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Calcium Bistriflimide-Mediated Sulfur(Vi)–Fluoride Exchange (Sufex): Mechanistic Insights Toward Instigating Catalysis, Brian Han, Samuel R. Khasnavis, Matthew Nwerem, Michael Bertagna, Nicholas D. Ball, O. Maduka Ogba 2022 Chapman University

Calcium Bistriflimide-Mediated Sulfur(Vi)–Fluoride Exchange (Sufex): Mechanistic Insights Toward Instigating Catalysis, Brian Han, Samuel R. Khasnavis, Matthew Nwerem, Michael Bertagna, Nicholas D. Ball, O. Maduka Ogba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

We report a mechanistic investigation of calcium bistriflimide-mediated sulfur(VI)–fluoride exchange (SuFEx) between sulfonyl fluorides and amines. We determine the likely pre-activation resting state─a calcium bistriflimide complex with ligated amines─thus allowing for corroborated calculation of the SuFEx activation barrier at ∼21 kcal/mol, compared to 21.5 ± 0.14 kcal/mol derived via kinetics experiments. Transition state analysis revealed: (1) a two-point calcium-substrate contact that activates the sulfur(VI) center and stabilizes the leaving fluoride and (2) a 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane additive that provides Brønsted-base activation of the nucleophilic amine. Stable Ca–F complexes ...


Rational Design Of Composite Nanomaterials For Water Treatment Applications, Mariana Marcos-Hernandez 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

Rational Design Of Composite Nanomaterials For Water Treatment Applications, Mariana Marcos-Hernandez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Water quantity and quality have been affected in communities all around the world due to population growth, pollution, changes in land use, and climate change. In order to cope with existing and anticipated water demands and shortages, the use of treated or reclaimed water is an ongoing alternative that has helped communities all over the world address this problem. The adaptation of nanotechnology to traditional water and wastewater treatment processes offers new opportunities in technological developments. Unique size-dependent properties such as: high surface to mass ratio, high reactivity, high sorption capacities, fast dissolution, superparamagnetism, among others, provide high-tech efficient materials ...


A Performance Evaluation Of Architectural Coatings To Preserve Aerosol Paint On Concrete, Riley Morris 2022 Clemson University

A Performance Evaluation Of Architectural Coatings To Preserve Aerosol Paint On Concrete, Riley Morris

All Theses

The growing movement of assigning cultural and heritage value to graffiti and street art is one without a preservation solution to ensure the longevity of these works in-situ in an outdoor environment. The goal of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of six architectural topcoats’ performance when applied as a conservation treatment to outdoor aerosol graffiti and street art on concrete substrate. An artist’s quality, durable, color-fast spray-paint was applied to twenty-eight concrete test panels to mimic the application of graffiti or street art. Six topcoats, Prosoco SC-1, Prosoco Gloss n’ Guard WB, Keim Faceal Oleo HD ...


Valorization Of Biopolymers And Biomass To Produce Materials For A More Circular Economy, Moira Lauer 2022 Clemson University

Valorization Of Biopolymers And Biomass To Produce Materials For A More Circular Economy, Moira Lauer

All Dissertations

With a globally increasing population and largely unchecked consumption of raw materials, human society is on track for devastating consequences. Two industries responsible for utilizing massive amounts of raw materials and generating equally gargantuan quantities of waste are the packaging and infrastructure sectors. In 2017 in Europe, for example, packaging reached a record 173 kg of packaging waste per capita. One of the largest packaging consumers is the food industry, in which 40% of packaging is made of petroleum-derived single-use plastic, leading to a massive carbon imbalance. “The Built Environment,” on the other hand, is responsible for about 50% of ...


Experimental Chronology And Investigation Of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Nanoparticle Syntheses, Matthew McDonald 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Experimental Chronology And Investigation Of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Nanoparticle Syntheses, Matthew Mcdonald

Doctoral Dissertations

Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) has been a material of intense interest since its discovery in 1964. Recently, efforts have been made to find alternate ways of producing YAG and other analogous oxides as dense materials for applications in lasers, scintillators, and optics. Methods of densification necessitate the use of nanomaterials as the building blocks for their development.

The production of nano-oxides is a diverse field with numerous methods, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. Methods like ball milling and solution combustion were chosen because of their projected simplicity, meanwhile flame spray pyrolysis and precipitation were chosen because of the ...


Influence Of Tethered, Axially Coordinated Ligands On Rh(Ii,Ii)-Catalyzed Carbene Transfer Reactions, Cristian E. Zavala 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Influence Of Tethered, Axially Coordinated Ligands On Rh(Ii,Ii)-Catalyzed Carbene Transfer Reactions, Cristian E. Zavala

Doctoral Dissertations

Dirhodium (II,II) paddlewheel complexes have become ubiquitous in diazo-mediated carbene transfer reactions. The Rh(II,II)-carbene intermediate is capable of a large variety of transformations such as cyclopropanation, C-H and X-H (O, N, S, Si, B) insertion reactions, cyclopropenations, and ylide transformations. Cyclopropanation reactions resulting in the formation of functionalized cyclopropane structures has always been a major focus in Rh(II,II)-carbene chemistry. Improvements on catalytic performance in cyclopropanations has largely focused on the modification of the bridging ligands and has resulted in Rh(II,II) catalysts that exhibit high reactivity and selectivity in cyclopropanation reactions. However ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Silver Thione Complexes, Audrey V. Lawrence 2022 Harding University

Synthesis And Characterization Of Silver Thione Complexes, Audrey V. Lawrence

Honors Theses

Coordination polymers are repeating units of a coordination complex that have applications as catalysts, conductors, and magnets. In this work, silver (I) was the metal of choice because it behaves similarly to copper (I), which has been studied much more extensively and thione ligands were chosen due to their potential for forming coordination polymers. These coordination complexes with silver were synthesized by combining silver nitrate with thioacetamide, N,N'-diphenylthiourea, and 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole. These complexes were characterized via IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray crystallography. Silver thioacetamide was determined to form a coordination complex through the sulfur to form a trigonal ...


Corrosion Prevention Of Aluminum Alloy, Andrea Brenner 2022 Kennesaw State University

Corrosion Prevention Of Aluminum Alloy, Andrea Brenner

Symposium of Student Scholars

Aluminum alloy (Al-alloy) is a widely used metal in construction, aerospace, aviation, and other necessary fields due to its lightweight and tweakable properties. However, corrosion is inevitable on metals and alloys, and that causes millions of dollars of revenue loss every year. Therefore, we propose to research fabricating coating to prevent corrosion on Al-alloy. This study uses an iron-based metal-organic framework (MOF) and polyurethane (PU) based composite coating to prevent corrosion on the Al-alloy. The makeup of the composite material is changed by varying the percentage of MOF. In addition, a binder is also used to enhance the homogenization between ...


Synthetic, Photophysical, And Catalytic Studies Of Light-Harvesting Macrocyclic Complexes, Fox Bratcher 2022 Western Kentucky University

Synthetic, Photophysical, And Catalytic Studies Of Light-Harvesting Macrocyclic Complexes, Fox Bratcher

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Chromophores are an important class of compounds in Nature and industry, with several hundred thousand tons produced annually as dyes and pigments. Alone, these compounds absorb light unto themselves; however, several of these compounds can be combined to produce a beneficial cascading transfer of energy to a core chromophore.

In this study, photophysical properties of several covalent and axially borondipyrromethene (BODIPY)-conjugated complexes of porphyrin and salphen scaffolds have been evaluated in a series of emission and catalytic studies. In the porphyrin systems, a beneficial excited energy transfer (EET) from the BODIPY moieties to the porphyrin core was observed; however ...


A Comparative Study Of Two Nickel-Based Suzuki-Miyaura Hybrid Molecular Catalysts, Mollie Morrow 2022 University of South Carolina - Columbia

A Comparative Study Of Two Nickel-Based Suzuki-Miyaura Hybrid Molecular Catalysts, Mollie Morrow

Senior Theses

Two molecular nickel-based catalysts, (2,2’bipyridine-4,4’-carboxylic acid)nickel(II) chloride and (2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-diamidopropylsilatrane)nickel(II) chloride, were synthesized and subsequently attached to a solid support in the form of amorphous silicon dioxide to create two hybrid molecular/heterogeneous catalysts. Characterization using ICP-MS and ATR-FTIR confirms that both catalysts are bonded to the SiO2 support. The catalysts were both able to catalyze a Suzuki-Miyarua cross-coupling which their molecular counterparts were unable to; the carboxylate catalyst was able to achieve yields of 10% and the silatrane catalyst achieved yields of up to 50%. Post-reaction analysis ...


Microfluidic Paper Analytical Devices, Madison Page 2022 Taylor University

Microfluidic Paper Analytical Devices, Madison Page

Chemistry

Microfluidic paper analytical devices (µPADs) are small, paper-based matrices similar to Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC). They are capable of semi-quantitative analysis, with applications ranging from medical to environmental to food and beverage testing. Important to improving point-of-care devices (POCs), various techniques have been integrated into µPADs to customize analysis and fit different clinical situations.


Comparing And Contrasting Therapeutic Drugs Vs. Lifestyle Changes That Combattype-Ii Diabetes, Alexander Cline Helmuth 2022 Taylor University

Comparing And Contrasting Therapeutic Drugs Vs. Lifestyle Changes That Combattype-Ii Diabetes, Alexander Cline Helmuth

Chemistry

In this thesis, I will be presenting various preventive approaches to combat type-II diabetes. The focus of this paper will be comparing and contrasting therapeutic drug targets such as Metformin and Sulfonylureas that are prescribed for type-II diabetic patients versus taking preventative steps such as making lifestyle changes including weight management, physical activity, and having a balanced diet that prevents onset of type-II diabetes or helps patients manage type-II diabetes. From this paper, one will gain insight on how there are multiple approaches to combat type-II diabetes that are not in the form of the pill.


The Application Of Biological Processes To Increase Energy Potential In Landfills, Ashlyn Eisenhart 2022 Taylor University

The Application Of Biological Processes To Increase Energy Potential In Landfills, Ashlyn Eisenhart

Chemistry

There has been a dramatic increase in the amount of waste that we humans have created. This has been due to population growth, an increase in industrial manufacturing, along with urbanization and modernization.8 The number of tons of municipal solid waste entering landfills has increased from 82.5 million tons in 1960 to 146.1 million tons in 2018.17 However, thanks to recycling, composting, and energy recovery from combustion, the percentage of solid waste going to landfills has dramatically decreased, from around 93.6 to about 65.4 percent.17


Chemistry Of Toothpaste, Kayla Blanche Kirtley 2022 Taylor University

Chemistry Of Toothpaste, Kayla Blanche Kirtley

Chemistry

The chemistry of toothpaste is explained, with a description of the chemical components and their mode of action in the role of toothpaste.


Synthesis Of Phosphonate-Based Diimide Ligands, Kenya V. Medina, Adelani Pius 2022 St. Mary's University

Synthesis Of Phosphonate-Based Diimide Ligands, Kenya V. Medina, Adelani Pius

St. Mary's University Honors Theses and Projects

There has been a resurged interest in the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks because of their potential applications in energy production and drug delivery. Although diimides are insoluble in aqueous solutions, the addition of phosphonic acid allows the complex to be water soluble, which greatly increases their application. Therefore, the creation of a hybrid metal-organic complex by the addition of phosphonic groups to diimide ligands can result in a polar porous compound. In this project the ligand design included the use of dianhydrides including pyromellitic dianhydride, naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride, perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride, and biphenyl-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride. These dianhydride precursors were refluxed under argon ...


Analysis Of The Light Responsive Azobenzene Peptide Nucleic Acid Duplexes, Kat Nguyen 2022 Georgia Southern University

Analysis Of The Light Responsive Azobenzene Peptide Nucleic Acid Duplexes, Kat Nguyen

Honors College Theses

Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are oligonucleotide analogues in which the sugar-phosphate backbone has been replaced by a pseudopeptide skeleton. Since PNAs use the natural nucleobases (Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Uracil, and Guanine) found in either DNA and/or RNA, they are able to hybridize according to Watson-Crick base-pairing to form duplexes. PNA is a promising therapeutic agent because they can function as antigene or antisense chemical agents. To further enhance their utility, we aim to incorporate a photoswitchable moiety using azobenzene. Here, we report the results of the synthesis and purification of a photoswitchable 11 mer PNA along with initial characterization ...


Using Powder Diffraction To Give Insight Into Structures Of Ir2(Diisocyanomenthane)4x2 [Dimen] (X = Cl; Pf6; Bph4), Mairead Brownell 2022 Claremont Colleges

Using Powder Diffraction To Give Insight Into Structures Of Ir2(Diisocyanomenthane)4x2 [Dimen] (X = Cl; Pf6; Bph4), Mairead Brownell

Scripps Senior Theses

Ir2(dimen)42+ (dimen = 1,8-diisocyanomenthane) has been studied extensively as model compound to better understand catalysis of photochemical reactions. Although Ir2(dimen)42+ has been used primarily to observe the photophysical changes of metal-metal transitions, it gives great insight into the transitions that allow other d8-d8 metal complexes to undergo photochemical processes and generate hydrogen gas. The large visible range by which Ir2(dimen)42+ (1) can be electronically excited in solution is indicative of its two solution phase ground states, which interestingly have been hypothesized to resemble two unique packing structures observed in the powder state. In this ...


Dirhenium Compounds Containing The Diphosphine Ligands Ph2pch2pph2, Ph2pch(Cn)Pph2, Or Ph2pch(Ch3)Pph2: A Comparative Study, Hannah C. Arthur 2022 Hollins University

Dirhenium Compounds Containing The Diphosphine Ligands Ph2pch2pph2, Ph2pch(Cn)Pph2, Or Ph2pch(Ch3)Pph2: A Comparative Study, Hannah C. Arthur

Undergraduate Honors Theses

When M2L10 complexes containing two rhenium(III) atoms in a quadruple bond react with an excess of the diphosphine ligand Ph2PCH2PPh2, the bond order decreases, and the rhenium is reduced to rhenium(II). When two diphosphine ligands are bonded to the dirhenium center, they can adopt a trans-trans, trans-cis, or cis-cis configuration. NMR spectra of compounds that adopt the cis-cis arrangement show unusually large downfield shifts for one of the bridgehead methylene hydrogens (P-CH2-P). To understand the unusual chemical shift, the hydrogens first have to be assigned. The strategy for ...


The Effects Of Solution Ph, Temperature And Redox Environment On Corrosion And Oxide Formation On Inconel X-750, Mohsen Bahrami 2021 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Solution Ph, Temperature And Redox Environment On Corrosion And Oxide Formation On Inconel X-750, Mohsen Bahrami

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nickel-based superalloys have a wide range of applications in different industries due to their exceptional mechanical and corrosion-resistance properties. These alloys are widely employed in the nuclear industry. Inside a nuclear reactor, these alloys are exposed to a continuous flux of gamma-radiation. When exposed to gamma-radiation, water decomposes, resulting in the production of oxidizing and reducing species. These species have a considerable effect on the redox chemistry of the solution, which controls the overall corrosion behaviour of nickel-based superalloys.

Corrosion of metals and alloys involves several elementary steps. A comprehensive understanding of these steps and how they influence each other ...


Production And Adsorption Of Volatile Tellurium Hexafluoride, Stephanie H. Bruffey 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Production And Adsorption Of Volatile Tellurium Hexafluoride, Stephanie H. Bruffey

Doctoral Dissertations

Research and development supporting the management of off-gases from nuclear fuel reprocessing has historically been focused on the off-gas streams that arise from aqueous reprocessing technology. With the advent of advanced reactor designs off-gas streams arising from advanced reprocessing methodology, such as that of FV [fluoride volatility] processing, also merit consideration. This work focuses on TeF6 [tellurium hexafluoride], one of the most volatile radioactive compounds produced during FV, and investigates TeF6 production, measurement, and abatement technologies.

To assist in on-line monitoring of TeF6 by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, this work systematically used the ideal gas law and Beer ...


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