Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Philosophy of Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

903 Full-Text Articles 495 Authors 194,621 Downloads 105 Institutions

All Articles in Philosophy of Science

Faceted Search

903 full-text articles. Page 1 of 25.

Paradigms And Paleoartists: How Our Perception Of Dinosaurs Forms, Jordan C. Oldham 2018 Cedarville University

Paradigms And Paleoartists: How Our Perception Of Dinosaurs Forms, Jordan C. Oldham

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Thomas Kuhn in his famous work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions put forth his idea about how science changes. Kuhn thought that science changed by scientific revolutions brought on by an anomaly. After the anomaly, a crisis point would ensue as more scientists would research the anomaly. While in the process of research they would abandon the old paradigm in favor of one that would explain the anomaly. Not all anomalies create a crisis, but can rather result in a paradigm shift. These shifts occur within the old paradigm, and do not led to the formation of a new paradigm ...


Evolution, Naturalism, And Theism: An Inconsistent Triad?, David H. Gordon 2018 Marquette University

Evolution, Naturalism, And Theism: An Inconsistent Triad?, David H. Gordon

Dissertations (2009 -)

Philosophy in the 19th century experienced a ‘turn from idealism,’ when idealist philosophies were largely abandoned for materialist ones. Scientific naturalism is now considered by many analytic philosophers to be the new orthodoxy, largely in part due to the success of the scientific method. The New Atheists, such as Daniel Dennett and Richard Dawkins, claim it is Darwin in particular who deserves much of the credit for repudiating the traditional Mind-first world view. Some, like Alvin Plantinga and Michael Behe, maintain the opposite, that evolution casts doubt on naturalism and supports theism. This dissertation seeks to determine just what exactly ...


Panel Ii. Epistemic Privilege, Standpoint Epistemology, And The Human Sciences, Kai Peattie 2018 University of Redlands

Panel Ii. Epistemic Privilege, Standpoint Epistemology, And The Human Sciences, Kai Peattie

the Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies Student Conference

No abstract provided.


Footnotes To Footnotes: Whitehead's Plato, Nathan Oglesby 2018 The Graduate Center, CUNY

Footnotes To Footnotes: Whitehead's Plato, Nathan Oglesby

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation examines the presence of Plato in the philosophical expressions of Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947). It was Whitehead who issued the well-known remark that “the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists in a series of footnotes to Plato" -- the purpose of this project is to examine the manner in which Whitehead positioned himself as one such footnote, with respect to his thought itself, and its origins, presentation and reception.

This examination involves: first, an explication of Whitehead’s cosmology and metaphysics and their ostensibly Platonic elements (consisting chiefly in the Timaeus); second, investigation ...


How To Solve Hume’S Problem Of Induction, Alexander Jackson 2018 Boise State University

How To Solve Hume’S Problem Of Induction, Alexander Jackson

Alexander Jackson

This paper explains what’s wrong with a Hume-inspired argument for skepticism about induction. Hume’s argument takes as a premise that inductive reasoning presupposes that the future will resemble the past. I explain why that claim is not plausible. The most plausible premise in the vicinity is that inductive reasoning from E to H presupposes that if E then H. I formulate and then refute a skeptical argument based on that premise. Central to my response is a psychological explanation for how people judge that if E then H without realizing that they thereby settled the matter rationally.


Mathematicians Versus Philosophers In Recent Work On Mathematical Beauty, Viktor Blåsjö 2018 Utrecht University

Mathematicians Versus Philosophers In Recent Work On Mathematical Beauty, Viktor Blåsjö

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

Recent attempts at defining mathematical beauty fall roughly into two schools of thought. One takes its starting point in the subjective experience of the mathematician and characterises mathematical beauty in cognitive terms. The other seeks to reduce beauty to objective notions such as truth, symmetry, or simplicity. This second approach is popular among analytic philosophers, who are committed to seeing mathematics and science as prototypically rational enterprises. I criticise this stance on the grounds that this commitment makes its supporters approach beauty in mathematics not with a genuine desire to sympathetically understand it, but with the preconceived goal of explaining ...


Moral Authority In Scientific Research, Evelyn Sowers 2018 Carroll College, Helena, MT

Moral Authority In Scientific Research, Evelyn Sowers

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

This paper addresses the issue of applying moral limitations to modern scientific research and who or what has the authority to do so. It examines two opposing positions on the issue: (1) that moral authority over scientific research should be held by society and (2) that moral authority over scientific research should be held by the scientific community. This argument centers around the nature of societal and scientific morality, and how allowing either to hold authority would affect the progression of research. Overall, it concludes that moral authority over scientific research must come from within the scientific community.


Caterpillar/Basil-Plant Tandems, Paco Calvo 2018 University of Murcia

Caterpillar/Basil-Plant Tandems, Paco Calvo

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

According to Reber (2016), subjectivity springs from primitive life itself. Granting his non-neurocentric stance, I shall try to show that his framework falls prey to zoocentric preconceptions that divest certain non-animal life-forms of mentality. There is no reason to exclude the possibility that plants have evolved different structures that underlie their own subjective experiences, all according to Reber’s model. It is the degree of phenotypic flexibility and integration that we observe in the behavioral repertoire of plants that may end up supporting their capacity for subjective experience. This remains an open empirical question.


Animals & Ethics 101: Thinking Critically About Animal Rights, Nathan Nobis 2018 Morehouse College

Animals & Ethics 101: Thinking Critically About Animal Rights, Nathan Nobis

Morehouse Faculty Publications

This book provides an overview of the current debates about the nature and extent of our moral obligations to animals. Which, if any, uses of animals are morally wrong, which are morally permissible (i.e., not wrong) and why? What, if any, moral obligations do we, individually and as a society (and a global community), have towards animals and why? How should animals be treated? Why?

We will explore the most influential and most developed answers to these questions – given by philosophers, scientists, and animal advocates and their critics – to try to determine which positions are supported by the best ...


Animal Suicide: An Account Worth Giving?, Irina Mikhalevich 2018 Rochester Institute of Technology

Animal Suicide: An Account Worth Giving?, Irina Mikhalevich

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Peña-Guzmán (2017) argues that empirical evidence and evolutionary theory compel us to treat the phenomenon of suicide as continuous in the animal kingdom. He defends a “continuist” account in which suicide is a multiply-realizable phenomenon characterized by self-injurious and self-annihilative behaviors. This view is problematic for several reasons. First, it appears to mischaracterize the Darwinian view that mind is continuous in nature. Second, by focusing only on surface-level features of behavior, it groups causally and etiologically disparate phenomena under a single conceptual umbrella, thereby reducing the account’s explanatory power. Third, it obscures existing analyses of suicide in biomedical ethics ...


Lessons From Brave New World, Rachel Moore 2017 Lynchburg College

Lessons From Brave New World, Rachel Moore

Agora

No abstract provided.


Hermeneutic Philosophies Of Social Science: Introduction, Babette Babich 2017 Fordham University

Hermeneutic Philosophies Of Social Science: Introduction, Babette Babich

Articles and Chapters in Academic Book Collections

No abstract provided.


Hermeneutics And Its Discontents In Philosophy Of Science: On Bruno Latour, The “Science Wars”, Mockery, And Immortal Models, Babette Babich 2017 Fordham University

Hermeneutics And Its Discontents In Philosophy Of Science: On Bruno Latour, The “Science Wars”, Mockery, And Immortal Models, Babette Babich

Articles and Chapters in Academic Book Collections

Themes discussed include a hermeneutic of hermeneutic philosophy of science, along with the hegemony of analytic style in university philosophy in the US and Europe as well as the rhetoric of power, highlighting the politics of mockery using the example of Alan Sokal’s hoax as this sought to exclude other voices in the academy, especially philosophy of science. In addition to reviewing Sokal’s attack on Bruno Latour, Latour’s own “biography” of an investigation is read as articulating a doubled hermeneutic reflection on modernity including both field ethnography and lab-ethnography. The further question of the viability of a ...


The Possibility Of An Afterlife As Examined Through Near-Death Experiences, Anastasia N. Semenov 2017 Gettysburg College

The Possibility Of An Afterlife As Examined Through Near-Death Experiences, Anastasia N. Semenov

Student Publications

Approximately five percent of the world’s population has dealt with a near-death experience, which is the unusual phenomenon after temporarily dying or coming close to death, where people feel like they have left their body and see an afterlife. Millions of accounts from people around the world who have experienced this occurrence tell of seeing an afterlife, which should allow for the possibility of a life after death. Although peoples’ experiences in another realm differ, they all have similar features such as travelling in a fast tunnel and encountering loving light beings. These experiences are so intense that they ...


Scientifically Responsible Metaphysics: A Program For The Naturalization Of Metaphysics, Amanda Bryant 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Scientifically Responsible Metaphysics: A Program For The Naturalization Of Metaphysics, Amanda Bryant

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

There has been much recent work calling for the naturalization of metaphysics, including most famously James Ladyman and Don Ross’ polemic, Every Thing Must Go. But much work remains to adequately articulate and motivate the call to naturalize metaphysics. My dissertation contributes to that work. Its central questions are: What relationship should metaphysics have to current science? Must good metaphysics be responsive to current science, and if so, how? Why should metaphysics be naturalized and what should its naturalization consist in?

I argue, first, that for that for epistemic purposes, as opposed to heuristic or pragmatic purposes, theories should be ...


Syntax And Semantics Of Perceptual Representation, James K. Quilty-Dunn 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Syntax And Semantics Of Perceptual Representation, James K. Quilty-Dunn

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a defense of perceptual pluralism, the thesis that perceptual systems deliver multiple types of representations including those used in thought. In particular, it argues that perceptual systems output iconic (i.e., image-like, analog) representations as well as discursive (i.e., language-like, digital) states. A central thesis is that perceptual representations of objects are propositional and composed of concepts. It also develops a compositional syntax of iconic representation called the coordination model, according to which icons are sets of primitive parts, each of which determines values along multiple analog feature dimensions simultaneously. The dissertation supports the conclusion that ...


Late Pragmatism, Logical Positivism, And Their Aftermath, David Ingram 2017 Loyola University Chicago

Late Pragmatism, Logical Positivism, And Their Aftermath, David Ingram

David Ingram

Developments in Anglo-American philosophy during the first half of the 20th Century closely tracked developments that were occurring in continental philosophy during this period. This should not surprise us. Aside from the fertile communication between these ostensibly separate traditions, both were responding to problems associated with the rise of mass society. Rabid nationalism, corporate statism, and totalitarianism (Left and Right) posed a profound challenge to the idealistic rationalism of neo-Kantian and neo-Hegelian philosophies. The decline of the individual – classically conceived by the 18th-century Enlightenment as a self-determining agent – provoked strong reactions. While some philosophical tendencies sought to re-conceive the relationship ...


Meaning Through Things, Marilynn Johnson 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Meaning Through Things, Marilynn Johnson

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interpretation is the process by which we find meaning in the things in the world around us: clouds on the horizon, bones, street signs, hairbrushes, uniforms, paintings, letters, and utterances. But where does that meaning come from and on what basis are we justified in saying a particular meaning is the right meaning? Drawing from debates in the philosophy of language, I argue that a complete theory of meaning and interpretation must be grounded in intentions. My argument employs research in the philosophy of language, aesthetics, linguistics, and cognitive science to develop a general framework of interpretation. This framework is ...


Introduction To The Special Topic Section: The Taylor-Hartelius Debate On Psychology And Spirituality, Brian Les Lancaster, Harris L. Friedman 2017 Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK

Introduction To The Special Topic Section: The Taylor-Hartelius Debate On Psychology And Spirituality, Brian Les Lancaster, Harris L. Friedman

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

NA


The Return Of Perennial Perspectives? Why Transpersonal Psychology Should Remain Open To Essentialism, Steve Taylor 2017 Leeds Beckett University Leeds, UK

The Return Of Perennial Perspectives? Why Transpersonal Psychology Should Remain Open To Essentialism, Steve Taylor

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

In reply to Hartelius’s (2016) response to my paper “From Philosophy to Phenomenology: The Argument for a ‘Soft’ Perennialism” (Taylor, 2016a), I provide arguments in support of my model from contemporary scholars of mysticism, who advocate a move from a philosophically-based perennialism to a phenomenologically-based essentialism. This discussion illustrates that perennialist perspectives are far from outmoded. I discuss the metaphysical aspects of my model, suggesting that there is no reason why transpersonal psychology should not address metaphysical issues, as long as they are secondary to phenomenological issues, and as long as they are based on evidence rather than wholly ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress