Japanese-English Translation: Miki Kiyoshi —Thinking With Master Nishida (First Published In Fujin Kōron, August 1941) Complete Draft; Translated, Edited, And Revised By Christopher Southward, October 2022-September 2023 「西田先生のことども」、三木清著（初発 婦人公論、昭和十六年八月）, 2023 Binghamton University--SUNY

#### Japanese-English Translation: Miki Kiyoshi —Thinking With Master Nishida (First Published In Fujin Kōron, August 1941) Complete Draft; Translated, Edited, And Revised By Christopher Southward, October 2022-September 2023 「西田先生のことども」、三木清著（初発 婦人公論、昭和十六年八月）, Christopher Southward

*Comparative Literature Faculty Scholarship*

Japanese-English Translation: Miki Kiyoshi —Thinking with Master Nishida (First Published in Fujin Kōron, August 1941) Complete Draft; Translated, Edited, and Revised by Christopher Southward, October 2022-September 2023「西田先生のことども」、三木清著（初発 婦人公論、昭和十六年八月）

Source text transcribed and published by Aozora Bunko–a compendium of public-domain Japanese literature, philosophy, and criticism

General website: https://www.aozora.gr.jp

Current text: https://www.aozora.gr.jp/cards/000218/files/50538_37481.html

Deontic Meta-Rules, 2023 Griffith University

#### Deontic Meta-Rules, Francesco Olivieri, Guido Governatori, Matteo Cristani, Antonino Rotolo, Abdul Sattar

*Centre for Computational Law*

The use of meta-rules in logic, i.e., rules whose content includes other rules, has recently gained attention in the setting of non-monotonic reasoning: a first logical formalisation and efficient algorithms to compute the (meta)-extensions of such theories were proposed in Olivieri et al. (2021, Computing defeasible meta-logic. In JELIA 2021, LNCS, vol. 12678, pp. 69-84. Springer.). This work extends such a logical framework by considering the deontic aspect. The resulting logic will not just be able to model policies but also tackle well-known aspects that occur in numerous legal systems. The use of Defeasible Logic to model meta-rules in the …

Tarski And Bachmann In Regina: A Magical Connection, 2023 San Francisco State University

#### Tarski And Bachmann In Regina: A Magical Connection, James T. Smith

*Journal of Humanistic Mathematics*

This is a personal account of an intersection of the schools of research in foundations of geometry founded by Alfred Tarski and Friedrich Bachmann. Their academic lineages and the origins of the schools are also described, as well as the mathematics that resulted from this intersection.

Moretheless, 2023 Rhode Island School of Design

#### Moretheless, Abdelghani Alnahawi

*Masters Theses*

material investigations becoming questions with interjections

What Is A Number?, 2023 La Salle University

#### What Is A Number?, Nicholas Radley

*HON499 projects*

This essay is, in essence, an attempt to make a case for mathematical platonism. That is to say, that we argue for the existence of mathematical objects independent of our perception of them. The essay includes a somewhat informal construction of number systems ranging from the natural numbers to the complex numbers.

Three Essays On Substructural Approaches To Semantic Paradoxes, 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Three Essays On Substructural Approaches To Semantic Paradoxes, Brian C. Porter

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

This thesis consists of three papers on substructural approaches to semantic paradoxes. The first paper introduces a formal system, based on a nontransitive substructural logic, which has exactly the valid and antivalid inferences of classical logic at every level of (meta)inference, but which I argue is still not classical logic. In the second essay, I introduce infinite-premise versions of several semantic paradoxes, and show that noncontractive substructural approaches do not solve these paradoxes. In the third essay, I introduce an infinite metainferential hierarchy of validity curry paradoxes, and argue that providing a uniform solution to the paradoxes in this hierarchy …

Zero, Śūnya And Pūrṇa: A Comparative Analysis, 2023 San Jose State University

#### Zero, Śūnya And Pūrṇa: A Comparative Analysis, Animisha Tewari

*Comparative Philosophy*

*Due to apparent duality in this world, one has to face a lot of difficulties while searching for the Truth. Our ego is the root cause for perception of duality and this in turn leads to suffering. This suffering can only be extinguished by attainment of the Truth, i.e, non-duality. However, in order to enable the finite intellect to comprehend the incomprehensible non-duality, this undifferentiated whole is sometimes denoted by nothingness (*śūnya*) or fullness (*pūrṇa*). Non-duality is usually understood by the numeral ‘1’ which stands for unity or oneness. The main aim of this paper is …*

Ineffability, Emptiness And The Aesthetics Of Logic, 2023 San Jose State University

#### Ineffability, Emptiness And The Aesthetics Of Logic, Andreas Kapsner

*Comparative Philosophy*

*In this essay, I explore the nature of the logical analysis of Buddhist thought that Graham Priest has offered in his book *The Fifth Corner of Four* (*5of4*). The paper traces the development of a logical value in- troduced in *5of4*, which Priest has called *e*. The paper points out that certain criticisms I have made earlier still stand, but focuses on a recon- ceptualization of *5of4* in which these arguments carry less weight. This new perspective on the book, inspired by a response to my arguments by Priest himself, sees the logical analysis of Buddhism …*

On Probabilistic Reasoning Of Actual Causation, 2022 Lingnan University

#### On Probabilistic Reasoning Of Actual Causation, Jingzhi Fang

*Lingnan Theses and Dissertations*

Probabilistic actual causation is a theory about actual causal relations in probabilistic scenarios. Compared with general (or type) causal connections, actual (or token, singular) causation involves specific and actual events occurring in a particular time and space. Halpern and Pearl proposed three mathematical definitions on actual causation via structural equation models (or causal models). Fenton-Glynn extended one of their definitions into a probabilistic version by following the probability-raising principle in the tradition of theorizing about probabilistic causation. The basic idea of this principle is that a cause shall raise the probability of its effect. He adopted interventional probabilities to analyse …

A Question Of Fundamental Methodology: Reply To Mikhail Katz And His Coauthors, 2022 Simon Fraser University

#### A Question Of Fundamental Methodology: Reply To Mikhail Katz And His Coauthors, Tom Archibald, Richard T. W. Arthur, Giovanni Ferraro, Jeremy Gray, Douglas Jesseph, Jesper Lützen, Marco Panza, David Rabouin, Gert Schubring

*Philosophy Faculty Articles and Research*

This paper is a response by several historians of mathematics to a series of papers published from 2012 onwards by Mikhail Katz and various co-authors, the latest of which was recently published in the Mathematical Intelligencer, “Two-Track Depictions of Leibniz’s Fictions” (Katz, Kuhlemann, Sherry, Ugaglia, and van Atten, 2021). At issue is a question of fundamental methodology. These authors take for granted that non-standard analysis provides the correct framework for historical interpretation of the calculus, and castigate rival interpretations as having had a deleterious effect on the philosophy, practice, and applications of mathematics. Rather than make this case by reasoned …

Necessity, Essence And Analyticity: Toward An Analytic Essentialist Account Of Necessity, 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Necessity, Essence And Analyticity: Toward An Analytic Essentialist Account Of Necessity, Dongwoo Kim

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

Some truths could not have failed to hold. Such are called *metaphysically necessary* truths. As Michael Dummett once aptly formulated, the philosophical problem about necessity is twofold: what makes necessary truths necessarily true and how do we recognize them as such? This dissertation aims to address these questions by developing and defending a novel account of necessity, which has the following three main theses: (1) the necessity of a statement about an entity is established as a consequence of a general principle implying that if the entity is a certain way then it is necessarily that way and the fact …

Foundational Mathematical Beliefs And Ethics In Mathematical Practice And Education, 2022 Charles A. Dana Center

#### Foundational Mathematical Beliefs And Ethics In Mathematical Practice And Education, Richard Spindler

*Journal of Humanistic Mathematics*

Foundational philosophical beliefs about mathematics in the mathematical community may have an unappreciated yet profound impact on ethics in mathematical practice and mathematics education, which also affects practice. A philosophical and historical basis of the dominant platonic and formalist views of mathematics are described and evaluated, after which an alternative evidence-based foundation for mathematical thought is outlined. The dualistic nature of the platonic view based on intuition is then compared to parallel historical developments of universalizing ethics in Western thought. These background ideas set the stage for a discussion of the impact of traditional mathematical beliefs on ethics in the …

Ethics And Mathematics – Some Observations Fifty Years Later, 2022 University of Siegen

#### Ethics And Mathematics – Some Observations Fifty Years Later, Gregor Nickel

*Journal of Humanistic Mathematics*

Almost exactly fifty years ago, Friedrich Kambartel, in his classic essay “Ethics and Mathematics,” did pioneering work in an intellectual environment that almost self-evidently assumed a strict separation of the two fields. In our first section we summarize and discuss that classical paper. The following two sections are devoted to complement and contrast Kambartel’s picture. In particular, the second section is devoted to ethical aspects of the indirect and direct mathematization of modern societies. The final section gives a short categorization of various philosophical positions with respect to the rationality of ethics and the mutual relation between ethics and mathematics.

Unknowable Truths: The Incompleteness Theorems And The Rise Of Modernism, 2022 Belmont University

#### Unknowable Truths: The Incompleteness Theorems And The Rise Of Modernism, Caroline Tvardy

*Honors Scholars Collaborative Projects*

This thesis evaluates the function of the current history of mathematics methodologies and explores ways in which historiographical methodologies could be successfully implemented in the field. Traditional approaches to the history of mathematics often lack either an accurate portrayal of the social and cultural influences of the time, or they lack an effective usage of mathematics discussed. This paper applies a holistic methodology in a case study of Kurt Gödel’s influential work in logic during the Interwar period and the parallel rise of intellectual modernism. In doing so, the proofs for Gödel’s Completeness and Incompleteness theorems will be discussed as …

Semantic Completeness Of Intuitionistic Predicate Logic In A Fully Constructive Meta-Theory, 2022 Western Kentucky University

#### Semantic Completeness Of Intuitionistic Predicate Logic In A Fully Constructive Meta-Theory, Ian Ray

*Masters Theses & Specialist Projects*

A constructive proof of the semantic completeness of intuitionistic predicate logic is explored using set-generated complete Heyting Algebra. We work in a constructive set theory that avoids impredicative axioms; for this reason the result is not only intuitionistic but fully constructive. We provide background that makes the thesis accessible to the uninitiated.

Why Are They Called Real Numbers If They Aren’T Real, And Other Such Questions?, 2022 Rollins College

#### Why Are They Called Real Numbers If They Aren’T Real, And Other Such Questions?, Rahmat Rashid

*Honors Program Theses*

This thesis studies the position of mathematical realism (the position that mathematical objects have ontological status) through history, starting with Pythagoras up until W.V.O Quine, and examining how these positions originate from each other. I hope to see how the position has changed and why, and provide an argument against the strongest of the realist positions, drawing on this extensive background. Finally, I advance my own argument against the strongest arguments for mathematical realism, and propose alternatives to a view of mathematical realism.

Russian Logics And The Culture Of Impossible: Part Ii: Reinterpreting Algorithmic Rationality, 2022 Singapore Management University

#### Russian Logics And The Culture Of Impossible: Part Ii: Reinterpreting Algorithmic Rationality, Ksenia Tatarchenko, Anya Yermakova, Liesbeth De Mol

*Research Collection School of Social Sciences*

This article reinterprets algorithmic rationality by looking at the interaction between mathematical logic, mechanized reasoning, and, later, computing in the Russian Imperial and Soviet contexts to offer a history of the algorithm as a mathematical object bridging the inner and outer worlds, a humanistic vision that we, following logician Vladimir Uspensky, call the “culture of the impossible.” We unfold the deep roots of this vision as embodied in scientific intelligentsia. In Part I, we examine continuities between the turn-of-the-twentieth-century discussions of poznaniye—an epistemic orientation towards the process of knowledge acquisition—and the postwar rise of the Soviet school of mathematical logic. …

Assessing Risk At The National Strategic Level: Visualization Tools For Military Planners, 2021 US Army War College

#### Assessing Risk At The National Strategic Level: Visualization Tools For Military Planners, Wade A. Germann, Heather S. Gregg

*The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters*

The reemergence of great power competition, conflict with near-peer competitor states below the level of armed conflict, and persisting threats from nonstate actors with transnational ambitions and global reach pose challenges for strategists planning, executing, and assessing military operations and strategy. Building on current visualization tools, two proposed models—the National Strategic Risk Abacus and the National Strategic Risk Radar Chart—address these challenges and better depict how the US military may inadvertently contribute to risk at the national strategic level.

The Agnostic Structure Of Data Science Methods, 2021 Chapman University

#### The Agnostic Structure Of Data Science Methods, Domenico Napoletani, Marco Panza, Daniele Struppa

*MPP Published Research*

In this paper we argue that data science is a coherent and novel approach to empirical problems that, in its most general form, does not build understanding about phenomena. Within the new type of mathematization at work in data science, mathematical methods are not selected because of any relevance for a problem at hand; mathematical methods are applied to a specific problem only by `forcing’, i.e. on the basis of their ability to reorganize the data for further analysis and the intrinsic richness of their mathematical structure. In particular, we argue that deep learning neural networks are best understood within …

Patrick Aidan Heelan’S The Observable: Heisenberg’S Philosophy Of Quantum Mechanics, 2021 Dublin City University

#### Patrick Aidan Heelan’S The Observable: Heisenberg’S Philosophy Of Quantum Mechanics, Paul Downes

*Research Resources*

The publication of Patrick Aidan Heelan’s *The Observable*, with forewords from Michel Bitbol, editor Babette Babich and the author himself, offers a timely invitation to reconsider the relation between quantum physics and continental philosophy.

Patrick Heelan does so, as a contemporary of and interlocutor with Werner Heisenberg on these issues, as a physicist himself who trained with leading figures of quantum mechanics (QM), Erwin Schrödinger and Eugene Wigner. Moreover, Heelan highlights Heisenberg’s interest in phenomenology as ‘a friend and frequent visitor of Martin Heidegger’ (55). Written originally in 1970 and unpublished then for reasons Babich explicates in her foreword, …