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The Moral Significance Of Indetectable Effects, Sven Ove Hansson 2016 University of New Hampshire

The Moral Significance Of Indetectable Effects, Sven Ove Hansson

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

A reassessment of Parfit's fifth "mistake in moral mathematics."


Three Essays In Intuitionistic Epistemology, Tudor Protopopescu 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Three Essays In Intuitionistic Epistemology, Tudor Protopopescu

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

We present three papers studying knowledge and its logic from an intuitionistic viewpoint.

An Arithmetic Interpretation of Intuitionistic Verification

Intuitionistic epistemic logic introduces an epistemic operator to intuitionistic logic which reflects the intended BHK semantics of intuitionism. The fundamental assumption concerning intuitionistic knowledge and belief is that it is the product of verification. The BHK interpretation of intuitionistic logic has a precise formulation in the Logic of Proofs and its arithmetical semantics. We show here that this interpretation can be extended to the notion of verification upon which intuitionistic knowledge is based. This provides the systems of intuitionistic epistemic logic ...


Mathematical Practice And Human Cognition, Bernd Buldt 2016 Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne

Mathematical Practice And Human Cognition, Bernd Buldt

Philosophy Faculty Presentations

Frank Quinn (of Jaffe-Quinn fame, see [1]) worked out the basics of his own account of mathematical practice, an account that is informed by an analysis of contemporary mathematics and its pedagogy (see [2]). Taking this account as our starting point, we can characterize the current mathematical practice to acquire and work with new concepts as a cognitive adaptation strategy that, first, emerged to meet the challenges posed by the growing abstractness of its objects and which, second, proceeds according to the following three-pronged approach:

  1. (i) sever as many ties to ordinary language as possible and limit ordinary language explanations ...


On Fixed Points, Diagonalization, And Self-Reference, Bernd Buldt 2016 Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne

On Fixed Points, Diagonalization, And Self-Reference, Bernd Buldt

Philosophy Faculty Presentations

We clarify the respective role fixed points, diagonalization, and self- reference play in proofs of G ̈odel’s first incompleteness theorem. We first show that the usual fixed-point construction can be reduced to a double diagonalization; this is done to address widely held views such as that fixed-point are “paradoxical” (Priest), or work by “black magic” (Soare), or that their construction is “intuitively unclear” (Kotlarski). We then discuss three notions of self-reference; this can be seen an extension of a recent study by Halbach and Visser and is meant to show that we do not (yet?) have a robust theory ...


Mathematical Practice And Human Cognition, Bernd Buldt 2016 Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne

Mathematical Practice And Human Cognition, Bernd Buldt

Philosophy Faculty Presentations

Frank Quinn (of Jaffe-Quinn fame, see [1]) worked out the basics of his own account of mathematical practice, an account that is informed by an analysis of contemporary mathematics and its pedagogy (see [2]). Taking this account as our starting point, we can characterize the current mathematical practice to acquire and work with new concepts as a cognitive adaptation strategy that, first, emerged to meet the challenges posed by the growing abstractness of its objects and which, second, proceeds according to the following three-pronged approach:

  1. (i) sever as many ties to ordinary language as possible and limit ordinary language explanations ...


Rampant Non-Factualism: A Metaphysical Framework And Its Treatment Of Vagueness, Alexander Jackson 2016 Boise State University

Rampant Non-Factualism: A Metaphysical Framework And Its Treatment Of Vagueness, Alexander Jackson

Alexander Jackson

Rampant non-factualism is the view that all non-fundamental matters are non-factual, in a sense inspired by Kit Fine (2001). The first half of this paper argues that if we take non-factualism seriously for any matters, such as morality, then we should take rampant non-factualism seriously. The second half of the paper argues that rampant non-factualism makes possible an attractive theory of vagueness. We can give non-factualist accounts of non-fundamental matters that nicely characterize the vagueness they manifest (if any). I suggest that such non-factualist theories dissolve philosophical puzzlement about vagueness. In particular, the approach implies that philosophers should not try ...


Vol 7 No 2 Contents Page, 2016 San Jose State University

Vol 7 No 2 Contents Page

Comparative Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Vol 7 No 2 Information Page, 2016 San Jose State University

Vol 7 No 2 Information Page

Comparative Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Vol 7 No 2 Cover Page, 2016 San Jose State University

Vol 7 No 2 Cover Page

Comparative Philosophy

No abstract provided.


On Fixed Points, Diagonalization, And Self-Reference, Bernd Buldt 2016 Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne

On Fixed Points, Diagonalization, And Self-Reference, Bernd Buldt

Philosophy Faculty Publications

We clarify the respective roles fixed points, diagonalization, and self- reference play in proofs of Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem.


The C3 Conditional: A Variably Strict Ordinary-Language Conditional, Monique L. Whitaker 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

The C3 Conditional: A Variably Strict Ordinary-Language Conditional, Monique L. Whitaker

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this dissertation I provide a novel logic of the ordinary-language conditional. First, however, I endeavor to make clearer and more precise just what the objects of the study of the conditional are, as a lack of clarity as to what counts as an instance of a given category of conditional has resulted in deep and significant confusions in subsequent analysis. I motivate for a factual/counterfactual distinction, though not at the level of particular instances of the conditional. Instead, I argue that each individual instance of the conditional may be interpreted either factually or counterfactually, rather than these instances ...


Compassion, Authority And Baby Talk: Prosody And Objectivity, Leo Groarke, Gabrijela Kišiček 2016 Trent University

Compassion, Authority And Baby Talk: Prosody And Objectivity, Leo Groarke, Gabrijela Kišiček

OSSA Conference Archive

Recent work on multimodal argumentation has explored facets of argumentation which have no obvious analogue in the written arguments which were emphasized in traditional accounts of argument. One of these facets is prosody: the structure and quality of the sound of spoken language. Prosodic features include pitch, temporal structure, pronunciation, loudness and voice quality, rhythm, emphasis and accent. In this paper, we explore the ways that prosodic features may be invoked in arguing.


The Polysemy Of ‘Fallacy’—Or ‘Bias’, For That Matter, Frank Zenker 2016 Lund University

The Polysemy Of ‘Fallacy’—Or ‘Bias’, For That Matter, Frank Zenker

OSSA Conference Archive

Starting with a brief overview of current usages (Sect. 2), this paper offers some constituents of a use-based analysis of ‘fallacy’, listing 16 conditions that have, for the most part implicitly, been discussed in the literature (Sect. 3). Our thesis is that at least three related conceptions of ‘fallacy’ can be identified. The 16 conditions thus serve to “carve out” a semantic core and to distinguish three core-specifications. As our discussion suggests, these specifications can be related to three normative positions in the philosophy of human reasoning: the meliorist, the apologist, and the panglossian (Sect. 4). Seeking to make these ...


Pascal And Fermat: Religion, Probability, And Other Mathematical Discoveries, Adrienne E. Lazes 2016 Skidmore College

Pascal And Fermat: Religion, Probability, And Other Mathematical Discoveries, Adrienne E. Lazes

Master of Arts in Liberal Studies (MALS) Student Scholarship

This final project primarily discusses how Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat, two French seventeenth century mathematicians, founded the field of mathematical Probability and how this area continued to evolve after their contributions. Also included in this project is an analysis of how Pascal and Fermat were affected, or not, in their mathematical work by the widespread impact that the Catholic Church had on life in France during this time period. I further discuss two other central discoveries by these theorists: Pascal’s Triangle and Fermat’s Last Theorem. Lastly, the project analyzes how all of these aspects: the influence ...


Toward A Kripkean Concept Of Number, Oliver R. Marshall 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Toward A Kripkean Concept Of Number, Oliver R. Marshall

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Saul Kripke once remarked to me that natural numbers cannot be posits inferred from their indispensability to science, since we’ve always had them. This left me wondering whether numbers are objects of Russellian acquaintance, or accessible by analysis, being implied by known general principles about how to reason correctly, or both. To answer this question, I discuss some recent (and not so recent) work on our concepts of number and of particular numbers, by leading psychologists and philosophers. Special attention is paid to Kripke’s theory that numbers possess structural features of the numerical systems that stand for them ...


Wabi-Sabi Mathematics, Jean-Francois Maheux 2016 Université du Québec à Montréal

Wabi-Sabi Mathematics, Jean-Francois Maheux

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

Mathematics and aesthetics have a long history in common. In this relation however, the aesthetic dimension of mathematics largely refers to concepts such as purity, absoluteness, symmetry, and so on. In stark contrast to such a nexus of ideas, the Japanese aesthetic of wabi-sabi values imperfections, temporality, incompleteness, earthly crudeness, and even contradiction. In this paper, I discuss the possibilities of “wabi-sabi mathematics” by showing (1) how wabi-sabi mathematics is conceivable; (2) how wabi-sabi mathematics is observable; and (3) why we should bother about wabi-sabi mathematics


Explanatory Proofs And Beautiful Proofs, Marc Lange 2016 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Explanatory Proofs And Beautiful Proofs, Marc Lange

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

This paper concerns the relation between a proof’s beauty and its explanatory power – that is, its capacity to go beyond proving a given theorem to explaining why that theorem holds. Explanatory power and beauty are among the many virtues that mathematicians value and seek in various proofs, and it is important to come to a better understanding of the relations among these virtues. Mathematical practice has long recognized that certain proofs but not others have explanatory power, and this paper offers an account of what makes a proof explanatory. This account is motivated by a wide range of examples ...


Theorem Proving In Lean, Jeremy Avigad, Leonardo de Moura, Soonho Kong 2016 Carnegie Mellon University

Theorem Proving In Lean, Jeremy Avigad, Leonardo De Moura, Soonho Kong

Department of Philosophy

Formal verification involves the use of logical and computational methods to establish claims that are expressed in precise mathematical terms. These can include ordinary mathematical theorems, as well as claims that pieces of hardware or software, network protocols, and mechanical and hybrid systems meet their specifications. In practice, there is not a sharp distinction between verifying a piece of mathematics and verifying the correctness of a system: formal verification requires describing hardware and software systems in mathematical terms, at which point establishing claims as to their correctness becomes a form of theorem proving. Conversely, the proof of a mathematical theorem ...


What Do We Mean By Logical Consequence?, Jesse Endo Jenks 2016 University of Puget Sound

What Do We Mean By Logical Consequence?, Jesse Endo Jenks

Summer Research

In the beginning of the 20th century, many prominent logicians and mathematicians, such as Frege, Russell, Hilbert, and many others, felt that mathematics needed a very rigorous foundation in logic. Many results of the time were motivated by questions about logical truth and logical consequence. The standard approach in the early part of the 20th century was to use a syntactic or proof-theoretic definition of logical consequence. This says that "for one sentence to be a logical consequence of [a set of premises] is simply for that sentence to be derivable from [them] by means of some standard system of ...


The Philosophy Of Mathematics: A Study Of Indispensability And Inconsistency, Hannah C. Thornhill 2016 Scripps College

The Philosophy Of Mathematics: A Study Of Indispensability And Inconsistency, Hannah C. Thornhill

Scripps Senior Theses

This thesis examines possible philosophies to account for the practice of mathematics, exploring the metaphysical, ontological, and epistemological outcomes of each possible theory. Through a study of the two most probable ideas, mathematical platonism and fictionalism, I focus on the compelling argument for platonism given by an appeal to the sciences. The Indispensability Argument establishes the power of explanation seen in the relationship between mathematics and empirical science. Cases of this explanatory power illustrate how we might have reason to believe in the existence of mathematical entities present within our best scientific theories. The second half of this discussion surveys ...


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