimas 2021 Duquesne University

Catholic Terminal Sedation-A New Framework For Providing Terminal Palliative Sedation As A Requirement In Catholic Healthcare Organizations, Noah Dimas

Graduate Student Research Symposium

The present attitudes surrounding death and dying in the United States have been trending toward the acceptance of so-called “Assisted Death” interventions at the end-of-life (EoL), specifically Physician-Assisted Suicide. The acceptance of these interventions is rooted in the notion of autonomy within the American culture of medicine that generally states a patient is allowed to request whatever medical interventions they wish. As such, legislative bodies around the United States have begun to legalize Assisted Death in response to the regularly cited desire to die peacefully and without pain from an expected terminal illness. However, for Catholic healthcare organizations, there is ...


How Personally Relevant Cases Of Covid-19 Influence Individuals’ Level Of Concern Towards The Virus, Timothy J. Nicklas 2021 University of Pennsylvania

How Personally Relevant Cases Of Covid-19 Influence Individuals’ Level Of Concern Towards The Virus, Timothy J. Nicklas

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

This paper presents the findings of a statistical analysis exploring the ways in which personally relevant cases of COVID-19 influence an individual's level of concern towards the virus. The analysis makes use of public opinion data collected throughout the pandemic by a market research company called Ipsos. This study conducts an OLS regression analysis using three different samples of data from three distinct periods of time during the pandemic. The paper addresses each component of the study's deductive approach, outlining everything from the initial hypothesis to the conclusions and broader implications. Ultimately, this study does show evidence that ...


Extended Minds: The Externalization And Expansion Of Human Minds Beyond The Body, Dmitri Wolfe 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Extended Minds: The Externalization And Expansion Of Human Minds Beyond The Body, Dmitri Wolfe

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Despite the commonly accepted notion that the mind is inseparable from the body, the extended mind hypothesis claims human minds can become linked with the world around us. Through various avenues such as spoken and written language, humans may use non-biological means to allow the mind to store, access, and communicate information in extended capacities not otherwise possible. Though the extended minds hypothesis may be viewed as a result of advancing technology, it makes up only a small part of the way in which externalization may occur. Everyday life is full of examples of extended minds, from computers and phones ...


Rejecting Ingrid Robeyns’ Defense Of Limitarianism, Timothy J. Nicklas 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Rejecting Ingrid Robeyns’ Defense Of Limitarianism, Timothy J. Nicklas

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

This paper critically evaluates the argument put forth by the philosopher Ingrid Robeyns in her work entitled What, if Anything, is Wrong with Extreme Wealth. Robeyns holds the Chair Ethics of Institutions at Utrecht University, and her academic research focuses on issues pertaining to contemporary political philosophy and applied ethics. In her aforementioned publication, Robeyns defends the political theory called limitarianism, which holds that there should be an upper limit to the amount of income that an individual can hold. Limitarianism, like many other political philosophies, presents a view of how resources ought to be distributed in society based, in ...


Corporate Limitarianism, Karl Meyer 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Corporate Limitarianism, Karl Meyer

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Ingrid Robeyns argues that there is a point at which increasing one’s income no longer increases one’s quality of life. Her argument states that given better uses for this money, namely restoring political equality and meeting urgent needs, it is morally wrong for individuals to have surplus money, which is money beyond that which is needed to live a good life. Therefore, Robeyns argues that surplus money should be taxed at a rate of 100%. The original argument only applies to individuals with excess wealth. However, there is no reason why it should be restricted only to people ...


Child Marriage: Characterization As A Noxious Market And Policy-Based Responses To Economic Motivations, Curtis Newman 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Child Marriage: Characterization As A Noxious Market And Policy-Based Responses To Economic Motivations, Curtis Newman

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Child marriage is a human rights violation according to various international agreements and human rights conventions. In many countries the practice is outlawed, yet it persists with great incidence in both developed and developing societies. Governments must act to eliminate the practice which (1) results in physical and psychological individual harms for child brides; (2) perpetuates societal harms in the form of entrenched gender inequality and limited economic potential for women and for countries as a whole; (3) thrives on the exploitation of economic and agency vulnerabilities of a social class, namely young girls and women; and (4) threatens the ...


Digital Norms And Their Place In A Tech-Based Future, Joseph M. Squillaro 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Digital Norms And Their Place In A Tech-Based Future, Joseph M. Squillaro

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

One impact of the technological revolution has been technology’s effects on social norms and the nudges needed to ensure efficiency and security in today’s “digitally required” world. I define these phenomena as digital norms and they inform interpersonal contact and tech-based choices. This paper looks specifically at norm interactions between Generation X and Generation Z. To test these digital norms and gauge their presence in both generations, this paper outlines a survey experiment of 50 people (25 Gen X and 25 Gen Z) and seeks to extrapolate assumptions on technology while providing policy recommendations. What was found was ...


A Letter From The Editor, Andrew Liu 2021 University of Pennsylvania

A Letter From The Editor, Andrew Liu

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Letter from the Editor regarding the Spring 2021 edition


Phil 302: Ethics In The Workplace, CUNY School of Professional Studies 2021 City University of New York (CUNY)

Phil 302: Ethics In The Workplace, Cuny School Of Professional Studies

Open Educational Resources

Introduces the philosophical frameworks used to guide ethical practice in the workplace. Using a case study approach, the course provides an analysis and critique of significant moral issues existing throughout business and industry in both domestic and international markets. Topics covered include classical and contemporary ethical theories, codes of professional conduct, issues such as consent and privacy, and environmental and social responsibilities at the personal, managerial, and organizational level.


Legal Purgatory: Why Some Animals Are Neither Persons Nor Property, Sharisse Kanet 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Legal Purgatory: Why Some Animals Are Neither Persons Nor Property, Sharisse Kanet

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

All animals with non-borderline sentience are deserving of certain legal considerations independent of their use and relationship to human beings. That is, all sentient beings should have some rights. Given the current organization of the U.S. legal system, which divides all entities into property or persons, it is not surprising that animals are relegated to property status. I put forth a proposal to fix this whose central suggestion is that we create a third legal designation, legal patient, into which all non-person sentient animals (those which do not properly belong on either current category) would fit. These animals would ...


Special Issue Call For Papers: Ethics In Mathematics, Catherine Buell, Victor Piercey 2021 Fitchburg State University

Special Issue Call For Papers: Ethics In Mathematics, Catherine Buell, Victor Piercey

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

The Journal of Humanistic Mathematics is pleased to announce a call for papers for a special issue on Ethics in Mathematics. Please send your abstract submissions via email to the guest editors by September 1, 2021. Initial submission of complete manuscripts is due December 1, 2021. The issue is currently scheduled to appear in July 2022.


Have You Considered?, Gloria Frimpong 2021 Kennesaw State University

Have You Considered?, Gloria Frimpong

Emerging Writers

This creative nonfiction piece explores the impact of humanity on the environment and argues that humanity bears great responsibility for its actions.


Autonomy, Paternalism, And The Moral Foundations Of The Fiduciary Relationship, Austin Horn 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Autonomy, Paternalism, And The Moral Foundations Of The Fiduciary Relationship, Austin Horn

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The fiduciary relationship is a legal relationship that describes those interactions in which one party is entrusted to exercise discretionary power on behalf of another’s interests. In recent years, the fiduciary relationship proven to be a powerful tool for providing clarity to complex bioethical issues. But the exciting promise of the fiduciary relationship for bioethical analysis is threatened by at least two conceptual problems: moral-legal equivocation and paternalism. Legal-moral equivocation refers to the problem of assuming that the normative demands of a legal relationship are also morally normative. The cogent use of the fiduciary relationship in bioethical analysis requires ...


Ethical Price For Essential Pharmaceuticals?, Sang T. Truong 2021 DePauw University

Ethical Price For Essential Pharmaceuticals?, Sang T. Truong

Student Research

Azidothymidine or AZT is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. Nowadays, AZT remains to be the primary active drug that can elongate the life of infected patients. Without treatment, patients can live for 5 to 10 years after infected. With the treatment, their life expectancy approaches the norm.

However, it is important to note that AZT is a life-saver for HIV patients only if they can afford it. An HIV patient needs to spend about $17,000 for AZT every year until the end of his life. Therefore, the estimated lifetime cost of HIV will be ...


Care Working Conditions: The Ethics And Politics Of Social Reproductive Labor From Aristotle To Marxist Feminism, Andrew R. Van't Land 2021 University of Kentucky

Care Working Conditions: The Ethics And Politics Of Social Reproductive Labor From Aristotle To Marxist Feminism, Andrew R. Van't Land

Theses and Dissertations--Philosophy

The spectre of an inescapably divided working class has haunted every generation of marxist theorists, including the latest wave of marxist feminists engaged in the research programme known as Social Reproduction Theory (SRT). In this dissertation, I will explain how Marx’s clear theoretical debt to Aristotle extends into the marxist feminist analysis of social reproductive labor and of the exploitation, class interests, and normative demands which condition such care workers. I will demonstrate how SRT can follow Marx’s own example in reading Aristotle, critically yet charitably, in order to resolve three problems. First, Aristotle’s original concept of ...


An Ethical Market For Kidney?, Sang T. Truong 2021 DePauw University

An Ethical Market For Kidney?, Sang T. Truong

Student Research

The kidney performs several vital functions that maintain our general health condition, including filtering waste chemicals out of our blood. Kidney failure is a condition where patients’ kidneys lose their ability to filter the waste from their blood, leading to accumulating toxin in their body. Without any medical care, a patient with kidney failure has a couple days to a couple of weeks to live. One way to elongate the life of the kidney-failure patient is through kidney transplant, where another kidney is implanted into the patient’s body.

In the U.S, it is illegal to trade a kidney ...


Factory To Table: A Philosophic Analysis Of The Justice Or Lack Thereof Of Agricultural Markets, Will Carter 2021 Claremont Colleges

Factory To Table: A Philosophic Analysis Of The Justice Or Lack Thereof Of Agricultural Markets, Will Carter

CMC Senior Theses

How food is produced has dramatic consequences on how we live, our world’s justice, and the future of our planet. In a world increasingly driven by neoliberalism, agricultural markets have been incentivized to industrialize, globalize, and consolidate. This has resulted in the global dominance of a new type of agriculture, industrial agriculture, driven by the market logic of lowering costs and raising profits. Industrial agriculture has undoubtedly generated the profound benefit of cheaper, more plentiful food in much of the world. These favorable innovations lead many scholars to argue that free markets produce the most just and efficient arrangements ...


Childhood, Moral Obligation, And The Law In The Trials Of Gabriel Fernandez, Allison Williams 2021 Georgia Southern University

Childhood, Moral Obligation, And The Law In The Trials Of Gabriel Fernandez, Allison Williams

Honors College Theses

In 2020, the documentary on The Trials of Gabriel Fernandez was brought to the screens of people all across the world. The film investigates the issues of the Child Welfare System and how children are affected. The case discussed in the film in which an 8-year-old boy was murdered sparked a new discussion on the rights of children and their protection. The Gabriel Fernandez case exposes the multitude of failures across the system. During the Trial, Gabriel’s mother and stepfather were convicted for murder without parole. However, as more details emerged about the ones tasked with protecting Gabriel, many ...


Data: The Good, The Bad And The Ethical, John D. Kelleher, Filipe Cabral Pinto, Luis M. Cortesao 2020 Technological University Dublin

Data: The Good, The Bad And The Ethical, John D. Kelleher, Filipe Cabral Pinto, Luis M. Cortesao

Articles

It is often the case with new technologies that it is very hard to predict their long-term impacts and as a result, although new technology may be beneficial in the short term, it can still cause problems in the longer term. This is what happened with oil by-products in different areas: the use of plastic as a disposable material did not take into account the hundreds of years necessary for its decomposition and its related long-term environmental damage. Data is said to be the new oil. The message to be conveyed is associated with its intrinsic value. But as in ...


Automating Autism: Disability, Discourse, And Artificial Intelligence, Os Keyes 2020 University of Washington

Automating Autism: Disability, Discourse, And Artificial Intelligence, Os Keyes

The Journal of Sociotechnical Critique

As Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems shift to interact with new domains and populations, so does AI ethics: a relatively nascent subdiscipline that frequently concerns itself with questions of “fairness” and “accountability.” This fairness-centred approach has been criticized for (amongst other things) lacking the ability to address discursive, rather than distributional, injustices. In this paper I simultaneously validate these concerns, and work to correct the relative silence of both conventional and critical AI ethicists around disability, by exploring the narratives deployed by AI researchers in discussing and designing systems around autism. Demonstrating that these narratives frequently perpetuate a dangerously dehumanizing model ...


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