# Statistics and Probability Commons™

## All Articles in Statistics and Probability

12,038 full-text articles. Page 403 of 404.

Linear Dependency For The Difference In Exponential Regression, 2010 Old Dominion University

#### Linear Dependency For The Difference In Exponential Regression, Indika Sathish, Norou Diawara

##### Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

In the field of reliability, a lot has been written on the analysis of phenomena that are related. Estimation of the difference of two population means have been mostly formulated under the no-correlation assumption. However, in many situations, there is a correlation involved. This paper addresses this issue. A sequential estimation method for linearly related lifetime distributions is presented. Estimations for the scale parameters of the exponential distribution are given under square error loss using a sequential prediction method. Optimal stopping rules are discussed using concepts of mean criteria, and numerical results are presented.

Critical Values For The Two Independent Samples Winsorized T Test, 2010 Wayne State University

#### Critical Values For The Two Independent Samples Winsorized T Test, Piper Alycee Farrell-Singleton

##### Wayne State University Dissertations

ABSTRACT

CRITICAL VALUES FOR THE TWO INDEPENDENT SAMPLES WINSORIZED T TEST

by

PIPER A. FARRELL-SINGLETON

AUGUST 2010

Major: (Education, Evaluation and Research)

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

Through Monte Carlo Simulation, this study explores the approximate behavior of the two sample winsorized t test. Samples are drawn from the normal population and symetrically winsorized up to 20%. The two independent samples winsorized t test is then calculated on each sample using Monte Carlo methods using 1,000,000 iterations. The t values are then sorted from low to high and the critical values for both one and two tailed …

Comparison And Application Of Three Decorrelation Methods Pca, Maf And Acdc, 2010 Edith Cowan University

#### Comparison And Application Of Three Decorrelation Methods Pca, Maf And Acdc, Jacqueline Ferreira

##### Theses : Honours

Geostatistics is a branch of applied mathematics that deals with spatially correlated data. Analysing and modelling spatially correlated data can be difficult and time consuming, especially for a multivariate data set. One of the techniques used to make analysis and modelling easier involves decorrelation, whereby a linear transformation on the sample variables is used to associate the spatially correlated variables with a set of decorrelated factors which are statistically and spatially independent. PCA was one of the first multivariate techniques and is mostly used as a data reduction technique. A popular alternative decorrelation technique often used in the mining industry …

Impact Of Higher Education Workplace Relations Requirements On Nteu Membership Density, 2010 Edith Cowan University

#### Impact Of Higher Education Workplace Relations Requirements On Nteu Membership Density, Tulsi Laxman Panchani

##### Theses : Honours

The National Tertiary Education Union (NTEU) is the only union working entirely in tertiary education around Australia. The union has over twenty four thousand members comprising of academic and general staff. NTEU maintains membership records at three levels, national, state and branch. The information collected includes gender, age group, employment type and work classification. In late April 2005, Higher Education Workplace Relations Requirements (HEWRRs) legislation was introduced by the Australian government. This legislation imposed restrictions on the interaction between the universities and the union and also curtailed an automatic involvement of the union in the resolution of workplace issues. The …

2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Investigating The Ironwood Tree (Casuarina Equisetifolia) Decline On Guam Using Applied Multinomial Modeling, Karl Anthony Schlub

##### LSU Master's Theses

The ironwood tree (Casuarina equisetifolia), a protector of coastlines of the sub-tropical and tropical Western Pacific, is in decline on the island of Guam where aggressive data collection and efforts to mitigate the problem are underway. For each sampled tree the level of decline was measured on an ordinal scale consisting of five categories ranging from healthy to near dead. Several predictors were also measured including tree diameter, fire damage, typhoon damage, presence or absence of termites, presence or absence of basidiocarps, and various geographical or cultural factors. The five decline response levels can be viewed as categories of a …

Probability Models For Blackjack Poker, 2010 Old Dominion University

#### Probability Models For Blackjack Poker, Charlie H. Cooke

##### Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

For simplicity in calculation, previous analyses of blackjack poker have employed models which employ sampling with replacement. in order to assess what degree of error this may induce, the purpose here is to calculate results for a typical hand where sampling without replacement is employed. It is seen that significant error can result when long runs are required to complete the hand. The hand examined is itself of particular interest, as regards both its outstanding expectations of high yield and certain implications for pair splitting of two nines against the dealer's seven. Theoretical and experimental methods are used in order …

The Joint Distribution Of Bivariate Exponential Under Linearly Related Model, 2010 Old Dominion University

#### The Joint Distribution Of Bivariate Exponential Under Linearly Related Model, Norou Diawara, Kumer Pial Das

##### Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

In this paper, fundamental results of the joint distribution of the bivariate exponential distributions are established. The positive support multivariate distribution theory is important in reliability and survival analysis, and we applied it to the case where more than one failure or survival is observed in a given study. Usually, the multivariate distribution is restricted to those with marginal distributions of a specified and familiar lifetime family. The family of exponential distribution contains the absolutely continuous and discrete case models with a nonzero probability on a set of measure zero. Examples are given, and estimators are developed and applied to …

Imputation Procedures For American Community Survey Group Quarters Small Area Estimation, 2009 Fordham University

#### Imputation Procedures For American Community Survey Group Quarters Small Area Estimation, Chandra Erdman, Chaitra Nagaraja

##### Chaitra H Nagaraja

No abstract provided.

Measuring The Hiv/Aids Epidemic: Approaches And Challenges, 2009 University of California, Los Angeles

#### Measuring The Hiv/Aids Epidemic: Approaches And Challenges, Ron Brookmeyer

##### Ron Brookmeyer

In this article, the author reviews current approaches and methods for measuring the scope of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and their strengths and weaknesses. In recent years, various public health agencies have revised statistical estimates of the scope of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The author considers the reasons underlying these revisions. New sources of data for estimating HIV prevalence have become available, such as nationally representative probability-based surveys. New technologies such as biomarkers that indicate when persons became infected are now used to determine HIV incidence rates. The author summarizes the main sources of errors and …

The Effect Of Salvage Therapy On Survival In A Longitudinal Study With Treatment By Indication, 2009 University of Pennsylvania

#### The Effect Of Salvage Therapy On Survival In A Longitudinal Study With Treatment By Indication, Edward Kennedy, Jeremy Taylor, Douglas Schaubel, Scott Williams

##### Edward H. Kennedy

We consider using observational data to estimate the effect of a treatment on disease recurrence, when the decision to initiate treatment is based on longitudinal factors associated with the risk of recurrence. The effect of salvage androgen deprivation therapy (SADT) on the risk of recurrence of prostate cancer is inadequately described by the existing literature. Furthermore, standard Cox regression yields biased estimates of the effect of SADT, since it is necessary to adjust for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), which is a time-dependent confounder and an intermediate variable. In this paper, we describe and compare two methods which appropriately adjust for PSA …

Fast Function-On-Scalar Regression With Penalized Basis Expansions, 2009 New York University

#### Fast Function-On-Scalar Regression With Penalized Basis Expansions, Philip T. Reiss, Lei Huang, Maarten Mennes

##### Lei Huang

Regression models for functional responses and scalar predictors are often fitted by means of basis functions, with quadratic roughness penalties applied to avoid overfitting. The fitting approach described by Ramsay and Silverman in the 1990s amounts to a penalized ordinary least squares (P-OLS) estimator of the coefficient functions. We recast this estimator as a generalized ridge regression estimator, and present a penalized generalized least squares (P-GLS) alternative. We describe algorithms by which both estimators can be implemented, with automatic selection of optimal smoothing parameters, in a more computationally efficient manner than has heretofore been available. We discuss pointwise confidence intervals …

2009 DePaul University and Columbia College Chicago

#### The 1905 Einstein Equation In A General Mathematical Analysis Model Of Quasars, Byron E. Bell

##### Byron E. Bell

No abstract provided.

How A Bayesian Might Estimate The Distribution Of Cronbach’S Alpha From Ordinal-Dynamic Scaled Data A Case Study Measuring Nursing Home Resident Quality Of Life, 2009 University of Kansas Medical Center

#### How A Bayesian Might Estimate The Distribution Of Cronbach’S Alpha From Ordinal-Dynamic Scaled Data A Case Study Measuring Nursing Home Resident Quality Of Life, Byron J. Gajewski, Diane K. Boyle, Sarah Thompson

##### Diane Kay Boyle PhD, RN, FAAN

We demonstrate the utility of a Bayesian based approach for calculating intervals of Cronbach’s alpha from a psychological instrument having ordinal responses with a dynamic scale. A small number of response options on an instrument will cause traditional-based interval estimates to be biased. Ordinal-based solutions are problematic because there is no clear mechanism for handling the dynamic scale. One way to remedy the bias is to adjust with a Bayesian approach. The Bayesian approach adjusts the bias and allows theoretically simple calculations of Cronbach’s alpha and intervals. We demonstrate the calculations of the Bayesian approach while at the same time …

#### Bayesian Inference For A Periodic Stochastic Volatility Model Of Intraday Electricity Prices, Michael S. Smith

##### Michael Stanley Smith

The Gaussian stochastic volatility model is extended to allow for periodic autoregressions (PAR) in both the level and log-volatility process. Each PAR is represented as a first order vector autoregression for a longitudinal vector of length equal to the period. The periodic stochastic volatility model is therefore expressed as a multivariate stochastic volatility model. Bayesian posterior inference is computed using a Markov chain Monte Carlo scheme for the multivariate representation. A circular prior that exploits the periodicity is suggested for the log-variance of the log-volatilities. The approach is applied to estimate a periodic stochastic volatility model for half-hourly electricity prices …

Bayesian Skew Selection For Multivariate Models, 2009 Melbourne Business School

#### Bayesian Skew Selection For Multivariate Models, Michael S. Smith, Anastasios Panagiotelis

##### Michael Stanley Smith

We develop a Bayesian approach for the selection of skew in multivariate skew t distributions constructed through hidden conditioning in the manners suggested by either Azzalini and Capitanio (2003) or Sahu, Dey and Branco~(2003). We show that the skew coefficients for each margin are the same for the standardized versions of both distributions. We introduce binary indicators to denote whether there is symmetry, or skew, in each dimension. We adopt a proper beta prior on each non-zero skew coefficient, and derive the corresponding prior on the skew parameters. In both distributions we show that as the degrees of freedom increases, …

2009 University of California, Los Angeles

#### On The Statistical Accuracy Of Biomarker Assays Of Hiv Incidence, Ron Brookmeyer

##### Ron Brookmeyer

Objective: To evaluate the statistical accuracy of estimates of current HIV incidence rates from cross-sectional surveys, and to identify characteristics of assays that improve accuracy.

Methods: Performed mathematical and statistical analysis of the cross-sectional estimator of HIV incidence to evaluate bias and variance. Developed probability models to evaluate impact of long tails of the window period distribution on accuracy.

Results: The standard cross-sectional estimate of HIV incidence rate is estimating a time-lagged incidence where the lag time, called the shadow, depends on the mean and the coefficient of variation of window periods. Equations show how the shadow increases with the …

2009 Western Kentucky University

#### Using Twitter Hash Tags To Demonstrate Basic Concepts From Network Analysis, Matt Bogard

##### Matt Bogard

Social Network Analysis focuses on finding patterns in interactions between people or entities. These patterns may be described in the form of a network. Network analysis in general has many applications including models of student integration and persistence, business to business supply chains, terrorist cells, or analysis of social media such as Facebook and Twitter. This presentation provides a reference for basic concepts from social network analysis with examples using tweets from Twitter.

The Journey To Safety: Conflict-Driven Migration Flows In Colombia, 2009 Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University

#### The Journey To Safety: Conflict-Driven Migration Flows In Colombia, Gianfranco Piras, Nancy Lozano-Gracia, Geoffrey Hewings, Ana Maria Ibanez

##### Gianfranco Piras

No abstract provided.

2009 Penn State University

#### Semiparametric Analysis Of Recurrent Events: Artificial Censoring, Truncation, Pairwise Estimation And Inference, Debashis Ghosh

##### Debashis Ghosh

The analysis of recurrent failure time data from longitudinal studies can be complicated by the presence of dependent censoring. There has been a substantive literature that has developed based on an artificial censoring device. We explore in this article the connection between this class of methods with truncated data structures. In addition, a new procedure is developed for estimation and inference in a joint model for recurrent events and dependent censoring. Estimation proceeds using a mixed U-statistic based estimating function approach. New resampling-based methods for variance estimation and model checking are also described. The methods are illustrated by application to …

Fast Function-On-Scalar Regression With Penalized Basis Expansions, 2009 New York University

#### Fast Function-On-Scalar Regression With Penalized Basis Expansions, Philip T. Reiss, Lei Huang, Maarten Mennes

##### Philip T. Reiss

Regression models for functional responses and scalar predictors are often fitted by means of basis functions, with quadratic roughness penalties applied to avoid overfitting. The fitting approach described by Ramsay and Silverman in the 1990s amounts to a penalized ordinary least squares (P-OLS) estimator of the coefficient functions. We recast this estimator as a generalized ridge regression estimator, and present a penalized generalized least squares (P-GLS) alternative. We describe algorithms by which both estimators can be implemented, with automatic selection of optimal smoothing parameters, in a more computationally efficient manner than has heretofore been available. We discuss pointwise confidence intervals …