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Spatial Analyses Of Gray Fossil Site Vertebrate Remains: Implications For Depositional Setting And Site Formation Processes, David Carney 2021 East Tennessee State University

Spatial Analyses Of Gray Fossil Site Vertebrate Remains: Implications For Depositional Setting And Site Formation Processes, David Carney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This project uses exploratory 3D geospatial analyses to assess the taphonomy of the Gray Fossil Site (GFS). During the Pliocene, the GFS was a forested, inundated sinkhole that accumulated biological materials between 4.9-4.5 mya. This deposit contains fossils exhibiting different preservation modes: from low energy lacustrine settings to high energy colluvial deposits. All macro-paleontological materials have been mapped in situ using survey-grade instrumentation. Vertebrate skeletal material from the site is well-preserved, but the degree of skeletal articulation varies spatially within the deposit. This analysis uses geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze the distribution of mapped specimens at different ...


Constraining Deformation Mechanisms Of Fault Damage Zones: A Case Study Of The Shallow San Andreas Fault At Elizabeth Lake, Southern California., Caroline Studnicky 2021 Utah State University

Constraining Deformation Mechanisms Of Fault Damage Zones: A Case Study Of The Shallow San Andreas Fault At Elizabeth Lake, Southern California., Caroline Studnicky

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Earthquakes nucleate at depth and rupture along the fault plane up to the Earth’s surface releasing seismic energy as the fault propagates. This energy creates the shaking we feel on the surface. Some faults do not rupture and create shaking but deform slowly and smoothly accommodating fault slip over extended time periods. This process is referred to as aseismic slip or creep. Whether a fault ruptures or creeps depends on the properties of the rocks through which the fault plane extends. In order to model seismic hazards correctly, we need to characterize the composition, deformation structures, and alteration materials ...


Exploring Questions Of Tectonic Geomorphology In The Bear River Range, Utah Using Terrain Analysis And Reconstruction, Edward M. Grasinger 2021 Utah State University

Exploring Questions Of Tectonic Geomorphology In The Bear River Range, Utah Using Terrain Analysis And Reconstruction, Edward M. Grasinger

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Despite a long tradition of geologic studies in the region surrounding Utah State University, there remain unexplored questions and unutilized approaches for understanding the landscape evolution of the Bear River Range. A large-scale reconstruction of the East Cache fault system can be useful in estimating the total displacement of the fault, its geologic longevity, and total energy involved. Likewise, an analysis of reach-scale features of the Logan River can explore how tectonics and bedrock type affect the patterns and history of the river. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software is useful in reconstructing, visualizing, and measuring such geomorphological features and changes ...


A Study Of Stable Isotopes In Snow On Mt. Hood, Oregon, Maya Felix 2021 Portland State University

A Study Of Stable Isotopes In Snow On Mt. Hood, Oregon, Maya Felix

University Honors Theses

Over the 2020-2021 Winter, event-based and end-of-season snow samples were collected on Mt. Hood near Government Camp, OR and analyzed for their stable isotopic compositions of 18O and 2H. It was found that surficial snow collected through the winter had higher variation in isotopic values than samples from a snow pit collected in spring. This suggests homogenization occurred in the snowpack over the season from snow metamorphism, sublimation, and/or melting. Homogenization of the snowpack will likely become more pronounced as temperatures increase and rain falls more often than snow due to climate change. Research that utilizes the ...


Rare And Critical Metals In Pyrite, Chalcopyrite, Magnetite, And Titanite From The Vathi Porphyry Cu-Au±Mo Deposit, Northern Greece, Christos L. Stergiou, Vasilios Melfos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Paul G. Spry, Irena Peytcheva, Dimitrina Dimitrova, Elitsa Stefanova, Katerina Giouri 2021 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Rare And Critical Metals In Pyrite, Chalcopyrite, Magnetite, And Titanite From The Vathi Porphyry Cu-Au±Mo Deposit, Northern Greece, Christos L. Stergiou, Vasilios Melfos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Paul G. Spry, Irena Peytcheva, Dimitrina Dimitrova, Elitsa Stefanova, Katerina Giouri

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The Vathi porphyry Cu-Au±Mo deposit is located in the Kilkis ore district, northern Greece. Hydrothermally altered and mineralized samples of latite and quartz monzonite are enriched with numerous rare and critical metals. The present study focuses on the bulk geochemistry and the mineral chemistry of pyrite, chalcopyrite, magnetite, and titanite. Pyrite and chalcopyrite are the most abundant ore minerals at Vathi and are related to potassic, propylitic, and sericitic hydrothermal alterations (A- and D-veins), as well as to the late-stage epithermal overprint (E-veins). Magnetite and titanite are found mainly in M-type veins and as disseminations in the potassic-calcic alteration ...


Transformational Road Trip, John H. Whitmore 2021 Cedarville University

Transformational Road Trip, John H. Whitmore

Science and Mathematics Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Ductile And Brittle Deformation Of Slackwater Deposits In The Tucannon River Valley, Chelsi K. Howard 2021 Eastern Washington University

Ductile And Brittle Deformation Of Slackwater Deposits In The Tucannon River Valley, Chelsi K. Howard

Geosciences Student Work

The Tucannon River valley in eastern Washington is home to a number of ductile and brittle soft-sediment deformation. This project aims to look at ductile deformation by classifying and comparing styles of clastic dikes in the field and to look at brittle deformation by analyzing small faults in localized outcrops. Clastic dikes are sedimentary intrusions into other sedimentary strata. There are three main types of clastic dikes: injection, extrusion, and sugtrusion. In addition, two subcategories of clastic dikes are described as sheeted dikes and fault injection dikes. Ductile and brittle deformation occurs in “slackwater” deposits associated with margins of glacial ...


Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Tracks From The Iron Springs Formation, Iron County, Utah, Jennifer K. Crowell, Grant T. Shimer 2021 Ohio University

Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Tracks From The Iron Springs Formation, Iron County, Utah, Jennifer K. Crowell, Grant T. Shimer

The Compass: Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon

Located in Iron County, Utah, the Parowan Gap dinosaur track site contains over one hundred natural casts of non-avian dinosaur tracks preserved in sandstones and siltstones of the Late Cretaceous (≈83 Ma) Iron Springs Formation. For this study, the authors returned to the area to survey for and describe previously unidentified tracks. Many tracks from this new study occur as in situ casts found on the basal surfaces of sandstones deposited by braided and meandering rivers on the coastal plain of the Western Interior Seaway, with some specimens from fallen talus blocks. Over the course of two years, the research ...


Using Gis To Create Hazard Maps And Assess Evacuation Routes Around “The Gate To Hell”; Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, Rebecca Hedges, Stevie McDermaid, Jason Kaiser, David Maxwell, Kathy Matthews 2021 Southern Utah University

Using Gis To Create Hazard Maps And Assess Evacuation Routes Around “The Gate To Hell”; Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, Rebecca Hedges, Stevie Mcdermaid, Jason Kaiser, David Maxwell, Kathy Matthews

The Compass: Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon

Volcán Masaya in Nicaragua is made of a series of calderas and craters that lies 7 km from the city of Masaya with a population of over 100,000. Masaya is part of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) which contains hundreds of volcanoes. While many of the volcanoes of the arc produce small, quiescent eruptions, some are capable of large explosive events. The recent cycle of volcanism at Masaya began 7000 years ago. Initial eruptions were primarily lava, small ash flows, ashfalls, and degassing events which eventually gave way to climactic Vulcanian eruptions. The hazards presented from this system ...


Resolving A One-Year Ecesis Interval For Alaska Paper Birch: Dating A Rockfall Event, Wishbone Hill, Southcentral Alaska, Riley E. Whitney, Alexander K. Stewart, Trent D. Hubbard, Anabella S. Kowalski, Oscar A. Wilkerson 2021 University of New Hampshire

Resolving A One-Year Ecesis Interval For Alaska Paper Birch: Dating A Rockfall Event, Wishbone Hill, Southcentral Alaska, Riley E. Whitney, Alexander K. Stewart, Trent D. Hubbard, Anabella S. Kowalski, Oscar A. Wilkerson

The Compass: Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon

Numerous large boulders at the base of Wishbone Hill, northeast of Anchorage, Alaska, suggest a historic rockfall event and potential for future surface instability, putting lives and property at risk. The source of the rockfall-boulders is an exposed syncline with a cliff face composed of conglomerate. The age of trees growing atop boulders provides a minimum exposure-age of those boulders and, thus, the rockfall event. To determine when the rockfall occurred, we dated trees growing atop the boulders using tree-ring samples collected from 30 Alaska paper birch trees. After mounting and polishing, each tree-ring sample was dot-counted, and tree-ring widths ...


Quantifying The Contribution Of Solid Precipitates To The Total Alkalinity In A Coal-Mine Discharge, Lili Lei, Dorothy Vesper 2021 West Virginia University

Quantifying The Contribution Of Solid Precipitates To The Total Alkalinity In A Coal-Mine Discharge, Lili Lei, Dorothy Vesper

Presentations

Flocculates and precipitates from coal mine drainage (CMD) are an integral part of the geochemical setting in mining-impacted streams. The precipitates may be very small, amorphous, and, depending on their chemistry, play a role in the storage and release of alkalinity. To evaluate the potential impact of CMD-solids on alkalinity, we conducted various tests using model and natural solids. Laboratory measurements of alkalinity are operationally defined by a titration to a fixed pH. When the solid-solution mixtures were tested using the standard alkalinity measurement method, no alkalinity could be detected; however, a possible reason for that was that the standard ...


Comparison Of Methods For Estimating Carbon Evasion And Export Associated With A Coal Mine Discharge, Kyle Lee, Dorothy J. Vesper 2021 West Virginia University

Comparison Of Methods For Estimating Carbon Evasion And Export Associated With A Coal Mine Discharge, Kyle Lee, Dorothy J. Vesper

Presentations

The evasion of CO2 from terrestrial waters plays a role in the global cycling of carbon but there are few datasets that have an accurate accounting of the flux. It has been shown that discharges from coal mines can have elevated concentrations of CO2 due to sulfuric acid-driven dissolution of carbonate rock. In this study, we compared three methods for calculating the export dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the evaluation of CO2 from an abandoned-mine discharge in West Virginia. In Method #1, the source flux is calculated from the discharge and the concentrations at the portal. In Method #2, the ...


Relating Recharge Mechanisms To Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Dynamics In An Updip Appalachian Coal Mine Discharge, Matthew L. Bell 2021 West Virginia Unviersity

Relating Recharge Mechanisms To Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Dynamics In An Updip Appalachian Coal Mine Discharge, Matthew L. Bell

Presentations

Impaired drainage from active and abandoned mines degrades the water quality of receiving streams and aquifers. Coal mine drainage (CMD) has been studied for decades in Appalachia, but unknowns and uncertainties are still present, including the influence of mine hydrogeology on the outflow chemistry of above-drainage mines. To evaluate the influence of recharge type on above-drainage mine dissolved inorganic carbon chemistry, samples were collected every two weeks at a CMD outflow treatment system in Harrison County, West Virginia. Samples were collected to measure geochemical changes taking place in the mine workings and along the flowpath of the passive treatment system ...


Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu 2021 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Landsides are a natural geomorphic process yet a dangerous hazard which annually causes thousands of casualties and billions of property loss in a global scale. Understanding landslide motion kinematics from early initiation to final deposition is critical for monitoring, assessing, and forecasting landslide movement in order to mitigate their hazards. Landslides occur under diverse environmental settings and appear in variable types; however, all types of landslides can be mechanically attributed to shearing failure at the basal surface due to stress regime shift contributed by internal and/or external forcing. Typical internal factors include soil/rock weathering, whereas typical external triggering ...


Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt 2021 Georgia College

Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt

Biology Theses

The Caribbean terrestrial soldier crab, Coenobita clypeatus(Fabricius 1787), coexist and utilize the shells of numerous species of land and marine gastropods. Soldier crabs rely on gastropod shells for protection as the crabs have a soft abdomen, leaving them vulnerable for predation and desiccation, threatening their survival. This creates a strong pressure to obtain well-fitting shells that provide adequate protection against water loss. Cerion of Röding (1798) shells are one of the most commonly used shells among living colonies of C. clypeatuson San Salvador Island. This study is interested in the frequency of shell use by C. clypeatus crabs ...


Geochemical Characterization Of The Utica Shale Play Using Xrf-Based Chemostratigraphy In Ohio, Barbara Kemeh, Julie M. Bloxson 2021 Stephen F Austin State University

Geochemical Characterization Of The Utica Shale Play Using Xrf-Based Chemostratigraphy In Ohio, Barbara Kemeh, Julie M. Bloxson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Utica shale is an extensive gas shale play within the Appalachian Basin, expanding from Quebec through New York, into Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Ohio. Currently a target for gas exploration, it is also the source rock for much of the Paleozoic reservoirs throughout the basin. However, the Utica-Point Pleasant lithology varies significantly across the Appalachian Basin which can make it challenging to characterize.

The Utica shale Play consists of the Trenton/Lexington Limestones, Point Pleasant Formation and Utica shale. The Point Pleasant Formation and Utica shale are often grouped together, especially in Ohio because they are difficult to visually ...


Migmatite-Like Textures In Anthracite: Further Evidence For Low-Grade Metamorphic Melting And Resolidification In High-Rank Coals, James C. Hower, Susan M. Rimmer, Maria Mastalerz, Nicola J. Wagner 2021 University of Kentucky

Migmatite-Like Textures In Anthracite: Further Evidence For Low-Grade Metamorphic Melting And Resolidification In High-Rank Coals, James C. Hower, Susan M. Rimmer, Maria Mastalerz, Nicola J. Wagner

Center for Applied Energy Research Faculty Publications

Previous studies demonstrated that melting, initiated by supercritical fluids in the 375–400 °C range, occurred as part of anthracite metamorphism in the Appalachian Basin. Based on the known behavior of vitrinite at high temperatures and, to a lesser extent, at high pressures, it was determined that the duration of the heating, melting, and resolidification event was about 1 h. In the current study, featureless vitrinite within banded maceral assemblages demonstrates the intimate association of melted and resolidified vitrinite with anthracite-rank macerals. By analogy with metamorphosed inorganic rocks, such associations represent diadysites and embrechites, i.e., cross-cutting and layered migmatites ...


Gravel Geology And Muskoxen Paleontology Of A Late Pleistocene Fossil Site In Saltville, Virginia, Nickolas A. Brand 2021 East Tennessee State University

Gravel Geology And Muskoxen Paleontology Of A Late Pleistocene Fossil Site In Saltville, Virginia, Nickolas A. Brand

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Two distinct studies within the Saltville Valley of southwestern Virginia revealed insights into local Pleistocene geology and paleontology. A variety of analytical techniques were applied to gravel deposits within the paleontological site of SV-5/7 that revealed this unit is very poorly sorted, has a subangular matrix, and contains significant components of silt and sand in addition to rounded cobbles. These results suggest that rather than being deposited by fluvial processes as previously suggested, these gravels were likely the result of one or many debris flows. Additionally, the identity of fossil muskoxen from Saltville was reassessed using cranial and dental ...


Structural Re-Orientation Of Magmatic Fabrics And Layering In The Lower Oceanic Crust: Hole Gt1, Wadi Tayin Massif, Samail Ophiolite, Justin Guillot 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Structural Re-Orientation Of Magmatic Fabrics And Layering In The Lower Oceanic Crust: Hole Gt1, Wadi Tayin Massif, Samail Ophiolite, Justin Guillot

Master's Theses

This thesis aims to re-orient borehole images of layered gabbros sampled beneath Hole GT1 in the Wadi Tayin massif of the Oman ophiolite by the Oman Drilling Project to better constrain models of crustal accretion. The gabbro glacier model proposes that crystallized basalt flows down and away from the crystallization site to form the lower crust while the sheeted sill model proposes that basaltic melt crystallizes at multiple levels in the crust through sills. Hole GT1 provides an unprecedented 400 m, 100% recovery, look at the lower oceanic crust. Cores lose their geographic orientation when drilled, requiring use of the ...


Characterization And Delineation Of Potential Evaporite Geohazards Using Electrical Resistivity Methods Along Fm 2185, Culberson County, Texas, Lenora Diane Perkins 2021 Stephen F Austin State University

Characterization And Delineation Of Potential Evaporite Geohazards Using Electrical Resistivity Methods Along Fm 2185, Culberson County, Texas, Lenora Diane Perkins

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Extensive karst development within the Delaware Basin of West Texas and southeastern New Mexico poses a significant geohazard threat to infrastructure. Dissolution of regional evaporite strata have led to manifestations of karst geohazard phenomena including sinkholes, subsidence features, and caves. The study area is located within the Gypsum Plain in Culberson County, Texas, and includes outcrops of Castile and Rustler strata that host gypsum karst geohazards. Land reconnaissance surveys conducted during the summer of 2019 documented numerous surficial manifestations of karst features proximal to Farm to Market Road 2185 (FM 2185). In combination with traditional survey techniques, electrical resistivity methods ...


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