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The Political Economy Equilibrium Of Environmental And Trade Policies In The U.S., Linda Allen 2021 American Public University System

The Political Economy Equilibrium Of Environmental And Trade Policies In The U.S., Linda Allen

Hatfield Graduate Journal of Public Affairs

The U.S. has incorporated environmental policies into its all free trade agreements since it negotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in the early 1990s. The inclusion of environmental policies represented a major shift in trade policy but the environmental policies have not drastically changed in subsequent trade agreements over the past 25 years despite the continued involvement of environmental constituencies and policymakers. The punctuated equilibrium model provides the analytical framework for understanding the factors that gave rise to the drastic policy shift under NAFTA as well as the subsequent policy stasis, in order to inform future policymaking ...


Evaluating Urban Parks Accessibility And Equity: A Case Study Of Hartford, Ct And New Haven, Ct, Natalie Roach, Mara Tu 2021 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Evaluating Urban Parks Accessibility And Equity: A Case Study Of Hartford, Ct And New Haven, Ct, Natalie Roach, Mara Tu

Honors Scholar Theses

Public parks provide cities with environmental benefits, positive health effects, recreational opportunities, community building, educational spaces, and public amenities. However, certain populations have been systematically denied their fair share of these benefits because of unjust practices in the creation and maintenance of urban parks. With a lens of environmental justice, the goal of this research was to assess park quality and accessibility of two Connecticut cities, Hartford and New Haven, by gathering publicly available information as well as using GIS tools.

The Trust for Public Land (TPL) has an existing ParkScore rating system that evaluates the quality of a city ...


Going Green: A Comparative Analysis Of Green Urbanism In Paris And Shanghai, Jeanne Torp 2021 University of Mississippi

Going Green: A Comparative Analysis Of Green Urbanism In Paris And Shanghai, Jeanne Torp

Honors Theses

As climate change becomes more pressing with each day and as we scramble to slow down the challenges it poses, adapting the means of operation within our cities will become an invaluable tool for reducing humanity’s carbon footprint. This paper seeks to study the ways in which green infrastructure in global cities can be used to do just that—adapting to and mitigating the effects of challenges resulting from climate change. In order to provide a broad overview of the effectiveness of such green infrastructure systems across the globe, this research will focus on two cities that vary greatly ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Energy Policy And Markets In Ohio, Iowa, And Minnesota And Respective Impacts On Renewable Energy Development, Sara Honeck 2021 Bowling Green State University

A Comparative Analysis Of Energy Policy And Markets In Ohio, Iowa, And Minnesota And Respective Impacts On Renewable Energy Development, Sara Honeck

Honors Projects

With the climate crises worsening it is important that governments adopt effective policies to support renewable energy development. This is imperative considering the greenhouse gas emissions that fossil fuels, the conventional energy sources, emit. With a lack of direction from the federal government since the early 2000s, the states have been mostly left to support renewables with their own policy development. Between the three midwestern states of Iowa, Ohio, and Minnesota, Ohio lags far behind in terms of renewable energy growth while Iowa and Minnesota are national leaders. A state such as Ohio has likely seen less growth due to ...


Bears Ears And Outdoor Recreation In San Juan County, Jordan Smith, Emily Wilkins, Anna B. Miller 2021 Utah State University

Bears Ears And Outdoor Recreation In San Juan County, Jordan Smith, Emily Wilkins, Anna B. Miller

All Current Publications

The creation and subsequent downsizing of Bears Ears National Monument has been one of the most publicized and politicized land management decisions within the state over the past decade. However, relatively little research has been conducted to determine if, and to what extent, the creation of the monument impacted outdoor recreation and recreation-related industries. Now, more than three years after the monument was created, there are sufficient data to take a retrospective look at the influence of the monument. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the influence of Bears Ears National Monument on outdoor recreation and its related ...


Can’T Bear It! Employing Culturally Sensitive Initiatives To Reduce Bear Bile Demand In Northern Vietnam, Alicia Ngo, Shannon Randolph 2021 Harvey Mudd College

Can’T Bear It! Employing Culturally Sensitive Initiatives To Reduce Bear Bile Demand In Northern Vietnam, Alicia Ngo, Shannon Randolph

EnviroLab Asia

Over the past 30 years, the combination of over-hunting, habitat loss, and increased bear bile demand has caused significant declines in Asiatic black bear (aka moon bear; Ursus thibetanus) and sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) populations. In Eastern medicine, bear bile is extracted from the gallbladders of bears and is then used to treat a wide range of inflammatory, liver, and degenerative ailments. However, the use of bear bile has had significant impacts on bear populations. Given that communities in Northern Vietnam have a lengthy history of using bear bile and bear bile is easily accessible, merely advocating for wildlife conservation ...


The Impact Of Local Government Action On Climate Change : The City Of Athens And The Town Of Tecumseh, Jesse Antwi-Kusi 2021 University of Windsor

The Impact Of Local Government Action On Climate Change : The City Of Athens And The Town Of Tecumseh, Jesse Antwi-Kusi

Major Papers

Climate change is undoubtedly one of the biggest environmental threats of the twenty-first century. Recent developments have shown that we are highly vulnerable to climate change. Climate change is predicted to have harmful, and permanent consequences on the planet and the entire environment. Yet federal and national governments around the world are struggling to formulate policy initiatives to slow down or become resilient against the changes in the climate. The research goal of this paper is to understand the impact of local governments/municipalities on climate change and why their inclusion in the conversation on climate change response is important ...


How Personally Relevant Cases Of Covid-19 Influence Individuals’ Level Of Concern Towards The Virus, Timothy J. Nicklas 2021 University of Pennsylvania

How Personally Relevant Cases Of Covid-19 Influence Individuals’ Level Of Concern Towards The Virus, Timothy J. Nicklas

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

This paper presents the findings of a statistical analysis exploring the ways in which personally relevant cases of COVID-19 influence an individual's level of concern towards the virus. The analysis makes use of public opinion data collected throughout the pandemic by a market research company called Ipsos. This study conducts an OLS regression analysis using three different samples of data from three distinct periods of time during the pandemic. The paper addresses each component of the study's deductive approach, outlining everything from the initial hypothesis to the conclusions and broader implications. Ultimately, this study does show evidence that ...


Extended Minds: The Externalization And Expansion Of Human Minds Beyond The Body, Dmitri Wolfe 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Extended Minds: The Externalization And Expansion Of Human Minds Beyond The Body, Dmitri Wolfe

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Despite the commonly accepted notion that the mind is inseparable from the body, the extended mind hypothesis claims human minds can become linked with the world around us. Through various avenues such as spoken and written language, humans may use non-biological means to allow the mind to store, access, and communicate information in extended capacities not otherwise possible. Though the extended minds hypothesis may be viewed as a result of advancing technology, it makes up only a small part of the way in which externalization may occur. Everyday life is full of examples of extended minds, from computers and phones ...


Rejecting Ingrid Robeyns’ Defense Of Limitarianism, Timothy J. Nicklas 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Rejecting Ingrid Robeyns’ Defense Of Limitarianism, Timothy J. Nicklas

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

This paper critically evaluates the argument put forth by the philosopher Ingrid Robeyns in her work entitled What, if Anything, is Wrong with Extreme Wealth. Robeyns holds the Chair Ethics of Institutions at Utrecht University, and her academic research focuses on issues pertaining to contemporary political philosophy and applied ethics. In her aforementioned publication, Robeyns defends the political theory called limitarianism, which holds that there should be an upper limit to the amount of income that an individual can hold. Limitarianism, like many other political philosophies, presents a view of how resources ought to be distributed in society based, in ...


Corporate Limitarianism, Karl Meyer 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Corporate Limitarianism, Karl Meyer

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Ingrid Robeyns argues that there is a point at which increasing one’s income no longer increases one’s quality of life. Her argument states that given better uses for this money, namely restoring political equality and meeting urgent needs, it is morally wrong for individuals to have surplus money, which is money beyond that which is needed to live a good life. Therefore, Robeyns argues that surplus money should be taxed at a rate of 100%. The original argument only applies to individuals with excess wealth. However, there is no reason why it should be restricted only to people ...


Child Marriage: Characterization As A Noxious Market And Policy-Based Responses To Economic Motivations, Curtis Newman 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Child Marriage: Characterization As A Noxious Market And Policy-Based Responses To Economic Motivations, Curtis Newman

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Child marriage is a human rights violation according to various international agreements and human rights conventions. In many countries the practice is outlawed, yet it persists with great incidence in both developed and developing societies. Governments must act to eliminate the practice which (1) results in physical and psychological individual harms for child brides; (2) perpetuates societal harms in the form of entrenched gender inequality and limited economic potential for women and for countries as a whole; (3) thrives on the exploitation of economic and agency vulnerabilities of a social class, namely young girls and women; and (4) threatens the ...


Digital Norms And Their Place In A Tech-Based Future, Joseph M. Squillaro 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Digital Norms And Their Place In A Tech-Based Future, Joseph M. Squillaro

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

One impact of the technological revolution has been technology’s effects on social norms and the nudges needed to ensure efficiency and security in today’s “digitally required” world. I define these phenomena as digital norms and they inform interpersonal contact and tech-based choices. This paper looks specifically at norm interactions between Generation X and Generation Z. To test these digital norms and gauge their presence in both generations, this paper outlines a survey experiment of 50 people (25 Gen X and 25 Gen Z) and seeks to extrapolate assumptions on technology while providing policy recommendations. What was found was ...


A Letter From The Editor, Andrew Liu 2021 University of Pennsylvania

A Letter From The Editor, Andrew Liu

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Letter from the Editor regarding the Spring 2021 edition


No More Shade: Deforestation And Rural-Urban Migration In Nigeria, Kambre Sims 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

No More Shade: Deforestation And Rural-Urban Migration In Nigeria, Kambre Sims

Master's Theses

Some of the most well-documented motivating factors of migration in Nigeria include education, employment opportunities, and cultural conflicts. However, as the deforestation crisis has not improved and Nigeria has maintained its spot as the country with the most deforestation on Earth, access to critical forest resources may be in danger. In light of this crisis, this paper attempts to determine if deforestation has become a new motivating factor for migration as those in rural communities seek other avenues of obtaining those vital resources. Subsequently, Nigeria is also experiencing a housing crisis within its rapidly growing urban centers; obtaining and keeping ...


The Solution To Plastic Pollution: A Dissection Of The Break Free From Plastic Pollution Act, Nadine M. Snyder 2021 Gettysburg College

The Solution To Plastic Pollution: A Dissection Of The Break Free From Plastic Pollution Act, Nadine M. Snyder

Student Publications

Ever since the development of plastic in the 1900s, it has become one of the most commonly used materials in the world. Its flexibility and durability allow it to be used in a wide variety of materials from clothing to packaging to toothbrushes. However, plastic’s durability has caused environmental damage as well, as plastic particles have been found in everything from waterways to human bodies. This paper explains the history and science of plastic production and examines studies on the environmental and public health impacts of plastics. It then examines various policies that have been enacted to control plastic ...


Hard And Soft Law In The Paris Climate Agreement, Carter A. Hanson 2021 Gettysburg College

Hard And Soft Law In The Paris Climate Agreement, Carter A. Hanson

Student Publications

This paper examines the effectiveness of contractual, facilitative, and hybrid legal models in international climate agreements from the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) to the Paris Climate Agreement (2015). It begins with a review of the balance between hard and soft treaty law in international environmental treaties prior to the Paris Climate Agreement with an eye for how this translated into effectiveness in terms of compelling states to lower greenhouse gas emissions. It then investigates the structure and effectiveness of the Paris Climate Agreement, taking into account global political realities and limitations for international environmental law. The ...


Video Games And Learning About Climate Change, Garrett W. Richards, Michael Long 2021 Grenfell Campus, Memorial University of Newfoundland

Video Games And Learning About Climate Change, Garrett W. Richards, Michael Long

Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship

It is critical to pursue climate change education through a variety of methods, with a variety of audiences, and in a variety of contexts. This short perspectives article describes our experiences as an early-career climate change researcher and an independent game designer in responding to a community challenge posed by a nonprofit organization focused on the potential positive social impact of video games. This was an excellent opportunity to do some strategic thinking around climate change education (e.g., conceptualizing “butterfly effects”). However, we ultimately observed shortcomings in the supports available from educational and funding organizations for climate change knowledge ...


Protocol For Monitoring Fish Communities In Small Streams In The Heartland Inventory And Monitoring Network, Version 2.0, Hope R. Dodd, David G. Peitz, Gareth Rowell, Janice A. Hinsey, David E. Bowles, Lloyd W. Morrison, Michael D. DeBacker, Jennifer L. Haack-Gaynor, Jeffrey M. Williams 2021 United States National Park Service

Protocol For Monitoring Fish Communities In Small Streams In The Heartland Inventory And Monitoring Network, Version 2.0, Hope R. Dodd, David G. Peitz, Gareth Rowell, Janice A. Hinsey, David E. Bowles, Lloyd W. Morrison, Michael D. Debacker, Jennifer L. Haack-Gaynor, Jeffrey M. Williams

U.S. National Park Service Publications and Papers

Executive Summary

Fish communities are an important component of aquatic systems and are good bioindicators of ecosystem health. Land use changes in the Midwest have caused sedimentation, erosion, and nutrient loading that degrades and fragments habitat and impairs water quality. Because most small wadeable streams in the Heartland Inventory and Monitoring Network (HTLN) have a relatively small area of their watersheds located within park boundaries, these streams are at risk of degradation due to adjacent land use practices and other anthropogenic disturbances. Shifts in the physical and chemical properties of aquatic systems have a dramatic effect on the biotic community ...


Ecological Risk Assessment Of Managed Relocation As A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, Aviv Karasov-Olson, Mark W. Schwartz, Julian D. Olden, Sarah Skikne, Jessica J. Hellmann, Sarah Allen, Christy Brigham, Danielle Buttke, David J. Lawrence, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Jeffrey T. Morisette, Gregor W. Schuurman, Melissa Trammell, Cat Hawkins Hoffman 2021 University of California, Davis

Ecological Risk Assessment Of Managed Relocation As A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, Aviv Karasov-Olson, Mark W. Schwartz, Julian D. Olden, Sarah Skikne, Jessica J. Hellmann, Sarah Allen, Christy Brigham, Danielle Buttke, David J. Lawrence, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Jeffrey T. Morisette, Gregor W. Schuurman, Melissa Trammell, Cat Hawkins Hoffman

U.S. National Park Service Publications and Papers

Executive Summary

Changing climate and introduced species are placing an increasing number of species at risk of extinction. Increasing extinction risk is increasing calls to protect species by relocating, or translocating, them to locations with more favorable biotic or climatic conditions. Managed relocation, or assisted migration, of species entails risks to both the conservation target organisms being moved as well as the recipient ecosystems into which they are moved.

Recognizing this risk, calls have been made for practitioners interested in considering a managed relocation project to engage in a serious risk assessment prior to advancing a project. We engaged a ...


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