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An Improved Bayesian Pick-The-Winner (Ibpw) Design For Randomized Phase Ii Clinical Trials, Wanni Lei, Maosen Peng, Xi K. Zhou 2024 Weill Cornell Medicine

An Improved Bayesian Pick-The-Winner (Ibpw) Design For Randomized Phase Ii Clinical Trials, Wanni Lei, Maosen Peng, Xi K. Zhou

COBRA Preprint Series

Phase II clinical trials play a pivotal role in drug development by screening a large number of drug candidates to identify those with promising preliminary efficacy for phase III testing. Trial designs that enable efficient decision-making with small sample sizes and early futility stopping while controlling for type I and II errors in hypothesis testing, such as Simon’s two-stage design, are preferred. Randomized multi-arm trials are increasingly used in phase II settings to overcome the limitations associated with using historical controls as the reference. However, how to effectively balance efficiency and accurate decision-making continues to be an important research topic. …


High-Dimensional Mediation Analysis Of Multi-Omics Data, Sunyi Chi 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

High-Dimensional Mediation Analysis Of Multi-Omics Data, Sunyi Chi

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Environmental exposures such as cigarette smoking influence health outcomes through intermediate molecular phenotypes, such as the methylome, transcriptome, and metabolome. Mediation analysis is a useful tool for investigating the role of potentially high-dimensional intermediate phenotypes in the relationship between environmental exposures and health outcomes. Rapid development of high-throughput technologies have made mediation analysis of multi-omics data critical to gain groundbreaking insights into the biological mechanisms underlying the disease etiology. This dissertation aims to develop mediation analysis methods that utilize the enormous amount of multi-omics data in assessing mechanisms of disease etiology. It contains three projects where I propose advanced mediation …


Factors Predictive Of The Development Of Surgical Site Infection In Thyroidectomy, A Replication Study Of Myssiorek (2018), Kaitlyn M. Kenig 2024 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Factors Predictive Of The Development Of Surgical Site Infection In Thyroidectomy, A Replication Study Of Myssiorek (2018), Kaitlyn M. Kenig

Capstone Experience

The original study aimed to show that thyroidectomy does not result in surgical site infection (SSI) in most cases, and thus routine prescription of antibiotics is not necessary. The study looked to see what risk factors could predict the incidence of SSI. This would highlight those individuals who were at most risk of developing SSI, and then antibiotics would only be prescribed to these individuals instead of all or most individuals who undergo thyroidectomy.

This study used NSQIP data to look at incidence of SSI and look for risk factors that may be predictive of SSI. Only surgeries that were …


Road Traffic Noise Annoyance And Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Population: A Case Series Study In Kota Bharu, Malaysia, Faridah Naim, Nurin H M Nasir 2024 Environmental and Occupational Health Program, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia

Road Traffic Noise Annoyance And Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Population: A Case Series Study In Kota Bharu, Malaysia, Faridah Naim, Nurin H M Nasir

Kesmas

Noise pollution can cause annoyance, significantly threatening the population’s health and well-being. This study aimed to find an association between road traffic noise exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among residents in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. This descriptive study used a case series approach and surveyed 34 residents in selected residential areas near main roads. An adapted questionnaire was distributed to residents using a purposive sampling method. Questions related to sociodemographic information, self-reporting about CVD, and road traffic noise assessment were asked to investigate the underlying risk factors for CVD. The average score of CVD assessment was classified as moderate risk. …


Implementation Of Digital Health In Addressing Global Threats: Lessons From The Use Of Technology During Covid-19 Pandemic In Indonesia, Naili Shifa, Anisa Tiasari, Kemal N. Siregar 2024 Department of Administration and Health Policy, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia

Implementation Of Digital Health In Addressing Global Threats: Lessons From The Use Of Technology During Covid-19 Pandemic In Indonesia, Naili Shifa, Anisa Tiasari, Kemal N. Siregar

Kesmas

This research conducted a systematic literature review to explore the implementation of digital health in Indonesia, focusing on the digital health policies, usage during the COVID-19 pandemic, benefits, and lessons learned. The study identified 10 relevant journals through database searches and analyzed the trends in publication, productive journals, and top institutions involved in digital health research. The findings revealed an increasing interest in digital health, with a growing number of published articles from 2021 to 2023. ScienceDirect emerged as the most productive journal, followed by PubMed and MDPI. The University of Indonesia and the University of Gajah Mada were the …


Effects Of Maternal Anthropometry On Infant Anthropometry: A Cross-Sectional Study At Public Hospital X In Ternate, Indonesia, Yuni Nurwati, Hardinsyah Hardinsyah, Sri Anna Marliyati, Budi Iman Santoso, Dewi Anggraini 2024 Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology, Institut Pertanian Bogor University

Effects Of Maternal Anthropometry On Infant Anthropometry: A Cross-Sectional Study At Public Hospital X In Ternate, Indonesia, Yuni Nurwati, Hardinsyah Hardinsyah, Sri Anna Marliyati, Budi Iman Santoso, Dewi Anggraini

Kesmas

Infant anthropometry is an indicator of neonatal survival. This study aimed to determine the effects of maternal anthropometry on estimating infant anthropom­etry. This cross-sectional study on 173 pregnant women at Public Hospital X in Ternate, Indonesia, was conducted from August 2018 to March 2023. The el­igible criteria were pregnant women aged ≥18 years, single pregnancy, and antenatal care (ANC) visits to the same hospital. The variables used included ma­ternal anthropometric measurements (body weight, body height, third-trimester weight (TTW)), gestational weight gain (GWG), education, age, ANC visits, and gestational age at delivery (GAD). A logistic regression model was employed to estimate …


Multiscale Modelling Of Brain Networks And The Analysis Of Dynamic Processes In Neurodegenerative Disorders, Hina Shaheen 2024 Wilfrid Laurier University

Multiscale Modelling Of Brain Networks And The Analysis Of Dynamic Processes In Neurodegenerative Disorders, Hina Shaheen

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The complex nature of the human brain, with its intricate organic structure and multiscale spatio-temporal characteristics ranging from synapses to the entire brain, presents a major obstacle in brain modelling. Capturing this complexity poses a significant challenge for researchers. The complex interplay of coupled multiphysics and biochemical activities within this intricate system shapes the brain's capacity, functioning within a structure-function relationship that necessitates a specific mathematical framework. Advanced mathematical modelling approaches that incorporate the coupling of brain networks and the analysis of dynamic processes are essential for advancing therapeutic strategies aimed at treating neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), which afflict millions of …


Tropical Fish Study In Tahiti, French Polynesia, Miranda Brainard, Caitlyn Swango, Paityn Houglan, Richard Londraville 2024 The University of Akron

Tropical Fish Study In Tahiti, French Polynesia, Miranda Brainard, Caitlyn Swango, Paityn Houglan, Richard Londraville

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In May of 2023, I embarked on an exciting research journey to Moorea, French Polynesia, alongside fellow students and faculty members from the University of Akron and Syracuse University. This expedition was part of the university-sponsored Tropical Vertebrate Biology course, where we delved into the exploration of various tropical species inhabiting the island, including sea urchins, geckos, and my primary focus, the blackspotted rockskipper.

My research team, composed of my co-authors and me, was particularly intrigued by the unique refuge-seeking behavior displayed by blackspotted rockskippers. These amphibious fish are renowned for their remarkable ability to inhabit tide pools and rocky …


The Performance Of Marginal Modeling Methods For Rare Events With Application To Opioid Overdose Mortality And Morbidity, Shawn Nigam 2024 University of Kentucky

The Performance Of Marginal Modeling Methods For Rare Events With Application To Opioid Overdose Mortality And Morbidity, Shawn Nigam

Theses and Dissertations--Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Opioid misuse is a nationwide epidemic, with Kentucky having one of the highest opioid overdose-related fatality rates across all US states. These rates have increased significantly over the past decade, with particularly large increases during the COVID-19 pandemic. This dissertation aims to study the behavior of these increases and the methods for the marginal modeling of count outcomes related to opioid overdose.

Opioid overdose-related fatality rates in Kentucky increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this chapter, we characterize the changes in opioid overdose fatality rates in Kentucky and identify associations between potential factors and fatality rates. County-level opioid overdose …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia 2023 Brigham Young University

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


Models Of Shared Care For The Management Of Psychotic Disorder After First Diagnosis In Ontario., Joshua C. Wiener, Rebecca Rodrigues, Jennifer N S Reid, Kelly K. Anderson 2023 Western University

Models Of Shared Care For The Management Of Psychotic Disorder After First Diagnosis In Ontario., Joshua C. Wiener, Rebecca Rodrigues, Jennifer N S Reid, Kelly K. Anderson

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Publications

OBJECTIVE: To describe the provision of care for young people following first diagnosis of psychotic disorder.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using health administrative data.

SETTING: Ontario.

PARTICIPANTS: People aged 14 to 35 years with a first diagnosis of nonaffective psychotic disorder in Ontario between 2005 and 2015 (N=39,449).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Models of care, defined by psychosis-related service contacts with primary care physicians and psychiatrists during the 2 years after first diagnosis of psychotic disorder.

RESULTS: During the 2-year follow-up period, 29% of the cohort received only primary care, 30% received only psychiatric care, and 32% received both primary and …


Bayesian Strategies For Propensity Score Estimation In Causal Inference., Uthpala I. Wanigasekara 2023 University of Louisville

Bayesian Strategies For Propensity Score Estimation In Causal Inference., Uthpala I. Wanigasekara

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Causal inference is a method used in various fields to draw causal conclusions based on data. It involves using assumptions, study designs, and estimation strategies to minimize the impact of confounding variables. Propensity scores are used to estimate outcome effects, through matching methods, stratification, weighting methods, and the Covariate Balancing Propensity Score method. However, they can be sensitive to estimation techniques and can lead to unstable findings. Researchers have proposed integrating weighing with regression adjustment in parametric models to improve causal inference validity. The first project focuses on Bayesian joint and two-stage methods for propensity score analysis. Propensity score modeling …


Interactions Between Sediment Mechanical Structure And Infaunal Community Structure Following Physical Disturbance, William Cyrus Roger Clemo 2023 University of South Alabama

Interactions Between Sediment Mechanical Structure And Infaunal Community Structure Following Physical Disturbance, William Cyrus Roger Clemo

<strong> Theses and Dissertations </strong>

Shallow, river-influenced coastal sediments are important for global carbon storage and nutrient cycling and provide a habitat for diverse communities of invertebrates (infauna). Elevated bed shear stress from extreme storms can resuspend, transport, and deposit sediments, disrupting the cohesive structure of muds, and sorting and depositing sand eroded from beaches. These physical disruptions can also resuspend or smother infauna, decreasing abundances and changing community structure. Infaunal activities such as burrowing, tube construction, and feeding can impact sediment structure and stability. However, little is known about how physical disturbance impacts short and long-term sediment habitat suitability and whether disturbance-tolerant infauna influence …


Causal Inference For The Effect Of Continuous Treatment On Time-To-Event Outcomes And Mediation Analysis On Health Disparities In Observational Studies., Triparna Poddar 2023 University of Louisville

Causal Inference For The Effect Of Continuous Treatment On Time-To-Event Outcomes And Mediation Analysis On Health Disparities In Observational Studies., Triparna Poddar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The dissertation comprises two projects related to causal inference based on observational data. In healthcare research, where abundant observational data such as claims data and electronic records are available, researchers often aim to study the treatment effect and the pathway of that effect. However, estimating treatment effects in observational data presents challenges due to confounding factors. The first project focuses on estimating continuous treatment effects for survival outcomes, while the second concentrates on mediation analysis, allowing the exploration of the pathway of the causal effect. Both projects involve addressing confounding variables. In the first project, I investigate estimation of the …


Aspects Of Stochastic Geometric Mechanics In Molecular Biophysics, David Frost 2023 Clemson University

Aspects Of Stochastic Geometric Mechanics In Molecular Biophysics, David Frost

All Dissertations

In confocal single-molecule FRET experiments, the joint distribution of FRET efficiency and donor lifetime distribution can reveal underlying molecular conformational dynamics via deviation from their theoretical Forster relationship. This shift is referred to as a dynamic shift. In this study, we investigate the influence of the free energy landscape in protein conformational dynamics on the dynamic shift by simulation of the associated continuum reaction coordinate Langevin dynamics, yielding a deeper understanding of the dynamic and structural information in the joint FRET efficiency and donor lifetime distribution. We develop novel Langevin models for the dye linker dynamics, including rotational dynamics, based …


Access To A Regular Primary Care Physician Among Young People With Early Psychosis In Ontario, Canada, Rebecca Rodrigues, Jennifer N S Reid, Joshua C. Wiener, Suzanne Archie, Richard G Booth, Chiachen Cheng, Arlene G MacDougall, Lena Palaniyappan, Bridget L Ryan, Aristotle Voineskos, Paul Kurdyak, Saadia Hameed Jan, Kelly K. Anderson 2023 Western University

Access To A Regular Primary Care Physician Among Young People With Early Psychosis In Ontario, Canada, Rebecca Rodrigues, Jennifer N S Reid, Joshua C. Wiener, Suzanne Archie, Richard G Booth, Chiachen Cheng, Arlene G Macdougall, Lena Palaniyappan, Bridget L Ryan, Aristotle Voineskos, Paul Kurdyak, Saadia Hameed Jan, Kelly K. Anderson

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Publications

AIM: Access to a primary care physician in early psychosis facilitates help-seeking and engagement with psychiatric treatment. We examined access to a regular primary care physician in people with early psychosis, compared to the general population, and explored factors associated with access.

METHODS: Using linked health administrative data from Ontario (Canada), we identified people aged 14-35 years with a first diagnosis of nonaffective psychotic disorder (n = 39 449; 2005-2015). We matched cases to four randomly selected general population controls based on age, sex, neighbourhood, and index date (n = 157 796). We used modified Poisson regression to estimate prevalence …


Editorial: The Public Health Scholars As The Health Leaders, Al Asyary, Meita Veruswati, Putri Bungsu Machmud, Indri Hapsari Susilowati 2023 Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia

Editorial: The Public Health Scholars As The Health Leaders, Al Asyary, Meita Veruswati, Putri Bungsu Machmud, Indri Hapsari Susilowati

Kesmas

No abstract provided.


Composite Index Of Anthropometric Failure And Early Childhood Cognitive Development Based On The 2018 Indonesian Basic Health Research Data, Safira Zamrudiani, Abdul Wahab, Rosalia Kurniawati Harisaputra 2023 Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Population Health, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Composite Index Of Anthropometric Failure And Early Childhood Cognitive Development Based On The 2018 Indonesian Basic Health Research Data, Safira Zamrudiani, Abdul Wahab, Rosalia Kurniawati Harisaputra

Kesmas

Delays in early childhood cognitive development may have profound long-term implications on health and life expectancy. Optimal nutrition supports early life development, including a child's cognitive development. This study aimed to determine the association between the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure and early childhood cognitive development among children aged 36-59 months in Indonesia. This cross-sectional study utilized data from the 2018 Indonesian Basic Health Research that involved 18,027 participants aged 36-59 months. This study outcome demonstrated that children who were stunted-underweight were potentially susceptible to delayed cognitive development compared to those with normal nutritional status (aOR = 1.30; 95% CI …


From Formulas To Futures: Mathematical Insights Into Endosomal Escape, Fnu Nisha 2023 Illinois State University

From Formulas To Futures: Mathematical Insights Into Endosomal Escape, Fnu Nisha

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Bayesian Adaptive Smoothing For Activation Detection In Fmri, Juan Florez 2023 Illinois State University

Bayesian Adaptive Smoothing For Activation Detection In Fmri, Juan Florez

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


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