Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Philosophy of Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

820 Full-Text Articles 429 Authors 158473 Downloads 92 Institutions

All Articles in Philosophy of Science

Faceted Search

820 full-text articles. Page 1 of 23.

Revolution In Ideology: Crafting A Holistic Scientific Dialectic, Nathan Neill 2017 Abilene Christian University

Revolution In Ideology: Crafting A Holistic Scientific Dialectic, Nathan Neill

Dialogue & Nexus

Ideology drives scientific research far more than is acknowledged. Since science itself is conducted by individuals, each scientist has a biased conception of themselves and their surroundings relative to the rest of the universe, even if it is never explicated. This sense of relation to the greater universe is what defines the ideology of the individual. It is this sense of relation and self that creates the individual, who goes on to investigate the natural world by the scientific method. In this paper I will examine extant scientific ideology, particularly in Western science, and propose changes that could be helpful.


False Pretexts Of Altruism And The Truth About Cooperation, Selvin Villeda 2017 Abilene Christian University

False Pretexts Of Altruism And The Truth About Cooperation, Selvin Villeda

Dialogue & Nexus

Without deeper analysis, altruism seems to be alive and present in our world today. However, most of what is called altruism is really mere cooperation. True altruism cannot be achieved unless you directly give up your life without receiving any benefit. Only by analyzing such acts and exploring the true motives of these acts, can we see that 1) biological influences (such as genetic relatedness) and 2) social components stemming from reciprocity are what determine these cooperative actions. We cooperate together for greater overall fitness of society. Through cooperation we can have a striving community that can grow together. Ultimately ...


Volume 3 Editorial, Daniel Brannan 2017 Abilene Christian University

Volume 3 Editorial, Daniel Brannan

Dialogue & Nexus

No abstract provided.


Knowing How: A Computational Approach, Joseph A. Roman 2017 Gettysburg College

Knowing How: A Computational Approach, Joseph A. Roman

Student Publications

With advances in Artificial Intelligences being achieved through the use of Artificial Neural Networks, we are now at the point where computers are able to do tasks that were previously only able to be accomplished by humans. These advancements must cause us to reconsider our previous understanding of how people come to know how to do a particular task. In order to unpack this question, I will first look to an account of knowing how presented by Jason Stanley in his book Know How. I will then look towards criticisms of this view before using evidence presented by the existence ...


A Bite Of Technology – How Technologies Have Made Our Food “Transformers", Huanjia Zhang 2017 Gettysburg College

A Bite Of Technology – How Technologies Have Made Our Food “Transformers", Huanjia Zhang

Student Publications

This poster discusses one important metaphysical question concerning food and food technologies – that is, how technologies have gradually alienated food from its natural rooting and what are the consequent philosophical concerns behind that. In order to examine this question, this poster will discuss four key sources that each exemplifies a well-known, currently ongoing technology on different levels that has altered the natural properties of food and the controversy concerning such technology.


Mismeasuring Humanity: Dangers Of "The Contemporary Orthodoxy", Vincent M. Smiles 2017 College of St. Benedict & St. John's University

Mismeasuring Humanity: Dangers Of "The Contemporary Orthodoxy", Vincent M. Smiles

Headwaters

The various unjust discriminations (racism, sexism, xenophobia, etc.) that plague society are tied to the larger question of how human lives and minds are regarded in society as a whole. Humans have always had a problem of mismeasuring the “other,” but this problem is compounded by promotion, from powerful voices, of the view that humans are just so much physics and chemistry, that the mind is the brain, and that humans are deluded about the power of consciousness and freedom. Daniel Dennett refers to the latter as “the contemporary orthodoxy,” as though it is the view of humanity that all ...


How To Solve Hume’S Problem Of Induction, Alexander Jackson 2017 Boise State University

How To Solve Hume’S Problem Of Induction, Alexander Jackson

Alexander Jackson

This paper explains what’s wrong with a Hume-inspired argument for skepticism about induction. Hume’s argument takes as a premise that inductive reasoning presupposes that the future will resemble the past. I explain why that claim is not plausible. The most plausible premise in the vicinity is that inductive reasoning from E to H presupposes that if E then H. I formulate and then refute a skeptical argument based on that premise. Central to my response is a psychological explanation for how people judge that if E then H without realizing that they thereby settled the matter rationally.


Editor's Words, 2017 San Jose State University

Editor's Words

Comparative Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Vol 8 No 1 Contents Page, 2017 San Jose State University

Vol 8 No 1 Contents Page

Comparative Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Vol 8 No 1 Information Page, 2017 San Jose State University

Vol 8 No 1 Information Page

Comparative Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Vol 8 No 1 Cover Page, 2017 San Jose State University

Vol 8 No 1 Cover Page

Comparative Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Complexity As A Narrative, Giacomo Pala 2017 Universitat Innsbruck

Complexity As A Narrative, Giacomo Pala

Journal of Applied Sciences and Arts

In this paper an attempt is made to discuss how the computer has imposed new conventions to architecture over the last thirty years. The paper’s aim is to discuss how the introduction of digital media has forced architecture to find ways to deal with new technologies and to develop new disciplinary meanings. First, the paper addresses the question of complexity and chaos in the postmodern discussion by the reading of Lyotard’s theories. Therefore, the essay pinpoints attempts of developing new conceptions of “complexity” in architecture derived from the post-modern sciences of indetermination. Interengsly enough, this was doable because ...


The Contending Claims Of Modern Science And Morality Rousseau's Anti-Enlightenment Argument In Contemporary Context, Laura M. Pfalzer 2017 Morehead State University

The Contending Claims Of Modern Science And Morality Rousseau's Anti-Enlightenment Argument In Contemporary Context, Laura M. Pfalzer

Theses and Dissertations

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Caudill College of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences at Morehead State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Master of Arts by Laura M. Pfalzer January 2, 2017.


The Question Of Fiction – Nonexistent Objects, A Possible World Response From Paul Ricoeur, Noel Fitzpatrick 2017 Dublin Institute of Technology

The Question Of Fiction – Nonexistent Objects, A Possible World Response From Paul Ricoeur, Noel Fitzpatrick

Articles

The question of fiction is omnipresent within the work of Paul Ricoeur throughout his prolific career. However, Ricoeur raises the questions of fiction in relation to other issues such the symbol, metaphor and narrative. This article sets out to foreground a traditional problem of fiction and logic, which is termed the existence of non-existent objects, in relation to the Paul Ricoeur’s work on narrative. Ricoeur’s understanding of fiction takes place within his overall philosophical anthropology where the fictions and histories make up the very nature of identity both personal and collective. The existence of non-existent objects demonstrates a ...


Law Without Absolutes: Toward A Pragmatic Science Of Law, JD Hsin 2017 Harvard Law School

Law Without Absolutes: Toward A Pragmatic Science Of Law, Jd Hsin

Washington University Jurisprudence Review

Although today the very idea of a science of law—the thought that law could be made a science like any other taught and studied at a modern university—has the ring of an oxymoron, this piece argues that the rejection of legal science was not only overhasty but unnecessary. There is a sense in which we can see law as a science, it argues, but only once we come to see more clearly and accurately just why the tradition of legal science begun in the earliest days of the Western legal tradition and brought to America by Christopher Columbus ...


Darwinian Evolutionary Theory And Constructions Of Race In Nazi Germany: A Literary And Cultural Analysis Of Darwin’S Works And Nazi Rhetoric, Emily M. Wollmuth 2017 Hamline University

Darwinian Evolutionary Theory And Constructions Of Race In Nazi Germany: A Literary And Cultural Analysis Of Darwin’S Works And Nazi Rhetoric, Emily M. Wollmuth

Departmental Honors Projects

First published in 1856, Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species is one of the most impactful scientific writings in history. While the influence of Darwinian evolutionary theory on historical events has been widely studied, no single work of scholarship has previously combined close reading of Origin’s representations of “race” with analysis of how those constructions of “racial” difference are (mis)translated across the cultural discourses of the eugenics movement and Nazi Germany. Through comparative cultural studies and close literary analysis of Hitler’s Mein Kampf and Darwin’s works—including Origin, Descent of Man, and Voyage of the Beagle ...


Flocks, Swarms, Crowds, And Societies: On The Scope And Limits Of Cognition, Zachariah A. Neemeh 2017 University of Central Florida

Flocks, Swarms, Crowds, And Societies: On The Scope And Limits Of Cognition, Zachariah A. Neemeh

Honors in the Major Theses

Traditionally, the concept of cognition has been tied to the brain or the nervous system. Recent work in various noncomputational cognitive sciences has enlarged the category of “cognitive phenomena” to include the organism and its environment, distributed cognition across networks of actors, and basic cellular functions. The meaning, scope, and limits of ‘cognition’ are no longer clear or well-defined. In order to properly delimit the purview of the cognitive sciences, there is a strong need for a clarification of the definition of cognition. This paper will consider the outer bounds of that definition. Not all cognitive behaviors of a given ...


Interpellating Mary Shelley Into Her Writing, Alexandra Doxas, Fiona Doxas 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Interpellating Mary Shelley Into Her Writing, Alexandra Doxas, Fiona Doxas

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this thesis I will argue that Mary Shelley’s works form a dialogue with those of her contemporaries and predecessors within the Romantic Movement that criticizes social constructions of gender as well as the narcissistic convictions first, that one can delve into nature and truly access its sublime secrets, and second, that one can then exert the right to harvest what they believe they have found for their own aggrandizement. I will show that the foundations of Six Weeks’ Tour, Frankenstein, and Matilda are predicated on a series of paradigms: first, the aesthetic categories of the sublime and picturesque ...


Rationality, Parapsychology, And Artificial Intelligence In Military And Intelligence Research By The United States Government In The Cold War, Guy M. LoMeo 2016 CUNY Hunter College

Rationality, Parapsychology, And Artificial Intelligence In Military And Intelligence Research By The United States Government In The Cold War, Guy M. Lomeo

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

A study analyzing the roles of rationality, parapsychology, and artificial intelligence in military and intelligence research by the United States Government in the Cold War. An examination of the methodology behind the decisions to pursue research in two fields that were initially considered irrational.


Galileo's Reconciliation Of Mathematics And The Investigation Of Nature, Garret Meier 2016 Iowa State University

Galileo's Reconciliation Of Mathematics And The Investigation Of Nature, Garret Meier

Honors Projects and Posters

Modern science uses mathematics to describe nature. However, in the early modern period (roughly, the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries), natural philosophers rarely used mathematics to gain knowledge about nature because of two problems. The Ontological Problem is that mathematics seems inappropriate for gaining knowledge of nature because nature does not seem to exhibit essential mathematical properties. The Practical Problem is that, even if nature does have mathematical properties, mathematical calculations give predictions that do not exactly match what we observe, making them inappropriate for gaining knowledge of nature. Galileo, in the Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems and the ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress