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Frontiers Of Conditional Logic, Yale Weiss 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Frontiers Of Conditional Logic, Yale Weiss

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Conditional logics were originally developed for the purpose of modeling intuitively correct modes of reasoning involving conditional—especially counterfactual—expressions in natural language. While the debate over the logic of conditionals is as old as propositional logic, it was the development of worlds semantics for modal logic in the past century that catalyzed the rapid maturation of the field. Moreover, like modal logic, conditional logic has subsequently found a wide array of uses, from the traditional (e.g. counterfactuals) to the exotic (e.g. conditional obligation). Despite the close connections between conditional and modal logic, both the technical development and ...


Rampant Non-Factualism: A Metaphysical Framework And Its Treatment Of Vagueness, Alexander Jackson 2018 Boise State University

Rampant Non-Factualism: A Metaphysical Framework And Its Treatment Of Vagueness, Alexander Jackson

Alexander Jackson

Rampant non-factualism is the view that all non-fundamental matters are non-factual, in a sense inspired by Kit Fine (2001). The first half of this paper argues that if we take non-factualism seriously for any matters, such as morality, then we should take rampant non-factualism seriously. The second half of the paper argues that rampant non-factualism makes possible an attractive theory of vagueness. We can give non-factualist accounts of non-fundamental matters that nicely characterize the vagueness they manifest (if any). I suggest that such non-factualist theories dissolve philosophical puzzlement about vagueness. In particular, the approach implies that philosophers should not try ...


Computing, Modelling, And Scientific Practice: Foundational Analyses And Limitations, Filippos A. Papagiannopoulos 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Computing, Modelling, And Scientific Practice: Foundational Analyses And Limitations, Filippos A. Papagiannopoulos

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation examines aspects of the interplay between computing and scientific practice. The appropriate foundational framework for such an endeavour is rather real computability than the classical computability theory. This is so because physical sciences, engineering, and applied mathematics mostly employ functions defined in continuous domains. But, contrary to the case of computation over natural numbers, there is no universally accepted framework for real computation; rather, there are two incompatible approaches --computable analysis and BSS model--, both claiming to formalise algorithmic computation and to offer foundations for scientific computing.

The dissertation consists of three parts. In the first part, we ...


The Logical Fallacies In Political Discourse, Zilin Cidre Zhou 2018 College of the Holy Cross

The Logical Fallacies In Political Discourse, Zilin Cidre Zhou

Summer Research Program

I examined the use of logical fallacies in political discourse. Logical fallacies are fraudulent tricks people use in their argument to make it sound more credible while what they really do is to fool the audience. Out of more than 300 kinds of fallacies, I focused on 18 common ones by analyzing their use in debates about political issues. During conducting my research, I noted that being aware of my mental state is very important if I want to accurately detect the fallacies. Furthermore, while watching two sides debating, being impartial is as significant as staying calm. I also need ...


Dialetheism, Paradox, And Nāgārjuna’S Way Of Thinking, Richard H. JONES 2018 independent scholar

Dialetheism, Paradox, And Nāgārjuna’S Way Of Thinking, Richard H. Jones

Comparative Philosophy

Nāgārjuna’s doctrine of emptiness, his ideas on “two truths” and language, and his general method of arguing are presented clearly by him and can be stated without paradox. That the dialetheists today can restate his beliefs in paradoxical ways does not mean that Nāgārjuna argued that way; in fact, their restatements misrepresent and undercut his arguments.


Second-Order Know-How Strategies, Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao 2018 Lafayette College

Second-Order Know-How Strategies, Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao

Faculty Research and Reports

The fact that a coalition has a strategy does not mean that the coalition knows what the strategy is. If the coalition knows the strategy, then such a strategy is called a know-how strategy of the coalition. The paper proposes the notion of a second-order know-how strategy for the case when one coalition knows what the strategy of another coalition is. The main technical result is a sound and complete logical system describing the interplay between the distributed knowledge modality and the second-order coalition know-how modality.


Flag-Waving: Visual Arguments, Verbal Reconstruction, And Speaker Intentions, Brian Larson 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Flag-Waving: Visual Arguments, Verbal Reconstruction, And Speaker Intentions, Brian Larson

Brian Larson

This study extends previous work in visual argumentation by studying speakers’ own verbal reconstructions of their visual communicative acts. The researcher interviewed 70 persons wearing or carrying American flags at the Republican and Democratic National Conventions in Cleveland and Philadelphia in July 2016, to determine whether “speakers” make arguments by wearing or carrying it. For more than 20 years, theorists have debated whether it is meaningful to speak of "visual arguments," whether they can be purely visual, non-verbal communication, and whether and how they can be reconstructed in the form of the conclusion-support structure of an argument. This analysis provides ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Non-Naturalism And Naturalism In Mathematics, Morality, And Epistemology, Nicholas DiStefano 2018 Bowdoin College

Non-Naturalism And Naturalism In Mathematics, Morality, And Epistemology, Nicholas Distefano

Honors Projects

No abstract provided.


Classical Logic, Stewart Shapiro, Teresa Kouri Kissel 2018 Old Dominion University

Classical Logic, Stewart Shapiro, Teresa Kouri Kissel

Philosophy Faculty Publications

[From introductory section]

Typically, a logic consists of a formal or informal language together with a deductive system and/or a model-theoretic semantics. The language has components that correspond to a part of a natural language like English or Greek. The deductive system is to capture, codify, or simply record arguments that are valid for the given language, and the semantics is to capture, codify, or record the meanings, or truth-conditions for at least part of the language.

The following sections provide the basics of a typical logic, sometimes called “classical elementary logic” or “classical first-order logic”....


Information Flow Under Budget Constraints, Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao 2018 Lafayette College

Information Flow Under Budget Constraints, Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao

Faculty Research and Reports

Although first proposed in the database theory as properties of functional dependencies between attributes, Armstrong's axioms capture general principles of information flow by describing properties of dependencies between sets of pieces of information. This article generalizes Armstrong's axioms to a setting in which there is a cost associated with information. The proposed logical system captures general principles of dependencies between pieces of information constrained by a given budget.


Strategic Coalitions With Perfect Recall, Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao 2018 Lafayette College

Strategic Coalitions With Perfect Recall, Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao

Faculty Research and Reports

The paper proposes a bimodal logic that describes an interplay between distributed knowledge modality and coalition know-how modality. Unlike other similar systems, the one proposed here assumes perfect recall by all agents. Perfect recall is captured in the system by a single axiom. The main technical results are the soundness and the completeness theorems for the proposed logical system.


Everyone Knows That Someone Knows: Quantifiers Over Epistemic Agents, Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao 2018 Vassar College

Everyone Knows That Someone Knows: Quantifiers Over Epistemic Agents, Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao

Faculty Research and Reports

Modal logic S5 is commonly viewed as an epistemic logic that captures the most basic properties of knowledge. Kripke proved a completeness theorem for the first-order modal logic S5 with respect to a possible worlds semantics. A multiagent version of the propositional S5 as well as a version of the propositional S5 that describes properties of distributed knowledge in multiagent systems has also been previously studied. This article proposes a version of S5-like epistemic logic of distributed knowledge with quantifiers ranging over the set of agents, and proves its soundness and completeness with respect to a Kripke semantics.


The Logic Of Internal Relations, Jake S. Cardillo 2018 Bard College

The Logic Of Internal Relations, Jake S. Cardillo

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


Fictionalism, Semantics, And Ontology, Gordon Purves 2018 Sacred Heart University

Fictionalism, Semantics, And Ontology, Gordon Purves

Philosophy, Theology and Religious Studies Faculty Publications

This article expands upon the argument of a previous work which defended a variational account of scientific fictions. Specifically, I show that this understanding of scientific fictions can provide guidance for realist interpretations of scientific theories and models. Depending on a model's variational properties, different ontological commitments are appropriate, providing a principled way for a realist to moderate her views according to the structural properties of a given model. This reasoning is then applied the Lee-Yang theory and Kubo-Martin-Schwinger statistics, two foundational models in quantum statistical mechanics. The Lee-Yang theory is analyzed in a way that permits a robust ...


Quantification And Paradox, Edward Ferrier 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Quantification And Paradox, Edward Ferrier

Doctoral Dissertations

I argue that absolutism, the view that absolutely unrestricted quantification is possible, is to blame for both the paradoxes that arise in naive set theory and variants of these paradoxes that arise in plural logic and in semantics. The solution is restrictivism, the view that absolutely unrestricted quantification is not possible.

It is generally thought that absolutism is true and that restrictivism is not only false, but inexpressible. As a result, the paradoxes are blamed, not on illicit quantification, but on the ``logical'' conception of set which motivates naive set theory. The accepted solution is to replace this with the ...


Forall X: Introduction To Formal Logic, Version 1.40, P.D. Magnus 2017 University at Albany, State University of New York

Forall X: Introduction To Formal Logic, Version 1.40, P.D. Magnus

Philosophy Faculty Books

In formal logic, sentences and arguments in English are translated into mathematical languages with well-defined properties. If all goes well, properties of the argument that were hard to discern become clearer. This book covers translation, formal semantics, and proof theory for both sentential logic and quantified logic. Each chapter contains practice exercises; solutions to selected exercises appear in an appendix


A Note On Ta Eσχata Eiδη At 644a23 In Aristotle’S Part. An. 1.4, Errol G. Katayama 2017 Ohio Northern University

A Note On Ta Eσχata Eiδη At 644a23 In Aristotle’S Part. An. 1.4, Errol G. Katayama

Philosophy and Religion Faculty Scholarship

Is Aristotle committed, as a theoretical matter, to fixed species in biology? The answer seems to be a resounding no, if we were to infer his theoretical commitments from the actual practice found in his biological works. The answer, however, is far from clear, if we turn to the ‘philosophical discussion of biology’ found in Book 1 of Parts of Animals. In fact, I shall note that its context suggests that, contrary to some recent interpretations put forward, the phrase τὰ ἔσχατα εἴδη at 644a23 is best translated and understood as ‘infima species’, and that such a reading implies that ...


The Feferman-Vaught Theorem, Mostafa Mirabi 2017 Wesleyan University

The Feferman-Vaught Theorem, Mostafa Mirabi

Mostafa Mirabi

This paper aims to provide an exposition of the Feferman-Vaught theorem, closely following the presentation in Hodges [1] and Chang-Keisler [2].


In Memoriam: Richard Lane Tieszen (1951-2017), 2017 San Jose State University

In Memoriam: Richard Lane Tieszen (1951-2017)

Comparative Philosophy

No abstract provided.


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