Synthesis And Conductivity Analysis Of A Methyl (Polyethylene Glycol) Comb Polymer, 2021 University of Mississippi
Synthesis And Conductivity Analysis Of A Methyl (Polyethylene Glycol) Comb Polymer, Olivia Fox
The overall goal of work in this field is to improve materials for use in a variety of applications in fuel cell and battery production. This thesis specifically investigates the synthesis of two variations of a methyl (polyethylene glycol) comb polymer electrolyte (MePEGnwhere n=7) to understand how the molecular structure of an ion-conducting polymer affects its electrochemical properties. The MePEG used in this synthesis contains seven ethylene glycol groups and was added to a poly (methylhydrosiloxane) comb polymer backbone. In the first sample, the polymer contained only the MePEG sidechain, and in the second sample, the polymer ...
Effect Of Precise Control Of Crosslink Density On The Thermal, Mechanical, And Conductive Properties Of Covalently Crosslinked Ionene Networks, Alexander Thome
Honors College Theses
Ionic liquids (ILs), besides being well known as environmentally friendly solvents, have attracted attention for a wide variety of other applications, including gas separation, 3D-printing and electrochemical actuators. However, for many such applications, incorporation of the IL moiety into a polymeric material eliminates the use of mechanically unstable free ILs while maintaining many of their electrochemical benefits. Such polymers can take two basic forms: poly(ionic liquid)s are ion-containing polymers in which the IL group is attached pendant to the polymeric backbone, while ionenes are ion-containing polymers in which the IL group is anchored directly into the backbone of ...
Thermal, Mechanical, And Rehealing Properties Of Cross-Linked Ionene Networks, 2021 Murray State University
Thermal, Mechanical, And Rehealing Properties Of Cross-Linked Ionene Networks, Katelyn Lindenmeyer
Honors College Theses
Polymers which contain ionic liquid groups have numerous applications in a wide variety of fields. Past research from our group has shown that IL-containing polymers which exist in covalently crosslinked networks can exhibit good ionic conductivities despite the hindrance in polymer chain mobility and relaxation. In part one of this thesis, efforts to create ionic networks which have the capability of being rehealed after exposure to an external stimulus are discussed. Thermoreversible maleimide-furan chemistry was incorporated into an imidazolium-containing ionene network. Maleimide-terminated, imidazolium-containing monomers were coupled with furan-functionalized monomers, prepared from commercially available multifunctional acrylates. Thermal, mechanical and rheological characterization ...
Nitro Group Reduction For Use In Organic, Cathodic Materials, 2021 University of South Dakota
Nitro Group Reduction For Use In Organic, Cathodic Materials, Brock G. Goeden
The industrial demand for higher capacity, light-weight battery materials has skyrocketed in recent years due to heavy investments in portable electronics, electronic vehicles, and renewable energy sources. However, rechargeable battery technology has seen little improvement since the invention of the Lithium-Ion battery in the 1980s. The low energy density of the traditionally utilized LiCoO2 cathodic material (specific capacity: 272 mAh g-1), has limited its potential to meet these increasing demands. To solve this problem, our research group is investigating new types of lightweight, organic, polymeric materials with conductive backbones as a possible replacement for the cathodic materials in Lithium-Ion batteries ...
Electrospinning Fibers Via Complex Coacervation, 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Electrospinning Fibers Via Complex Coacervation, Xiangxi Meng
Electrospun fibers are high-surface-area materials widely used in applications ranging from batteries to wound dressings. Typically, an electrospinning precursor solution is prepared by dissolving a high-molecular-weight polymer in an organic solvent to form a sufficiently entangled solution. Our approach bypasses the requirement for entanglements and completely avoids toxic chemicals by focusing on using an aqueous complex coacervates solution. Coacervates are a dense, polymer-rich liquid phase resulting from the associative electrostatic complexation of oppositely charged macroions.
We were the first to demonstrate that liquid complex coacervates could be successfully electrospun into polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) fibers. A canonical coacervate system was formed ...
Characterization, Immobilization, And Polymer Related Applications Of Watermelon Seed Powder, A Practical Source Of Urease Enzyme, 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
Characterization, Immobilization, And Polymer Related Applications Of Watermelon Seed Powder, A Practical Source Of Urease Enzyme, Anthony Quan Quoc Mai
LSU Doctoral Dissertations
Urease enzyme was crystallized almost a century ago, and to this day its intrinsic stability is not ideal for everyday applications. This work introduces a new process by which a naturally encapsulated material, watermelon seed powder (WMSP), is characterized for its stability and activity. WMSP enzymatic activity has been measured for over a year at various storage conditions—exposed to ambient atmosphere for a year, WMSP retained above 90% activity. In aqueous conditions, the enzyme maintained above 60% activity after two months; with the addition of a preservative that number stays at about 90%. There is a pH shift of ...
Degradation Of Natural And Synthetic Fibers In Various Aqueous Environments, 2021 Belmont University
Degradation Of Natural And Synthetic Fibers In Various Aqueous Environments, Jaylin Bryant
Fabrics are one variant of polymers, macromolecules that form the foundation of our society. They consist of small subunits called monomers, which are covalently bonded together and layered over each other through intermolecular attractions. There are natural fabrics, such as cotton and silk, and synthetic fabrics like polyester and rayon. Scientists in forensic taphonomy study postmortem changes made to human remains, which can also include clothes found at the scene. In this study, the degradation rates of four white fabrics (cotton, polyester, rayon, and silk) were observed in various aqueous environments (pure, chlorinated, sea, and lake) in order to observe ...
Recently Developed Carbohydrate Based Gelators And Their Applications, 2021 Old Dominion University
Recently Developed Carbohydrate Based Gelators And Their Applications, Joedian Morris, Jonathan Bietsch, Kristen Bashaw, Guijun Wang
Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications
Carbohydrate based low molecular weight gelators have been an intense subject of study over the past decade. The self-assembling systems built from natural products have high significance as biocompatible materials and renewable resources. The versatile structures available from naturally existing monosaccharides have enriched the molecular libraries that can be used for the construction of gelators. The bottom-up strategy in designing low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) for a variety of applications has been adopted by many researchers. Rational design, along with some serendipitous discoveries, has resulted in multiple classes of molecular gelators. This review covers the literature from 2017-2020 on monosaccharide ...
Proto-Rna Synthesis Using Glycerol And Phosphate Anion, 2021 The University of Akron
Proto-Rna Synthesis Using Glycerol And Phosphate Anion, Noah Parker
Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects
Nucleic acids are important molecules for all life, serving as the primary molecules for information storage and reproduction. RNA has long been thought to be the molecule that initiated protein synthesis. However, RNA has recently been thought to be too complex to synthesize prebiotically. Through a 1:1 mole ratio condensation of glycerol and phosphoric acid, I generated glycerol-phosphate oligomers that resemble a primitive form of the carbon-phosphate backbone of RNA. 75 mmol MgCl2 was added to some samples to see if the Mg cation could stabilize the reaction intermediates and further promote longer proto-RNA oligomers. These samples were all ...
Quantifying Confinement Of Chain Dynamics For Chains Tethered To Self-Assembling Crystalline Nanodomains Using Neutron Spin Echo Spectroscopy, Logan Benninghoff
Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects
Polyisobutylene (PIB) rubbers can be reinforced with crystalline β-alanine nanodomains. Progress has been made in understanding the morphology of the nanodomains, but the dynamics of the PIB molecule chains attached to the surface of the nanodomains and in the matrix are not well understood. It is possible to observe the motion of these PIB chains using Neutron Spin Echo (NSE) experiments, since the experimental technique can give data for smaller timescales. Data collection for reinforced rubber samples has already been performed, but the data still need to be analyzed. For my honors project I will be comparing the data to ...
Molecular Recognition Of Pet Depolymerization Products And Beta-Cyclodextrin, 2021 The University of Akron
Molecular Recognition Of Pet Depolymerization Products And Beta-Cyclodextrin, Thomas Palisin
Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects
Using molecular recognition techniques to determine the binding constant of the host-guest relationships of the depolymerization products of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and cyclodextrin species. The main method of data collection used was florescence spectroscopy. Using a titration method and measuring the florescence intensity, a nonlinear regression was used to determine the binding constant.
Establishing Independent Tunability Of The Mechanical And Transport Properties Of Polymer Gels, 2021 Bucknell University
Establishing Independent Tunability Of The Mechanical And Transport Properties Of Polymer Gels, Lucas Rankin
Polymer gels can be used in the fabrication of materials for filtering liquid and gaseous media, solid-state electrolytes, and transdermal medical patches. This diverse range of applications primarily relies on the transport and mechanical properties of polymer gels. Both sets of properties have shown excellent tunability, but typically in a coupled fashion. Establishing the independent tunability of the transport and mechanical properties of polymer gels (using simple, cost-effective methods) is paramount if polymer gels are to be used to their full potential. Specifically, block copolymer gels self-assemble into organized nanoscale networks within the gel solvent, which allows for facile control ...
Modeling Mass Transfer And Chemical Reaction In Industrial Nitrocellulose Manufacturing Processes, 2020 New Jersey Institute of Technology
Modeling Mass Transfer And Chemical Reaction In Industrial Nitrocellulose Manufacturing Processes, Francis Patrick Sullivan
A series of models are proposed to describe the production of military grade nitrocellulose from dense cellulose materials in mixtures of nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and water. This effort is conducted to provide a predictive capability for analyzing the rate and extent of reaction achieved under a range of reaction conditions used in the industrial nitrocellulose manufacturing process for sheeted cellulose materials. Because this capability does not presently exist, nitrocellulose producers have historically relied on a very narrow range of cellulose raw materials and resorted to trial and error methods to develop processing conditions for new materials. This tool enables ...
Control Of Corrosion On Ss316l Using Surface Initiated Polymers, 2020 Duquesne University
Control Of Corrosion On Ss316l Using Surface Initiated Polymers, Alexander Rupprecht
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Pitting corrosion is arguably one of the most destructive and dangerous forms of corrosion, resulting in damage to structures, the environment, and public health. In addition, damage caused to structures such as bridges, pipelines, and boats, corrosion also has a profound effect on the biomedical community. Implanted metallic devices (i.e., vascular stents and artificial joints) are prone to pitting corrosion caused by aggressive ions present in extracellular fluid. To provide a corrosion-resistant surface on SS316L, films of poly(styrene), poly(methyl acrylate), and poly(methyl methacrylate) were formed using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The resulting hydrophobic polymer ...
Functionalized Materials From Atom Transfer Radical Processes, 2020 Duquesne University
Functionalized Materials From Atom Transfer Radical Processes, Sean Fischer
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
This work is focused on the synthesis, characterization, and application of functionalized materials prepared from atom transfer radical processes. Atom transfer radical processes encompass both atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) and polymerization (ATRP) reactions, both of which are catalyzed by ppm amounts of copper complexes. The synthetic efforts of ATRA include increasing adduct selectivity through optimization of reaction conditions to generate small molecules in high to moderate yields. ATRA provides retention of the halogen moiety, which is an attractive functional group that can be further modified with other transformations. Specifically, the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition (CuAAC) allows for the ...
3-D Fabry–Pérot Cavities Sculpted On Fiber Tips Using A Multiphoton Polymerization Process, 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology
3-D Fabry–Pérot Cavities Sculpted On Fiber Tips Using A Multiphoton Polymerization Process, Jonathan W. Smith, Jeremiah C. Williams, Joseph S. Suelzer, Nicholas G. Usechak, Hengky Chandrahalim
This paper presents 3-D Fabry–Pérot (FP) cavities fabricated directly onto cleaved ends of low-loss optical fibers by a two-photon polymerization (2PP) process. This fabrication technique is quick, simple, and inexpensive compared to planar microfabrication processes, which enables rapid prototyping and the ability to adapt to new requirements. These devices also utilize true 3-D design freedom, facilitating the realization of microscale optical elements with challenging geometries. Three different device types were fabricated and evaluated: an unreleased single-cavity device, a released dual-cavity device, and a released hemispherical mirror dual-cavity device. Each iteration improved the quality of the FP cavity's reflection ...
High-Temperature Resistant Water-Soluble Polymers Derived From Exotic Amino Acids, 2020 Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
High-Temperature Resistant Water-Soluble Polymers Derived From Exotic Amino Acids, Sumant Dwivedi, Aniruddha Nag, Shigeki Sakamoto, Yasuyoshi Funahashi, Toyohiro Harimoto, Kenji Takada, Tatsuo Kaneko
© The Royal Society of Chemistry. High-performance water-soluble polymers have a wide range of applications from engineering materials to biomedical plastics. However, existing materials are either natural polymers that lack high thermostability or rigid synthetic polymers. Therefore, we design an amino acid-derived building block, 4,4′-diamino-α-truxillate dianion (4ATA2−), that induces water solubility in high-performance polymers. Polyimides containing 4ATA2− units are intrinsically water-soluble and are processed into films cast from an aqueous solution. The resulting polyimide films exhibit exceptional transparency and extremely high thermal stability. In addition, the films can be made insoluble in water by simple post-treatment using ...
Development Of A Route To Functional Polymers Via Click Chemistry, 2020 The University of Western Ontario
Development Of A Route To Functional Polymers Via Click Chemistry, Kyle Classen
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Functional polymers are desirable due to their use in applications such as drug delivery and bioimaging. This work describes the development of a functional polymer template, expanding upon current routes to creating functional polymer libraries. The methodology utilizes a masking-unmasking strategy to protect and then reveal a strained alkyne for the introduction of functional entities via post-polymerization modification.
The synthesis and characterization by high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as 1H NMR, UV-Vis, and FT-IR spectroscopy of a masked strained alkyne monomer is presented. First, the strained alkyne, masked by a cyclopropenone moiety, was synthesized. Next, a norbornene derivative was ...
Rheological Studies Of Fully-Formulated Coatings Thickened With Heur: Effects Of Surfactants, 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Rheological Studies Of Fully-Formulated Coatings Thickened With Heur: Effects Of Surfactants, Brandon M. Bonilla
Rheology modifiers such as hydrophobically-modified ethoxylated urethane (HEUR)thickeners are included in waterborne latex coatings to optimize shear-rate dependent viscosity and other rheological properties. While these HEUR polymers are commonly used in industry, the complex chemical interactions that contribute to rheological properties are still not completely understood. Prior work in this area has focused on understanding latex-HEUR and latex-surfactant-HEUR interactions that affect rheological properties. Additionally, studies have been previously conducted to understand the relaxation mechanisms of complex interactions present in HEUR-thickened waterborne latex coatings under various dynamic conditions. The objective of this work is to extend the experimental work to ...
Pressure Driven Desalination Utilizing Nanomaterials, 2020 calpoly san luis obispo
Pressure Driven Desalination Utilizing Nanomaterials, Fangyou Xie
Nanomaterials such as graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes, have demonstrated excellent properties for membrane desalination, including decrease of maintenance, increase of flux rate, simple solution casting, and impressive chemical inertness. Here, two projects are studied to investigate nanocarbon based membrane desalination. The first project is to prepare hybrid membranes with amyloid fibrils intercalated with graphene oxide sheets. The addition of protein amyloid fibrils expands the interlayer spacing between graphene oxide nanosheets and introduces additional functional groups in the diffusion pathways, resulting in increase of flux rate and rejection rate for the organic dyes. Amyloid fibrils also provide structural assistance to ...