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The Chemistry Of Jellybeans, Andrew Carter 2019 Taylor University

The Chemistry Of Jellybeans, Andrew Carter

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

Jellybeans are an amazing work of chemistry. In my paper, I outline the history and science behind this little candy. My paper describes taste receptors, molecular structure, and the analytical chemistry that help to make flavor science an interesting field of work.


Metallodrugs And Their Various Impacts On Disorders And Diseases, Paige Wagner 2019 Taylor University

Metallodrugs And Their Various Impacts On Disorders And Diseases, Paige Wagner

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

No abstract provided.


Quantum Chemical Methods: Its History And Future, Erica Mitchell 2019 Taylor University

Quantum Chemical Methods: Its History And Future, Erica Mitchell

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

No abstract provided.


Significance And Implications Of Vitamin B-12 Reaction Shema- Eth Zurich Variant: Mechanisms And Insights, David Joshua Ferguson 2019 Taylor University

Significance And Implications Of Vitamin B-12 Reaction Shema- Eth Zurich Variant: Mechanisms And Insights, David Joshua Ferguson

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

This is an undergraduate chemistry thesis document. This involves a discussion of the mechanisms and overall reactions involved in the total synthesis of vitamin B-12.


Bone Regeneration Via Inorganic/Organic Compatibility In A Newly Synthesized Hydrogel: Nhap-Bmp-2, Hannah Ewing 2019 Taylor University

Bone Regeneration Via Inorganic/Organic Compatibility In A Newly Synthesized Hydrogel: Nhap-Bmp-2, Hannah Ewing

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

In this paper, nHAp-BMP-2 hydrogel is carefully synthesized in order to optimize the organic and inorganic compatibility which induces osteogenesis—the formation of new bone. This new method is a novel development within the medical field, giving more hope to those suffering from traumatic bone injuries. A drawback with using hydrogels is the difficulty of controlling peptide release in the affected areas. Too quick of a release alarms the human inflammatory response resulting in more substantial injury and an even prolonged recovery time. On the other hand, if the peptides that promote bioactivity are released too slowly, the bone will ...


The History And Development Of Identification: Rediscovery And Application Of Egyptian Blue, Bailee Allen 2019 Taylor University

The History And Development Of Identification: Rediscovery And Application Of Egyptian Blue, Bailee Allen

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

The use of fingerprints as a form of identification in criminal cases has become a common method of conviction within the criminal justice system. However, with the recent rise in the number of people wrongly convicted, the typical sources of evidence have come into question about their reliability. Multiple common drawbacks found when using fingerprints dusting to obtain prints from crime scenes has led to researchers looking for more efficient ways to collect them that maintain high sensitivity and contrast. These are the two aspects that create the largest problem, especially on highly reflective and highly patterned surfaces. The discovery ...


Antioxidants And Beta-Carotene: A General Overview, A Research History, And Modern Scholarship, James Joseph Dickman IV 2019 Taylor University

Antioxidants And Beta-Carotene: A General Overview, A Research History, And Modern Scholarship, James Joseph Dickman Iv

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

This paper seeks to provide a cursory overview of oxidative stress and the accompanying biomolecules which are used to combat it. From there, the paper will provide a somewhat comprehensive list of major historical discoveries regarding antioxidant molecules, in particular beta-carotene. After this, an overview of more modern scholarship on the issue of these molecule’s antioxidant properties specific (from the 1970s onward) will be discussed up to modern times. The paper will conclude with an in depth look at the modern scholarship on beta-carotene that was performed here at Taylor University.


Vertical Ionization Energies From The Average Local Electron Energy Function, Amer Marwan El-Samman 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Vertical Ionization Energies From The Average Local Electron Energy Function, Amer Marwan El-Samman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It is a non-intuitive but well-established fact that the first and higher vertical ionization energies (VIE) of any N-electron system are encoded in the system's ground-state electronic wave function. This makes it possible to compute VIEs of any atom or molecule from its ground-state wave function directly, without performing calculations on the (N-1)-electron states. In practice, VIEs can be extracted from the wave function by using the (extended) Koopmans' theorem or by taking the asymptotic limit of certain wave-function-based quantities such as the ratio of kinetic energy density to the electron density. However, when the wave function is ...


Time-Resolved Observation Of Transient Precursor State Of Co On Ru(0001) Using Carbon K-Edge Spectroscopy, Hsin-Yi Wang, Simon Schreck, Matthew Weston, Hirohito Ogasawara, Jerry LaRue, Fivos Perakis, Martina Dell'Angela, Flavio Capotondi, Luca Giannessi, Emanuele Pedersoli, Denys Naumenko, Ivaylo Nikolov, Lorenzo Raimondi, Carlo Spezzani, Martin Beye, Filippo Cavalca, Boyang Liu, Jörgen Gladh, Sergey Koroidov, Piter S. Miedema, Roberto Costantini, Lars G. M. Pettersson, Anders Nilsson 2019 Stockholm University

Time-Resolved Observation Of Transient Precursor State Of Co On Ru(0001) Using Carbon K-Edge Spectroscopy, Hsin-Yi Wang, Simon Schreck, Matthew Weston, Hirohito Ogasawara, Jerry Larue, Fivos Perakis, Martina Dell'angela, Flavio Capotondi, Luca Giannessi, Emanuele Pedersoli, Denys Naumenko, Ivaylo Nikolov, Lorenzo Raimondi, Carlo Spezzani, Martin Beye, Filippo Cavalca, Boyang Liu, Jörgen Gladh, Sergey Koroidov, Piter S. Miedema, Roberto Costantini, Lars G. M. Pettersson, Anders Nilsson

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The transient dynamics of carbon monoxide (CO) molecules on a Ru(0001) surface following femtosecond optical laser pump excitation has been studied by monitoring changes in the unoccupied electronic structure using an ultrafast X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) probe. The particular symmetry of perpendicularly chemisorbed CO on the surface is exploited to investigate how the molecular orientation changes with time by varying the polarization of the FEL pulses. The time evolution of spectral features corresponding to the desorption precursor state was well distinguished due to the narrow line-width of the C K-edge in the X-ray absorption (XA) spectrum, illustrating that CO ...


Persistent Dopants And Phase Segregation In Organolead Mixed-Halide Perovskites, Bryan A. Rosales, Long Men, Sarah D. Cady, Michael P. Hanrahan, Aaron J. Rossini, Javier Vela 2019 Iowa State University

Persistent Dopants And Phase Segregation In Organolead Mixed-Halide Perovskites, Bryan A. Rosales, Long Men, Sarah D. Cady, Michael P. Hanrahan, Aaron J. Rossini, Javier Vela

Sarah Cady

Organolead mixed-halide perovskites such as CH3NH3PbX3–aX′a (X, X′ = I, Br, Cl) are interesting semiconductors because of their low cost, high photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies, enhanced moisture stability, and band gap tunability. Using a combination of optical absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and, for the first time, 207Pb solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR), we probe the extent of alloying and phase segregation in these materials. Because 207Pb ssNMR chemical shifts are highly sensitive to local coordination and electronic structure, and vary linearly with halogen electronegativity and band gap, this technique can provide the true chemical speciation and ...


Cu2znsns4 Nanorods Doped With Tetrahedral, High Spin Transition Metal Ions: Mn2+, Co2+, And Ni2+, Michelle J. Thompson, Kyle J. Blakeney, Sarah D. Cady, Malinda D. Reichert, Joselyn Del Pilar-Albaladejo, Seth T. White, Javier Vela 2019 Iowa State University

Cu2znsns4 Nanorods Doped With Tetrahedral, High Spin Transition Metal Ions: Mn2+, Co2+, And Ni2+, Michelle J. Thompson, Kyle J. Blakeney, Sarah D. Cady, Malinda D. Reichert, Joselyn Del Pilar-Albaladejo, Seth T. White, Javier Vela

Sarah Cady

Because of its useful optoelectronic properties and the relative abundance of its elements, the quaternary semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) has garnered considerable interest in recent years. In this work, we dope divalent, high spin transition metal ions (M2+ = Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+) into the tetrahedral Zn2+ sites of wurtzite CZTS nanorods. The resulting Cu2MxZn1–xSnS4 (CMTS) nanocrystals retain the hexagonal crystalline structure, elongated morphology, and broad visible light absorption profile of the undoped CZTS nanorods. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy help corroborate the composition and local ion environment of the doped nanocrystals ...


Understanding Interactions Of Citropin 1.1 Analogues With Model Membranes And Their Influence On Biological Activity, Nathalia Rodrigues de Almeida, Jonathan Catazaro, Maddeboina Krishnaiah, Yashpal Singh Chhonker, Daryl J. Murry, Robert Powers, Martin Conda-Sheridan 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Understanding Interactions Of Citropin 1.1 Analogues With Model Membranes And Their Influence On Biological Activity, Nathalia Rodrigues De Almeida, Jonathan Catazaro, Maddeboina Krishnaiah, Yashpal Singh Chhonker, Daryl J. Murry, Robert Powers, Martin Conda-Sheridan

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The rapid emergence of resistant bacterial strains has made the search for new antibacterial agents an endeavor of paramount importance. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have the ability to kill resistant pathogens while diminishing the development of resistance. Citropin 1.1 (Cit 1.1) is an AMP effective against a broad range of pathogens. 20 analogues of Cit 1.1 were prepared to understand how sequence variations lead to changes in structure and biological activity. Various analogues exhibited an increased antimicrobial activity relative to Cit 1.1. The two most promising, AMP-016 (W3F) and AMP-017 (W3F, D4R, K7R) presented a 2- ...


A Panel Of Protein Kinase Chemosensors Distinguishes Different Types Of Fatty Liver Disease, Jon R. Beck, Fatima Cabral, Karuna Rasineni, Carol A. Casey, Edward N. Harris, Cliff I. Stains 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Panel Of Protein Kinase Chemosensors Distinguishes Different Types Of Fatty Liver Disease, Jon R. Beck, Fatima Cabral, Karuna Rasineni, Carol A. Casey, Edward N. Harris, Cliff I. Stains

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The worldwide incidence of fatty liver disease continues to rise, which may account for concurrent increases in the frequencies of more aggressive liver ailments. Given the existence of histologically identical fatty liver disease subtypes, there is a critical need for the identification of methods that can classify disease and potentially predict progression. Herein, we show that a panel of protein kinase chemosensors can distinguish fatty liver disease subtypes. These direct activity measurements highlight distinct differences between histologically identical fatty liver diseases arising from diets rich in fat versus alcohol and identify a previously unreported decrease in p38α activity associated with ...


Hidden Bias In The Dud-E Dataset Leads To Misleading Performance Of Deep Learning In Structure-Based Virtual Screening, Lieyang Chen, Anthony Cruz, Steven Ramsey, Callum J. Dickson, Jose S. Duca, Viktor Hornak, David R. Koes, Tom Kurtzman 2019 CUNY Lehman College

Hidden Bias In The Dud-E Dataset Leads To Misleading Performance Of Deep Learning In Structure-Based Virtual Screening, Lieyang Chen, Anthony Cruz, Steven Ramsey, Callum J. Dickson, Jose S. Duca, Viktor Hornak, David R. Koes, Tom Kurtzman

Publications and Research

Recently much effort has been invested in using convolutional neural network (CNN) models trained on 3D structural images of protein-ligand complexes to distinguish binding from non-binding ligands for virtual screening. However, the dearth of reliable protein-ligand x-ray structures and binding affinity data has required the use of constructed datasets for the training and evaluation of CNN molecular recognition models. Here, we outline various sources of bias in one such widely-used dataset, the Directory of Useful Decoys: Enhanced (DUDE). We have constructed and performed tests to investigate whether CNN models developed using DUD-E are properly learning the underlying physics of molecular ...


Fast-Forward Protein Folding And Design: Development, Analysis, And Applications Of The Fast Sampling Algorithm, Maxwell Isaac Zimmerman 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Fast-Forward Protein Folding And Design: Development, Analysis, And Applications Of The Fast Sampling Algorithm, Maxwell Isaac Zimmerman

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Molecular dynamics simulations are a powerful tool to explore conformational landscapes, though limitations in computational hardware commonly thwart observation of biologically relevant events. Since highly specialized or massively parallelized distributed supercomputers are not available to most scientists, there is a strong need for methods that can access long timescale phenomena using commodity hardware. In this thesis, I present the goal-oriented sampling method, Fluctuation Amplification of Specific Traits (FAST), that takes advantage of Markov state models (MSMs) to adaptively explore conformational space using equilibrium-based simulations. This method follows gradients in conformational space to quickly explore relevant conformational transitions with orders of ...


A Physics-Based Intermolecular Potential For Biomolecular Simulation, Joshua Andrew Rackers 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

A Physics-Based Intermolecular Potential For Biomolecular Simulation, Joshua Andrew Rackers

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The grand challenge of biophysics is to use the fundamental laws of physics to predict how biological molecules will move and interact. The atomistic HIPPO (Hydrogen-like Intermolecular Polarizable Potential) force field is meant to address this challenge. It does so by breaking down the intermolecular potential energy function of biomolecular interactions into physically meaningful components (electrostatics, polarization, dispersion, and exchangerepulsion) and using this function to drive molecular dynamics simulations. This force field is able to achieve accuracy within 1 kcal/mol for each component when compared with ab initio Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory calculations. HIPPO is capable of this accuracy ...


Systematic Optimization For Production Of The Anti-Mrsa Antibiotics Wap-8294a In An Engineered Strain Of Lysobacter Enzymogenes, Xusheng Chen, Shanren Li, Lingjun Yu, Amanda Miller, Liangcheng Du 2019 Jiangnan University & University of Nebraska- Lincoln

Systematic Optimization For Production Of The Anti-Mrsa Antibiotics Wap-8294a In An Engineered Strain Of Lysobacter Enzymogenes, Xusheng Chen, Shanren Li, Lingjun Yu, Amanda Miller, Liangcheng Du

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

WAP-8294A is a group of cyclic lipodepsipeptides and considered as the first-in-class new chemical entity with potent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. One of the roadblocks in developing the WAP-8294A antibiotics is the very low yield in Lysobacter. Here, we carried out a systematic investigation of the nutritional and environmental conditions in an engineered L. enzymogenes strain for the optimal production of WAP-8294A. We developed an activity-based simple method for quick screening of various factors, which enabled us to optimize the culture conditions. With the method, we were able to improve the WAP-8294A yield by 10-fold in small-scale cultures and ...


The Roundtable Of Scientific Communication: From Classroom To Course Creation, Back To Classroom And Beyond, Sean P. Hickey 2019 University of New Orleans

The Roundtable Of Scientific Communication: From Classroom To Course Creation, Back To Classroom And Beyond, Sean P. Hickey

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This research encompasses many aspects of chemical education research including curriculum and pedagogical changes to the freshman and sophomore courses. Curriculum changes included the addition of recitations to the general chemistry and organic chemistry lectures and the creation of four new classes, CHEM 1001, 1002, 3091, and 3092. The addition of recitations was not limited to but was focused on improving DFW rates for these courses.

CHEM 3091 and 3092 are chemistry internship and undergraduate teaching assistant classes. These courses were necessary to offer outside internship opportunities and training for undergraduate teaching assistants, respectively. CHEM 1001 and 1002 are chemistry ...


Development Of A Screening Method For Drugs Of Abuse By Direct Analysis Of Dried Urine Spots Coupled To Mass Spectrometry, Melanie Goldstein 2019 John Jay College of Criminal Justice

Development Of A Screening Method For Drugs Of Abuse By Direct Analysis Of Dried Urine Spots Coupled To Mass Spectrometry, Melanie Goldstein

Student Theses

Fast and easy screening procedures are essential in any forensic toxicology laboratory to differentiate negative samples from presumptive positive cases. Immunoassay techniques, such as enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT), are routinely employed as screening procedures. However, these techniques lack specificity (only differentiate group of drugs and not individual compounds) and it is difficult to add new compounds to the panel. Direct analysis of dried urine spots (DUS) by mass spectrometry (MS) offers a novel strategy to overcome these issues. DUS offer an improved storage alternative for biological samples, reducing costs and space requirements. In this work, an original method to ...


Indole-3-Glycerol Phosphate Synthase Ligand Binding Interactions, Oshane Thomas 2019 Montclair State University

Indole-3-Glycerol Phosphate Synthase Ligand Binding Interactions, Oshane Thomas

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) catalyzes the irreversible ring closure of 1-(ocarboxyphenylamino)- 1-deoxyribulose 5- phosphate (CdRP) into indole-3-glycerol phosphate (IGP) during the fourth step in tryptophan biosynthesis. Analysis of the crystal structure of IGPS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtIGPS) hinted the importance of Lys119 for binding or catalysis. Lys110 from sulfolobus sulfataricus IGPS (ssIGPS) that aligns with Lys119 from MtIGPS, was proposed to be a general acid for the proton transfer that initiates the ring closure and decarboxylation of CdRP. To study the importance of Lys119 in the chemical mechanism for MtIGPS, an amino acid change was made at this position ...


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