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All Articles in Ethics and Political Philosophy

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Humanization Of The Enemy: The Pacifist Soldier And France In World War One, Daniel E. Stockman 2017 Dominican University of California

Humanization Of The Enemy: The Pacifist Soldier And France In World War One, Daniel E. Stockman

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

Not all French citizens were enthused by the prospect of war in 1914, nor were they all so willing to embrace a dehumanized view of the enemy. Some French citizens believed the “Great War” to be a patriotic endeavor. Propaganda encouraged this nationalism and the dehumanization of the enemy. “Political” pacifism existed within the French Third Republic psyche following France’s defeat in the 1870 Franco-Prussian War. However, these pacifistic undertones were systematically undermined as France began to militarize itself. Drawing from a series of notebooks, and established academic sources, this paper shows that some French soldiers endured a world ...


A Normative Account Of Political Representation, Kenneth R. Courtney 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Normative Account Of Political Representation, Kenneth R. Courtney

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The phrase “political obligation” has rarely suggested for theorists what it might for the person in the street, namely, the kinds and magnitudes of obligations held by our political representatives, as opposed to obligations held by citizens. In a related way, despite the existence of widespread expectations of political representatives, a theoretical account of these expectations and their normative import are subjects that have received surprisingly little attention. In what follows I develop an account of obligations and duties specifically belonging to political representatives. I argue that the relevant obligations derive in the first instance not from particular political or ...


Decidedly Uncertain, Sophia I. Varosy 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Decidedly Uncertain, Sophia I. Varosy

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

My capstone project is meant to reflect the ideas I’ve been exposed to and the ways in which they have, as a consequence, influenced my life; the ways, I suppose, I can apply them. Over the course, or courses (literally), of my time spent at The CUNY Graduate Center, I felt (mostly) enthusiastic about the ideas and philosophies I was growing to at-least-marginally understand. However, as time passed I became increasingly more unsettled about my position as an “academic.” In other words, I found that I was moved and motivated to increase my understanding of things, but never did ...


Problem-Based Learning In Engineering Ethics Courses, Robert Kirkman 2017 Georgia Institute of Technology

Problem-Based Learning In Engineering Ethics Courses, Robert Kirkman

Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning

I describe the first stages of a process of design research in which I employ problem-based learning in a course in engineering ethics, which fulfills a requirement for students in engineering degree programs. The aim of the course is to foster development of particular cognitive skills contributing to moral imagination, a capacity to notice, respond to, and think about basic values in open-ended problem situations. In the course, groups of students develop their own problem situations based on their experience and expertise in engineering practice, then respond to those situations through a guided process of inquiry and problem solving designed ...


Human-Nonhuman Chimeras, Ontology, And Dignity: A Constructivist Approach To The Ethics Of Conducting Research On Cross-Species Hybrids, Jonathan M. Vajda 2017 Western Michigan University

Human-Nonhuman Chimeras, Ontology, And Dignity: A Constructivist Approach To The Ethics Of Conducting Research On Cross-Species Hybrids, Jonathan M. Vajda

The Hilltop Review

Developments in biological technology in the last few decades highlight the surprising and ever-expanding practical benefits of stem cells. With this progress, the possibility of combining human and nonhuman organisms is a reality, with ethical boundaries that are not readily obvious. These inter-species hybrids are of a larger class of biological entities called “chimeras.” As the concept of a human-nonhuman creature is conjured in our minds, either incredulous wonder or grotesque horror is likely to follow. This paper seeks to mitigate those worries and demotivate reasonable concerns raised against chimera research, all the while pressing current ethical positions toward their ...


Strict Liability's Criminogenic Effect, Paul H. Robinson 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Strict Liability's Criminogenic Effect, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

It is easy to understand the apparent appeal of strict liability to policymakers and legal reformers seeking to reduce crime: if the criminal law can do away with its traditional culpability requirement, it can increase the likelihood of conviction and punishment of those who engage in prohibited conduct or bring about prohibited harm or evil. And such an increase in punishment rate can enhance the crime-control effectiveness of a system built upon general deterrence or incapacitation of the dangerous. Similar arguments support the use of criminal liability for regulatory offenses. Greater punishment rates suggest greater compliance.

But this analysis fails ...


Assigning Liability In An Autonomous World, Agni Sharma 2017 Claremont McKenna College

Assigning Liability In An Autonomous World, Agni Sharma

CMC Senior Theses

Liability laws currently in use rely on a fault-based system that focuses on a causal connection between driver actions and the resulting road accident. The role of the driver is set to reduce with the emergence of autonomous vehicles, so how will liability adapt to meet the needs of an autonomous world? The paper discusses possible frameworks of liability that could be implemented in the future, and accentuates the importance of the causal aspects of the current framework in the new system.


Comments On Joseph Chan, Confucian Perfectionism, Stephen C. Angle 2016 Wesleyan University

Comments On Joseph Chan, Confucian Perfectionism, Stephen C. Angle

Stephen C. Angle

I approach this encounter with Joseph Chan’s important work on Confucian perfectionism from a fundamentally sympathetic standpoint. Most basically, I agree with two of his key premises. Confucianism is more than a rich historical tradition: it is a live strand of political (and other types of) theory, able to criticize and contribute to our lives today. But for modern Confucianism to be plausible and attractive, it must find a way to embrace the idea of limited government or constitutionalism in a deeper fashion than it did historically. There are many other issues that Joseph covers in his book, and ...


Prehistoric Myths In Modern Political Philosophy, Karl Widerquist, Grant McCall 2016 Tulane University of Louisiana

Prehistoric Myths In Modern Political Philosophy, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall

Karl Widerquist


Why do political philosophers write so much about prehistory but do such little research on it? The state of nature, the origin of property, the genesis of government, and the primordial nature of war and inequality are perennial favourite topics in political philosophy, but their use is often ambiguous. Are these merely illustrative examples? If so, what do they illustrate? If not, what claims to they make about prehistory. Does the best available evidence from the fields of archaeology and anthropology support or conflict with those claims?
 
This book presents an anthropological critique of philosophy, examining political theories to show ...


Appendix To Prehistoric Myths In Modern Political Philosophy, Karl Widerquist, Grant McCall 2016 Tulane University of Louisiana

Appendix To Prehistoric Myths In Modern Political Philosophy, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall

Karl Widerquist


This is an early version of the appendix to the book: Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy.
 
Book abstract: Why do political philosophers write so much about prehistory but do such little research on it? The state of nature, the origin of property, the genesis of government, and the primordial nature of war and inequality are perennial favourite topics in political philosophy, but their use is often ambiguous. Are these merely illustrative examples? If so, what do they illustrate? If not, what claims to they make about prehistory. Does the best available evidence from the fields of archaeology and anthropology ...


Reef Society And The Tyranny Of Data, Robert Wintner 2016 Snorkel Bob's Hawaii

Reef Society And The Tyranny Of Data, Robert Wintner

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Modern science now approaches divergent processes in many areas, including health assessments of marine eco-systems and social aspects of marine species. Scientific data have long enjoyed a reputation for objectivity but incidents of science-for-hire, data spinning/skewing and political jading are more frequent than ever. In the field of reef creature sensitivity, technical treatises can “logically” explain away what a person of average education can clearly observe on any given reef. Western medicine discounted anecdotal evidence of any cure outside the 4% margin of error until those cures demanded attention and in some cases application. Modern science must now enter ...


Still Wondering How Flesh Can Feel, Gwen J. Broude 2016 Vassar College

Still Wondering How Flesh Can Feel, Gwen J. Broude

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Reber believes he has simplified Chalmers’s “hard problem” of consciousness by arguing that subjectivity is an inherent feature of biological forms. His argument rests on the related notions of continuity of mind and gradual accretion of capacities across evolutionary time. These notions need to be defended, not just asserted. Because Reber minimizes the differences in mental faculties among species across evolutionary time, it becomes easier to assert, and perhaps believe, that sentience is already present in early biological forms. The more explicit we are about the differences among these mental faculties and the differences across species, the less persuasive ...


The Moral Implications Of Software Piracy, Kyle Hamrick 2016 Olivet Nazarene University

The Moral Implications Of Software Piracy, Kyle Hamrick

Student Scholarship - Computer Science

Computer software is integrated into almost every aspect of our professional and personal lives. Much of this software requires payment for use and is legally protected by the copyright system. This paper examines and analyzes the arguments pertaining to the moral use of protected software (digital piracy). The three arguments presented are the “victimless crime” argument, the “noble justification” argument, and the “willing but unable argument.” These three arguments claim that piracy is morally justified in certain cases, and claim that software providers are not harmed in such situations. The three arguments are tested against counter-arguments, and it is discovered ...


Involving Others: Towards An Ethical Concept Of Risk, Christoph Rehmann-Sutter 2016 University of New Hampshire

Involving Others: Towards An Ethical Concept Of Risk, Christoph Rehmann-Sutter

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Rehman-Sutter argues for a juridical concept of risk as it relates to an ethic of care. He also contrasts his view with traditional economic risk analysis.


Animals Aren’T Persons, But Is It Time For A Neologism?, Helen Steward 2016 University of Leeds

Animals Aren’T Persons, But Is It Time For A Neologism?, Helen Steward

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Mark Rowlands argues that at least some animals are persons, based on the idea that (i) many animals have a property he calls “pre-reflective awareness,” (ii) the capacity for pre-reflective awareness is sufficient to satisfy the traditional Lockean definition of personhood, and (iii) satisfaction of the traditional Lockean definition of personhood is sufficient for being a person. I agree with (i) and can see that there is a persuasive case for (ii), but I think the case against (iii) blocks the conclusion that animals are persons. I suggest that we may need instead to coin a neologism in order to ...


How Some Risk Frameworks Disenfranchise The Public, Kristin Shrader-Frechette 2016 University of New Hampshire

How Some Risk Frameworks Disenfranchise The Public, Kristin Shrader-Frechette

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The author responds to recent characterizations of her work.


The Moral Dilemma In The Social Management Of Risks, Andrew F. Fritzsche 2016 University of New Hampshire

The Moral Dilemma In The Social Management Of Risks, Andrew F. Fritzsche

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Fritzsche offers data seen as demonstrating that irrational fears can lead to grotesque imbalances in social efforts devoted to preventing fatalities.


Reber’S Caterpillar Offers No Help, Carl Safina 2016 Stony Brook University

Reber’S Caterpillar Offers No Help, Carl Safina

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Reber’s target article “Caterpillars, consciousness and the origins of mind” seems only to shift but not to address the question of where the mind is and how minds occur.



The Politics And Philosophy Of Chinese Power: The Timeless And The Timely, R. James Ferguson, Rosita Dellios 2016 Bond University

The Politics And Philosophy Of Chinese Power: The Timeless And The Timely, R. James Ferguson, Rosita Dellios

Rosita Dellios

This book provides a timely analysis of the politics, philosophy, and history of Chinese power, focusing on social, strategic, and diplomatic trends that have shaped China for over three thousand years. Chinese elites have used the past to inform the present, but have also mobilized new ideas to address the country’s rapid transition to global power. China’s intellectual world can draw on a surprisingly pluralist legacy. When Chinese thinkers assess “power,” they bring to bear their classical legacy, the military classics, Chinese socialism, and Western political thought. There are also a number of intriguing formulations that give shape ...


A Dollar A Day: Child Sponsorship And The Marketization Of Human Development, Taylor Hallett 2016 SIT Graduate Institute

A Dollar A Day: Child Sponsorship And The Marketization Of Human Development, Taylor Hallett

Capstone Collection

Child sponsorship as a method of international development offers child sponsors a personal connection to the process of alleviating poverty in the global South. As a form of human development, child sponsorship is constituted by neoliberal principles of marketization and social entrepreneurship. How does child sponsorship, in this context, require us to rethink the ethics of international development in light of ongoing debates about neoliberalism? In this research, I argue that child sponsorship reifies the binary of the “developed” and “undeveloped” worlds. Through undertaking a content analysis of three organizations (Compassion International, World Vision, and UNICEF) and applying post-structural critique ...


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