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How To Solve Hume’S Problem Of Induction, Alexander Jackson 2018 Boise State University

How To Solve Hume’S Problem Of Induction, Alexander Jackson

Alexander Jackson

This paper explains what’s wrong with a Hume-inspired argument for skepticism about induction. Hume’s argument takes as a premise that inductive reasoning presupposes that the future will resemble the past. I explain why that claim is not plausible. The most plausible premise in the vicinity is that inductive reasoning from E to H presupposes that if E then H. I formulate and then refute a skeptical argument based on that premise. Central to my response is a psychological explanation for how people judge that if E then H without realizing that they thereby settled the matter rationally.


Technology And Discrimination, D. E. Wittkower 2018 Old Dominion University

Technology And Discrimination, D. E. Wittkower

Philosophy Faculty Publications

This chapter develops a full theory of discriminatory technologies grounded in Heideggerian, Latourian, and Ihdean theoretical structures and demonstrates its applicability to a wide and widening range of forms of normativity, exclusion, and discrimination, taking place across intersections of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, trans/cisgender identity, disability, and religious identity. Technologies, technical systems, and artifacts considered are wide-ranging, and include algorithms, adhesive bandages, human resource management policies, calendars, VR systems, carpentry, strollers, photographic film formulation and printing, video game character classes, and stairs.


Human Rights In Chinese Tradition, Stephen C. Angle 2017 Wesleyan University

Human Rights In Chinese Tradition, Stephen C. Angle

Stephen C. Angle

This chapter -- prepared for Sarah Biddulph and Joshua Rosenzweig , eds., Handbook on human rights in China (Edward Elgar, forthcoming) -- examines three different approaches: the Chinese tradition is (1) an obstacle to human rights, (2) an alternative to human rights, or (3) a source of human rights. While some scholars have insisted on one or another of these approaches, I will argue here that there is truth in all of them. Nothing about the Chinese tradition determines, once-and-for-all, what modern Chinese must think about human rights, but there is no question that it has had, and will continue to have, varying ...


Introduction To Discourse, Structure And Linguistic Choice By T. Price Caldwell, Robert J. Stainton 2017 University of Western Ontario

Introduction To Discourse, Structure And Linguistic Choice By T. Price Caldwell, Robert J. Stainton

Robert J. Stainton

No abstract provided.


Tian As Cosmos In Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucianism, Stephen C. Angle 2017 Wesleyan University

Tian As Cosmos In Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucianism, Stephen C. Angle

Stephen C. Angle


Tian” is central to the metaphysics, cosmology, and ethics of the eight-hundred-year-long Chinese philosophical tradition we call “Neo-Confucianism,” but there is considerable confusion over what tian means—confusion which is exacerbated by its standard translation into English as “Heaven.” This essay analyzes the meaning of tian in the works of the most influential Neo-Confucian, Zhu Xi (1130-1200), presents a coherent interpretation that unifies the disparate aspects of the term’s meaning, and argues that “cosmos” does an excellent job of capturing this meaning, and therefore should be adopted as our translation of tian.


Davis' "Rational Faith: A Philosopher's Defense Of Christianity" (Book Review), Jeff Gates 2017 Cedarville University

Davis' "Rational Faith: A Philosopher's Defense Of Christianity" (Book Review), Jeff Gates

The Christian Librarian

No abstract provided.


Norm-Expressivism And Regress, Attila Tanyi 2017 University of Liverpool

Norm-Expressivism And Regress, Attila Tanyi

Attila Tanyi

This paper aims to investigate Allan Gibbard’s norm-expressivist account of normativity. In particular, the aim is to see whether Gibbard’s theory is able to account for the normativity of reason-claims. For this purpose, I first describe how I come to targeting Gibbard’s theory by setting out the main tenets of quasi-realism cum expressivism. After this, I provide a detailed interpretation of the relevant parts of Gibbard’s theory. I argue that the best reading of his account is the one that takes normativity to be carried by a controlled, coherent, comprehensive set of norms. Finally, I present ...


What’S Wrong With Paying Parents To Not Have Children?, Benjamin Feis 2017 University of Pennsylvania

What’S Wrong With Paying Parents To Not Have Children?, Benjamin Feis

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

In this paper, I use the example of Project Prevention, a nonprofit that incentivizes people with substance abuse problems to not have children, as a launching point to pose a thought experiment. Namely, I consider a hypothetical policy whereby the U.S. government would issue a $5,000 tax credit per year to poor women or couples if they refrain from having a child. I examine several arguments in favor of such a policy, most notably that it produces mutual gains for both parties and is, technically speaking, completely voluntary. I then outline three potential objections to the policy. The ...


Why The Future Of Marijuana Legalization Is Still Uncertain, Adam Chernew 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Why The Future Of Marijuana Legalization Is Still Uncertain, Adam Chernew

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

The purpose of this paper is to examine the future of the marijuana legalization movement and the prospects of recreational marijuana legalization at the national level. While the marijuana movement has made tremendous strides at the state level over a very short period of time, there remains a debate over whether or not this progress will translate into success federally. First, this paper reviews the literature from the field, the majority of which focuses on whether marijuana ought to be legalized for recreational use in the first place. Despite extensive research, the evidence from the field is far from definitive ...


Reframing Reproductive Rights: Introducing The Intersectionality Of Socioeconomic Class Into Questions Of Reproductive Autonomy, Allison Sands 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Reframing Reproductive Rights: Introducing The Intersectionality Of Socioeconomic Class Into Questions Of Reproductive Autonomy, Allison Sands

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


The Law And Economics Of Databases: A Balancing Act, Ya Shon Huang 2017 University of Pennsylvania

The Law And Economics Of Databases: A Balancing Act, Ya Shon Huang

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

In this paper, I demonstrate that the existing legal frameworks for database protection are inadequate – the American framework under-protects databases, while the European framework over-protects. This paper presents an economic analysis of the current scope of legal protections for databases versus the ideal, with an especial emphasis on the role of intellectual property rights in providing these protections, and concludes with proposals for an ideal system. After an overview of the current systems of legal protections for databases in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU), there will be an explanation of how different types of laws (competition ...


Striking The Balance Between Privacy And Governance In The Age Of Technology, Jing Ran 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Striking The Balance Between Privacy And Governance In The Age Of Technology, Jing Ran

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


An Intercultural Dialogue Between Confucianism And Liberalism: Towards A Universal Foundation For Human Rights, Elton Yeo 2017 University of Pennsylvania

An Intercultural Dialogue Between Confucianism And Liberalism: Towards A Universal Foundation For Human Rights, Elton Yeo

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

This paper builds on the debate between Confucianism and human rights first sparked by the Bangkok Declaration of 1993. I show that there is indeed a conflict between Confucianism and human rights, which on the broader level, can be characterized as the conflict between communitarianism and liberalism. These are two particular traditions and in spite of the conflict between them, I show that they can come to complement each other through an intercultural dialogue. The idea of an intercultural dialogue is a response to the inadequate responses of liberals to the fact of multiculturalism, which is a broader implication of ...


Explaining Abortion Attitudes: Competing Reproductive Strategies And The Welfare State, Dong-Eun (Dara) Lee 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Explaining Abortion Attitudes: Competing Reproductive Strategies And The Welfare State, Dong-Eun (Dara) Lee

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


Market Design In The Presence Of Repugnancy: A Market For Children, Shane Olaleye 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Market Design In The Presence Of Repugnancy: A Market For Children, Shane Olaleye

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

A market-like mechanism for the allocation of children in both the primary market (market for babies) and the secondary market (adoption market) will result in greater social welfare, and hence be more efficient, than the current allocation methods used in practice, even in the face of repugnancy. Since a market for children falls under the realm of repugnant transactions, it is necessary to design a market with enough safeguards to bypass repugnancy while avoiding the excessive regulations that unnecessarily distort the supply and demand pressures of a competitive market. The goal of designing a market for children herein is two-fold ...


The Value Of A Liberal Arts Education, Sarah Morrissey 2017 University of Pennsylvania

The Value Of A Liberal Arts Education, Sarah Morrissey

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

In recent years, liberal arts education has faced caustic challenges on the grounds that it is neither a wise investment nor relevant in the modern era. However, these claims disregard the contention that liberal arts education has an intrinsic value that supersedes other tertiary concerns. The benefits of a liberal arts education are certainly comprehensive and apply to all members of society. As such, the inherent merit of the liberal arts must be recognized and supported by the state at all educational levels. The current economic and political environment has made it apparent that anything less will severely undermine the ...


Banal Behavior: A Study Of Non-Choice, Lauren M. Harding 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Banal Behavior: A Study Of Non-Choice, Lauren M. Harding

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

Both the classical and behavioral models of decision-making fall short of sufficiently explaining irrational individual decisions and paradoxical social phenomena. The theory of non-choice offers a more satisfying account of individual decision-making. A review of the deficiencies in the classical and behavioral models demonstrates the need for a new conception of choice. Drawing upon the philosophies of Hannah Arendt and Immanuel Kant, among others, choice is defined as the alignment of thought, will, and action. Stemming from this new model of choice is the theory of non-choice, defined as either the misalignment of the tripartite decision process or a decision ...


Deliberative Citizenship: The Deliberate Democrats’ Response To The Hegemony Of Classical Liberalism, David Kanter 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Deliberative Citizenship: The Deliberate Democrats’ Response To The Hegemony Of Classical Liberalism, David Kanter

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

Classical liberalism’s hegemony in the public discourse seems to be based on the fact that it demands and expects so little. Its guiding assumption tell us that people are the same, always and everywhere, and we can get the best by assuming the worst. Let’s just assume humans are simple automatons, it seems to say, and then we can arrive at elegant and simple conclusions about how society works and, more importantly, should work. Humans, then, are rationally self-interested and to get the best outcomes we should let these simple automatons interact in the market. The central point ...


Protected Values, Range Effects, Guilt, And Tradeoff Difficulty In Moral Decision Making, Christopher W. Poliquin 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Protected Values, Range Effects, Guilt, And Tradeoff Difficulty In Moral Decision Making, Christopher W. Poliquin

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


Sins Against Democracy, David Marcou 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Sins Against Democracy, David Marcou

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


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