Multi-Channel Ground-Penetrating Radar For The Continuous Quantification Of Snow And Firn Density, Depth, And Accumulation, Tate Meehan
Boise State University Theses and Dissertations
A priority of ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB) prediction is ascertaining the surface density and annual snow accumulation. These forcing data are inputs for firn density models and can be used to inform remotely sensed ice sheet surface processes and to assess Regional Climate Model (RCM) skill. The Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS) retrieved 16 shallow firn cores and dug 42 snow pits along the Western percolation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) during May and June of 2016 and 2017. I deployed and maintained a multi-channel 500 MHz ground-penetrating radar in a multi-offset configuration ...
Glacial History Of The Tsagaan Gol- Potanin Glacier Valley, Altai Mountains, Mongolia, 2018 University of Maine
Glacial History Of The Tsagaan Gol- Potanin Glacier Valley, Altai Mountains, Mongolia, Mariah J. Radue
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The last glacial termination (~19-11 ka) marks the end of the last ice age and the transition to modern interglacial conditions. The mechanisms that triggered deglaciation are unresolved. Various hypotheses for deglacial warming involve changes in Earth’s orbit, an 80-ppm increase in atmospheric CO2, a ‘bipolar seesaw’ in oceanic-heat redistribution, and shifting wind belts. Here, I present a 10Be surface-exposure chronology for a system of glacial landforms in the Tsagaan Gol-Potanin Glacier valley in the Mongolian Altai (49°N, 88°E) to determine the nature of the termination in interior Asia. Located near the center of Earth ...
Ice Core Records Of West Greenland Melt And Climate Forcing, 2018 Boise State University
Ice Core Records Of West Greenland Melt And Climate Forcing, H.P. Marshall, T. Meehan
CGISS Publications and Presentations
Remote sensing observations and climate models indicate that the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass since the late 1990s, mostly due to enhanced surface melting from rising summer temperatures. However, in situ observational records of GrIS melt rates over recent decades are rare. Here we develop a record of frozen meltwater in the west GrIS percolation zone preserved in seven firn cores. Quantifying ice layer distribution as a melt feature percentage (MFP), we find significant increases in MFP in the southernmost five cores over the past 50 years to unprecedented modern levels (since 1550 CE). Annual to decadal ...
Carbon Flux And Weathering Processes In Icelandic Glacial-Fed Rivers, 2018 Western Kentucky University
Carbon Flux And Weathering Processes In Icelandic Glacial-Fed Rivers, Allison Quiroga
Masters Theses & Specialist Projects
An investigation into the carbon dynamics and weathering processes occurring in Icelandic glacial-fed streams was conducted during the spring to summer seasonal transition in June of 2017. Four major outlet rives were sampled from the glaciers of Gígjökull, Steinsholtsjökull, Sólheimajökull, and Falljökull. Markarfljót, the major river that Gígjökull, Steinsholtsjökull, and many other glaciers drain into, was also sampled. Longitudinal sampling occurred at all sites to capture downstream trends in the hydrogeochemistry and carbon dynamics. Distinct differences in geochemistry between glacier surface meltwater, sub-glacial waters, pro-glacial lake water, and post-mixed downstream samples were evident in the data. Glacier surface streams were ...
Mapping Bedrock Topography Of The Portage And Schoolcraft Nw 7.5’ Quadrangles, Kalamazoo Co. Mi, Using The Hvsr Passive Seismic Method, 2018 Western Michigan University
Mapping Bedrock Topography Of The Portage And Schoolcraft Nw 7.5’ Quadrangles, Kalamazoo Co. Mi, Using The Hvsr Passive Seismic Method, Seiderman
This study utilizes the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) technique to map bedrock topography in the Portage and Schoolcraft NW quadrangles, Kalamazoo Co., MI, looking for buried bedrock valleys. Glacial sediment-landform assemblages dominate the study area, due to multiple advances of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). Tunnel valleys, which are one type of buried valley, are eroded by subglacial meltwater and commonly filled with the coarser varieties of glacial outwash, making them potential aquifers. The HVSR technique measures the ratio of horizontal to vertical ground motion, excited by ambient seismic noise, resulting in a peak at the resonance frequency ...
Geologic Mapping Of The Bronson North And Bronson South 7.5-Minute Quadrangles, Branch County, Michigan, 2018 Western Michigan University
Geologic Mapping Of The Bronson North And Bronson South 7.5-Minute Quadrangles, Branch County, Michigan, Backhaus
This study contributes to a better understanding of the glacial history of southwest Michigan through detailed surficial geologic and bedrock topography mapping within the Bronson North and Bronson South Quadrangles in Branch County, Michigan. This project was supported during the summer of 2017 by the USGS EDMAP program in conjunction with the Michigan Geological Survey. Hand-auger borings, grain size analysis tests, passive seismic depth-to-bedrock measurements, and ground penetrating radar transects were collected for this study. There are 350 feet of bedrock relief from west to east across the quadrangles, including a bedrock cuesta of Mississippian Coldwater Shale. This cuesta underlies ...
Mapping And Interpreting The Glacial Geology Of Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan, 2018 Western Michigan University
Mapping And Interpreting The Glacial Geology Of Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan, Sarah M. Vandermeer
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore is among the most popular parks in Michigan, yet prior to this study, it was the only National Park that lacked a detailed surficial geology map characterizing the distribution of sediments and landforms. Additionally, much of the landscape remained unexplored. These factors prevented thorough interpretations of landscape development and evolution. This research aims to map and further explore the relationship of glacial sediments and landforms throughout Pictured Rocks to refine and expand the current understanding of glacial events that shaped this landscape.
A new, detailed (1:24,000-scale) surficial geology map of the ten 7.5-minute ...
Topographic Control On Post-Lgm Groundings Of The West Antarctic Ice Sheet In The Whales Deep Basin, Eastern Ross Sea, 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
Topographic Control On Post-Lgm Groundings Of The West Antarctic Ice Sheet In The Whales Deep Basin, Eastern Ross Sea, Matthew Danielson
LSU Master's Theses
By the peak of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) had advanced to the outer continental shelf of eastern Ross Sea trough basins. During the post-LGM retreat, the WAIS paused several times within 75 km of the Whales Deep Basin (WDB) shelf edge. An overlapping stack of seven grounding zone wedges (GZWs) records the locations of these groundings. Here we used ~7500 km of seismic reflection data to map the subglacial unconformity that was eroded when WAIS was grounded at the shelf edge, i.e., prior to the deposition of the backstepping GZWs. With respect ...
Drivers Of Solar Radiation Variability In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, 2018 U.S. Geological Survey
Drivers Of Solar Radiation Variability In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Maciej K. Obryk, Andrew G. Fountain, Peter T. Doran
Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations
Annually averaged solar radiation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica has varied by over 20 W m−2 during the past three decades; however, the drivers of this variability are unknown. Because small differences in radiation are important to water availability and ecosystem functioning in polar deserts, determining the causes are important to predictions of future desert processes. We examine the potential drivers of solar variability and systematically eliminate all but stratospheric sulfur dioxide. We argue that increases in stratospheric sulfur dioxide increase stratospheric aerosol optical depth and decrease solar intensity. Because of the polar location of the McMurdo Dry ...
Improved Estimates Of Glacier Change Rates At Nevado Coropuna Ice Cap, Peru, 2018 Dickinson College
Improved Estimates Of Glacier Change Rates At Nevado Coropuna Ice Cap, Peru, William Hardy Kochtitzky, Benjamin R. Edwards, Ellyn M. Enderlin, Jersy Marino, Nelida Marinque
Faculty and Staff Publications By Year
Accurate quantification of rates of glacier mass loss is critical for managing water resources and for assessing hazards at ice-clad volcanoes, especially in arid regions like southern Peru. In these regions, glacier and snow melt are crucial dry season water resources. In order to verify previously reported rates of ice area decline at Nevado Coropuna in Peru, which are anomalously rapid for tropical glaciers, we measured changes in ice cap area using 259 Landsat images acquired from 1980 to 2014. We find that Coropuna Ice Cap is presently the most extensive ice mass in the tropics, with an area of ...
Glacier Recession And The Response Of Summer Streamflow In The Pacific Northwest United States, 1960–2099, 2018 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle, WA
Glacier Recession And The Response Of Summer Streamflow In The Pacific Northwest United States, 1960–2099, Chris Frans, Erkan Istanbulluoglu, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Andrew G. Fountain, Jon L. Riedel
Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations
The Pacific Northwest is the most highly glacierized region in the conterminous United States (858 glaciers; 466 km2). These glaciers have displayed ubiquitous patterns of retreat since the 1980s mostly in response to warming air temperatures. Glacier melt provides water for downstream uses including agricultural water supply, hydroelectric power generation, and for ecological systems adapted to cold reliable streamflow. While changes in glacier area have been studied within the region over an extended period of time, the hydrologic consequences of these changes are not well defined. We applied a high‐resolution glacio‐hydrological model to predict glacier mass balance, glacier ...
Spatio-Temporal Variability Of Processes Across Antarctic Ice-Bed–Ocean Interfaces, 2018 Fondazione Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici
Spatio-Temporal Variability Of Processes Across Antarctic Ice-Bed–Ocean Interfaces, Florence Colloni, Laura De Santis, Christine S. Siddoway, Andrea Bergamasco, Nicholas R. Golledge, Gerrit Lohmann, Sandra Passchier, Martin J. Siegert
Department of Earth and Environmental Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works
Understanding how the Antarctic ice sheet will respond to global warming relies on knowledge of how it has behaved in the past. The use of numerical models, the only means to quantitatively predict the future, is hindered by limitations to topographic data both now and in the past, and in knowledge of how subsurface oceanic, glaciological and hydrological processes interact. Incorporating the variety and interplay of such processes, operating at multiple spatio-temporal scales, is critical to modeling the Antarctic’s system evolution and requires direct observations in challenging locations. As these processes do not observe disciplinary boundaries neither should our ...
Oceanographic And Climatic Change In The Bering Sea, Last Glacial Maximum To Holocene, 2018 University of Northern British Columbia
Oceanographic And Climatic Change In The Bering Sea, Last Glacial Maximum To Holocene, Ben M. Pelto, Beth E. Caissie, Steven T. Petsch, Julie Brigham-Grette
Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications
Post‐glacial sea level rise led to a direct connection between the Arctic and Pacific Oceans via the Bering Strait. Consequently, the Bering Sea experienced changes in connectivity, size, and sediment sources that were among the most drastic of any ocean basin in the past 30,000 years. However, the sedimentary response to the interplay between climate change and sea level rise in high‐latitude settings such as Beringia remains poorly resolved. To ascertain changes in sediment delivery, productivity, and regional oceanography from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the Holocene, we analyzed sedimentological, geochemical, and isotopic characteristics of three ...
A Stalagmite Test Of North Atlantic Sst And Iberian Hydroclimate Linkages Over The Last Two Glacial Cycles, Rhawn F. Denniston, Amanda N. Houts, Yemane Asmerom, Alan D. Wanamaker Jr., Jonathan A. Haws, Victor J. Polyak, Diana L. Thatcher, Setsen Altan-Ochir, Alyssa C. Borowske, Sebastian F. M. Breitenbach, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Frederico T. Regala, Michael M. Benedetti, Nuno F. Bicho
Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications
Close coupling of Iberian hydroclimate and North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) during recent glacial periods has been identified through the analysis of marine sediment and pollen grains co-deposited on the Portuguese continental margin. While offering precisely correlatable records, these time series have lacked a directly dated, site-specific record of continental Iberian climate spanning multiple glacial cycles as a point of comparison. Here we present a high-resolution, multi-proxy (growth dynamics and δ13C, δ18O, and δ234U values) composite stalagmite record of hydroclimate from two caves in western Portugal across the majority of the last two glacial cycles (∼220 ...
Evidence For Ephemeral Middle Eocene To Early Oligocene Greenland Glacial Ice And Pan-Arctic Sea Ice, 2018 Old Dominion University
Evidence For Ephemeral Middle Eocene To Early Oligocene Greenland Glacial Ice And Pan-Arctic Sea Ice, Aradhna Tripati, Dennis Darby
OEAS Faculty Publications
Earth's modern climate is defined by the presence of ice at both poles, but that ice is now disappearing. Therefore understanding the origin and causes of polar ice stability is more critical than ever. Here we provide novel geochemical data that constrain past dynamics of glacial ice on Greenland and Arctic sea ice. Based on accurate source determinations of individual ice-rafted Fe-oxide grains, we find evidence for episodic glaciation of distinct source regions on Greenland as far-ranging as ~68°N and ~80°N synchronous with ice-rafting from circum-Arctic sources, beginning in the middle Eocene. Glacial intervals broadly coincide with ...
Internal Composition, Structure, And Hydrological Significance Of Rock Glaciers In The Eastern Cascades, Washington, 2018 Central Washington University
Internal Composition, Structure, And Hydrological Significance Of Rock Glaciers In The Eastern Cascades, Washington, Adam Riffle
All Master's Theses
Low summer river base flow places a strain on natural and economic resources of the Eastern Cascades. A major contributor to stream flow in this region is snow pack which has declined over the past few decades because of a warming climate. In addition, glacial runoff, which contributes significantly to base flow in summer dry periods, will diminish from glacial recession. However, rock glaciers, because their internal ice (i.e., permafrost) is insulated by an outer debris layer, react slowly to climate change, thus acting as sinks for ice and liquid water storage in mountain environments. This study utilized ground ...
Spectral Signatures Of Submicron Scale Light-Absorbing Impurities In Snow And Ice Using Hyperspectral Microscopy, Farra Dal Anna, Susan Kaspari, James Beach, Thomas D. Bucheli, Michael Schaepman, Margit Schwikowski
Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship
Light-absorbing impurities (LAI) can darken snow and ice surfaces, reduce snow/ice albedo and accelerate melt. Efforts to allocate the relative contribution of different LAI to snow/ice albedo reductions have been limited by uncertainties in the optical properties of LAI. We developed a new method to measure LAI spectral reflectance at the submicron scale by modifying a Hyperspectral Imaging Microscope Spectrometer (HIMS). We present the instrument’s internal calibration, and the overall small influence of a particle’s orientation on its measured reflectance spectrum. We validated this new method through the comparison with a field spectroradiometer by measuring different ...
Stability Of Supraglacial Debris, 2018 Iowa State University
Stability Of Supraglacial Debris, Peter L. Moore
Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications
Rock debris on the surface of ablating glaciers is not static, and is often transported across the ice surface as relief evolves during melt. This supraglacial debris transport has a strong influence on the spatial distribution of melt, and is implicated in the formation of hummocky glacial topography in deglaciated terrain. Furthermore, as icedammed lakes and ice-cored slopes become increasingly common in deglaciating watersheds, there is rising concern about hazards to humans and infrastructure posed by mass-wasting of ice-cored debris. The existing quantitative framework for describing these debris transport processes is limited, making it difficult to account for transport in ...
The Impact Of Reduced Arctic Sea Ice Extent On Cryospheric Snowfall, 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
The Impact Of Reduced Arctic Sea Ice Extent On Cryospheric Snowfall, Alexander Carne
Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Satellite observations show that sea ice extent in the Arctic has been declining from 1979 through present day, reaching record minimum extents in 2007 and 2012. Reduced sea ice extent allows for greater expanses of open water to interact with the Arctic atmosphere, potentially leading to changes in the Arctic climate. The greatest declines in Arctic sea ice extent have occurred in summer and autumn. During these seasons, it is likely that the decrease in Arctic sea ice extent led to an increase in atmospheric sensible and latent heat fluxes, possibly leading to increases in Arctic temperature and moisture. Increases ...
Understanding And Developing Estimates Based On Practical Foundation Methods For Alaska's Discontinuous Permafrost Region, 2017 Air Force Institute of Technology
Understanding And Developing Estimates Based On Practical Foundation Methods For Alaska's Discontinuous Permafrost Region, Paul P. Dennison
Theses and Dissertations
This research uses a quantitative analysis to develop a family of curves and a calculator for potential foundation thresholds in the discontinuous permafrost region of Alaska. The United States Pacific Command (PACAF) is bolstering the region by advocating for the F-35, KC-46, and the newly proposed long-range bomber to be stationed in Alaska. These next generation aircrafts and warfighters will need new facilities and beddown plans to efficiently and effectively carry out their mission. The biggest obstacle in the region is permafrost; this unique polar phenomenon is found throughout the northern half of Alaska. Fairbanks in particular has multiple military ...