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The Novel Chlorination Of Zirconium Metal And Its Application To A Recycling Protocol For Zircaloy Cladding From Spent Nuclear Fuel Rods, Breanna K. Vestal 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Novel Chlorination Of Zirconium Metal And Its Application To A Recycling Protocol For Zircaloy Cladding From Spent Nuclear Fuel Rods, Breanna K. Vestal

Doctoral Dissertations

A novel protocol has been developed for the chemical removal of zirconium alloy (Zircaloy) cladding from spent nuclear fuel rods and subsequent isolation and purification of nuclear-grade zirconium chloride derived therefrom. This protocol is based on the chemistry developed from two new scientific findings.

First, two new oxidative chlorination reactions have been discovered for zirconium metal. In both solvents, zirconium can be quantitatively chlorinated at temperatures less than 150°C, with the operative equations seen below. In sulfur monochloride, the reaction is completed in 2 – 4 hours via surface etching, exhibiting 0th order kinetic behavior. The elemental sulfur byproduct …


Analytical Techniques For The Analysis Of Uranium Bearing Materials, Nathaniel D. Fletcher 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Analytical Techniques For The Analysis Of Uranium Bearing Materials, Nathaniel D. Fletcher

Doctoral Dissertations

The interest in the use of nuclear power has increased drastically in recent years. This is due to significantly increased efficiency at producing energy when compared to fossil fuels. With the increased use of nuclear power comes an increased need to for monitor for uranium bearing materials outside of regulatory control. This dissertation covers four projects aimed at improving the analysis of these materials. The first projects aims to develop a method that allows for the analysis of elements that exist in nature as anions by triple quadrupole ICP – MS. This would allow for the ability to measure more …


“Translation Of Hdac6 Pet Imaging Using [18f]Ekz-001 – Cgmp Production And Measurement Of Hdac6 Target Occupancy In Nhps” – A Review, Dania Rahal 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

“Translation Of Hdac6 Pet Imaging Using [18f]Ekz-001 – Cgmp Production And Measurement Of Hdac6 Target Occupancy In Nhps” – A Review, Dania Rahal

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

The inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been reported to alleviate the effects of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. The brain-penetrant PET radioligand [18F]EKZ-001 has high affinity and selectivity towards HDAC6 and therefore suggests great promise in therapeutic treatment studies and development for neurodegenerative diseases. “Translation of HDAC6 PET imaging using [18F]EKZ-001 – cGMP production and measurement of HDAC6 target occupancy in NHPs” has achieved an effective, fully automated method of producing [18F]EKZ-001 in compliance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) to support the translation of [18F]EKZ-001 PET for …


Techno-Economic Feasibility Analysis Of A Fully Mobile Radiation Oncology System Using Monte Carlo Simulation, Alex T. Price, Casey I. Canfield, Geoffrey D. Hugo, James A. Kavanaugh, Lauren E. Henke, Eric Laugeman, Pamela Samson, Clair Reynolds-Kueny, Elizabeth A. Cudney 2022 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Techno-Economic Feasibility Analysis Of A Fully Mobile Radiation Oncology System Using Monte Carlo Simulation, Alex T. Price, Casey I. Canfield, Geoffrey D. Hugo, James A. Kavanaugh, Lauren E. Henke, Eric Laugeman, Pamela Samson, Clair Reynolds-Kueny, Elizabeth A. Cudney

Engineering Management and Systems Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

PURPOSEDisparities in radiation oncology (RO) can be attributed to geographic location, socioeconomic status, race, sex, and other societal factors. One potential solution is to implement a fully mobile (FM) RO system to bring radiotherapy to rural areas and reduce barriers to access. We use Monte Carlo simulation to quantify techno-economic feasibility with uncertainty, using two rural Missouri scenarios.METHODSRecently, a semimobile RO system has been developed by building an o-ring linear accelerator (linac) into a mobile coach that is used for temporary care, months at a time. Transitioning to a more FM-RO system, which changes location within a given day, presents …


Extractive Membranes For The Detection And Screening Of Waterborne Plutonium, James Foster 2022 Clemson University

Extractive Membranes For The Detection And Screening Of Waterborne Plutonium, James Foster

All Dissertations

The development of rapid screening tools for special nuclear materials remains a crucial focus for nonproliferation efforts. Traditional approaches for the analysis of trace-level Pu isotopes in water requires tedious and time-consuming sample preparation steps that do not lend well to expeditious screening. Therefore, a novel analytical method that combines both Pu concentration and source preparation into a single detection system would make for an invaluable tool for nuclear security applications. Extractive membranes absorbers can help to fulfill this role as they are capable of concentrating Pu to detectable limits while subsequently serving as alpha spectrometry sample sources. In Chapter …


Design & Analysis Of Mixed-Mode Integrated Circuit For Pulse-Shape Discrimination, Bryan Orabutt 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Design & Analysis Of Mixed-Mode Integrated Circuit For Pulse-Shape Discrimination, Bryan Orabutt

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

In nuclear science experiments it is usually necessary to determine the type of radiation, its energy and direction with considerable accuracy. The detection of neutrons and discriminating them from gamma rays is particularly difficult. A popular method of doing so is to measure characteristics intrinsic to the pulse shape of each radiation type in order to perform pulse-shape discrimination (PSD).

Historically, PSD capable systems have been designed with two approaches in mind: specialized analog circuitry, or digital signal processing (DSP). In this work we propose a PSD capable circuit topology using techniques from both the analog and DSP domains. We …


Electron Spin Relaxation Of Nitroxide Spin Labels And Relaxation Processes, Thacien Ngendahimana 2022 University of Denver

Electron Spin Relaxation Of Nitroxide Spin Labels And Relaxation Processes, Thacien Ngendahimana

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

MTSL is the nitroxide spin label that is most commonly used in site-directed spin labeling. However, due to rotation of its gem-dimethyl groups that average anisotropic interactions, Tm becomes short above about 70 K and this makes DEER experiments difficult at these temperatures. Strategies for decreasing spin echo dephasing and electron spin lattice relaxation rates are important for design of nitroxide spin labels and molecular qubits.

In searching for labels with longer Tm, new nitroxide spin labels devoid of gemdimethyl groups or with more rigid structures were synthesized at the University of Nebraska and pulsed EPR measurements …


Statistical Measurements Of Dispersion Measure Fluctuations Of Frbs, Siyao Xu, David H. Weinberg, Bing Zhang 2021 Institute for Advanced Studies

Statistical Measurements Of Dispersion Measure Fluctuations Of Frbs, Siyao Xu, David H. Weinberg, Bing Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Extragalactic fast radio bursts (FRBs) have large dispersion measures (DMs) and are unique probes of intergalactic electron density fluctuations. By using the recently released First CHIME/FRB Catalog, we reexamined the structure function (SF) of DM fluctuations. It shows a large DM fluctuation similar to that previously reported in Xu & Zhang, but no clear correlation hinting toward large-scale turbulence is reproduced with this larger sample. To suppress the distortion effect from FRB distances and their host DMs, we focus on a subset of CHIME catalog with DM < 500 pc cm-3. A trend of nonconstant SF and nonzero correlation function (CF) at angular separations θ less than 10 is seen, but with large statistical uncertainties. The difference found between SF and that derived from CF at θ ≲ 10 can be ascribed to the large statistical uncertainties or the density inhomogeneities on scales on the order of 100 Mpc. The possible correlation of electron density fluctuations and inhomogeneities of density distribution should be tested when several thousands of FRBs are available.


Effects Of Gamma-Radiation On The Evolution Of Copper Corrosion Dynamics In Deep Geological Repository Solution Environments, Lindsay J. Grandy 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Gamma-Radiation On The Evolution Of Copper Corrosion Dynamics In Deep Geological Repository Solution Environments, Lindsay J. Grandy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Canadian plan for permanent disposal of used nuclear fuel involves a used fuel container (UFC), a carbon steel vessel with a copper coating to provide the corrosion protection. The corrosion conditions for the copper layer of the UFC are expected to involve small, stagnant water volumes, pH values between 6 and 9, and a continuous flux of γ-radiation emitted from the radionuclides trapped in the fuel matrix. While γ-radiation does not affect the copper metal directly, humid air and water will radiolytically decompose into redox-active and acidic species which will be produced at constant concentrations and can alter the …


Thin Safety Margin: The Sefor Super-Prompt-Critical Transient Experiments, Ozark Mountains, Arkansas 1970–1971, Jerry Havens, Collis Geren 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Thin Safety Margin: The Sefor Super-Prompt-Critical Transient Experiments, Ozark Mountains, Arkansas 1970–1971, Jerry Havens, Collis Geren

Arkansas Scholarly Editions

Thin Safety Margin charts the history of SEFOR, a twenty-megawatt reactor that operated for three years in the rural Ozark Mountains of Arkansas as part of an internationally sponsored program designed to demonstrate the Doppler effect in plutonium-oxide-fueled fast reactors. Authors Jerry Havens and Collis Geren draw upon this history to assess the accidental explosion risk inherent in using fast reactors to reduce the energy industry’s carbon dioxide emissions.

If a sufficiently powerful fast-neutron explosion were to cause the containment of a reactor such as SEFOR’s to fail, the reactor’s radiotoxic plutonium fuel could vaporize and escape into the surrounding …


Free-Free Absorption In Hot Relativistic Flows: Application To Fast Radio Bursts, Esha Kundu, Bing Zhang 2021 Curtin University

Free-Free Absorption In Hot Relativistic Flows: Application To Fast Radio Bursts, Esha Kundu, Bing Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Magnetic flares create hot relativistic shocks outside the light cylinder radius of a magnetized star. Radio emission produced in such a shock or at a radius smaller than the shock undergoes free–free absorption while passing through the shocked medium. In this work, we demonstrate that this free–free absorption can lead to a negative drift in the frequency-time spectra. Whether it is related to the downward drift pattern observed in fast radio bursts (FRBs) is unclear. However, if the FRB down-drifting is due to this mechanism then it will be pronounced in those shocks that have isotropic kinetic energies ≳1044 erg. …


A Proposed Change To Astronaut Exposures Limits Is A Giant Leap Backwards For Radiation Protection, Francis A. Cucinotta, Walter Schimmerling, Eleanor A. Blakely, Tom K. Hei 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A Proposed Change To Astronaut Exposures Limits Is A Giant Leap Backwards For Radiation Protection, Francis A. Cucinotta, Walter Schimmerling, Eleanor A. Blakely, Tom K. Hei

Health Physics & Diagnostic Sciences Faculty Publications

Addressing the uncertainties in assessing health risks from cosmic ray heavy ions is a major scientific challenge recognized by many previous reports by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) advising the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These reports suggested a series of steps to pursue the scientific basis for space radiation protection, including the implementation of age and sex dependent risk assessments and exposure limits appropriate for a small population of radiation workers, the evaluation of uncertainties in risk projections, and developing a vigorous research program in heavy ion …


Lanthanide Interactions With Ligands And Biomolecules: Spectroscopic And Extraction Studies, Setareh Sakhdari 2021 Florida International University

Lanthanide Interactions With Ligands And Biomolecules: Spectroscopic And Extraction Studies, Setareh Sakhdari

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lanthanides (Ln), also known as rare earth metals, have been utilized for industrial and biological purposes and are commonly encountered in the 3+ oxidation state as Ln3+. The presence of Ln in spent nuclear fuel introduces problems during the transmutation and partitioning of actinides (An) due to the Ln high neutron cross-sections. Therefore, designing ligands for Ln3+ complexation, can be helpful for their separation from An3+ in nuclear technology. Also, the biomimetic roles of Ln3+ could be suitable for studying the biological macromolecules, such as the Ca2+-binding EF-hand proteins that are otherwise inaccessible …


Records Of Enriched Uranium Atmospheric Deposition In Pond Sediments In Piketon, Oh, Brianna Herner, Brian Majestic, Michael Ketterer 2021 University of Denver

Records Of Enriched Uranium Atmospheric Deposition In Pond Sediments In Piketon, Oh, Brianna Herner, Brian Majestic, Michael Ketterer

DU Undergraduate Research Journal Archive

The enrichment of uranium, often for nuclear weapons programs and commercial nuclear reactors, produces higher concentrations of radioactive uranium 235 (235U) than what naturally occurs, which can pose a human health hazard. The most abundant naturally occurring uranium isotope is 238U, which is still radioactive, however a higher concentration of 235U skews the observed isotopic uranium distribution. The Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, located near Piketon, OH, enriched uranium from 1954 to 2001 and 235U pollution has recently been detected in air and sediment samples in the surrounding community. The extent of the …


Uranium Fate And Mineral Transformations Upon Remediation With Ammonia (Nh3) Gas, Silvina A. Di Pietro 2021 Florida International University

Uranium Fate And Mineral Transformations Upon Remediation With Ammonia (Nh3) Gas, Silvina A. Di Pietro

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The fission of uranium (U) for plutonium production was a major activity at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State during World War II and Cold War. This endeavor resulted in the generation of over two million liters of high-level radioactive waste, most of which still remains in 177 underground storage tanks. Due to the improper storage and aging of these tanks in addition to other waste releases across the Site, approximately 200,000 kg of U have been released into the vadose zone. The objective of this study was to determine whether the application of the …


Radium Isotopes As Submarine Groundwater Discharge (Sgd) Tracers: Review And Recommendations, J. Garcia-Orellana, V. Rodellas, Joseph Tamborski, M. Diego-Feliu, P. van Beek, Y. Weinstein, M. Charette, A. Alorda-Kleinglass, H.A. Michael, T. Stieglitz, J. Scholten 2021 Old Dominion University

Radium Isotopes As Submarine Groundwater Discharge (Sgd) Tracers: Review And Recommendations, J. Garcia-Orellana, V. Rodellas, Joseph Tamborski, M. Diego-Feliu, P. Van Beek, Y. Weinstein, M. Charette, A. Alorda-Kleinglass, H.A. Michael, T. Stieglitz, J. Scholten

OES Faculty Publications

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important process of the hydrological cycle worldwide and plays a major role as a conveyor of dissolved compounds to the ocean. Naturally occurring radium isotopes (Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-226 and Ra-228) are widely employed geochemical tracers in marine environments. Whilst Ra isotopes were initially predominantly applied to study open ocean processes and fluxes across the continental margins, their most common application in the marine environment has undoubtedly become the identification and quantification of SGD. This review focuses on the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of SGD and associated inputs of water …


Cyclization Of Peptide Structures By Creating Metal Foldamers Using 99m-Tc/Re(Co)3, Dhvani D. Oza 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Cyclization Of Peptide Structures By Creating Metal Foldamers Using 99m-Tc/Re(Co)3, Dhvani D. Oza

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Constrained peptides have been successful as therapeutics owing to the rigidity in their framework, allowing them to have enhanced pharmacological properties. Apart from covalent bond based cyclization, constraints can be induced by cyclization using metal coordination. The metals Re and 99mTc are one of the few metals which have not been studied in great detail for their ability to cyclize linear peptides. A tri-alanine sequence was employed in the peptide backbone due to its ability to form stable helices. In addition, another tripeptide sequence RGD, which is recognized by the integrin avb3, was also used. …


Production Of Medical Radioisotopes Using Titanium Accelerator Targets, Christopher Shaun Loveless 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Production Of Medical Radioisotopes Using Titanium Accelerator Targets, Christopher Shaun Loveless

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Theranostic radiopharmaceuticals enable diagnostic imaging and radionuclide therapy in patients using a single molecular agent labeled with a diagnostic-therapeutic pair (e.g., 68Ga/177Lu) or a theranostic radionuclide (e.g., 131I). This theranostic approach can help inform patient-specific treatment plans and improve clinical outcomes. Radionuclide pairs used in theranostic agents fall into two categories: pseudo matched-pairs (e.g., 68Ga/177Lu) and matched-pairs (e.g., 124I/131I). Pseudo matched-pair radionuclides have similar chemistries and pharmacokinetics when bound to the same bioconjugate molecule. In contrast, identical chemistries and pharmacokinetics can be obtained by using the matched-pair radionuclides.

The isotopes of Sc include two diagnostic radioisotopes, 43Sc & 44Sc, and …


Galvanic Corrosion Of Carbon Steel-Stainless Steel Welds, Mi Li 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Galvanic Corrosion Of Carbon Steel-Stainless Steel Welds, Mi Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A water leak in one of the Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) nuclear reactors could lead to galvanic corrosion between the materials of its supporting structures: carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS). This project investigates the effects of physical and chemical solution parameters on the corrosion of galvanically coupled dissimilar CS-SS welds, with the aim of developing a corrosion dynamics model that can be used to assess the long-term integrity of the CANDU reactor structural materials with confidence. The studied parameters were solution pH, temperature, the presence or absence of γ-radiation and the cathode:anode surface area ratio. Multiple electrochemical techniques …


Nonlinear Dynamics Of Carbon Steel Corrosion Under Gamma Radiation, Youn Gyeong Shin 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Nonlinear Dynamics Of Carbon Steel Corrosion Under Gamma Radiation, Youn Gyeong Shin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Corrosion of materials is still an unresolved problem affecting a multitude of industries. One of the grand challenges facing the corrosion community is the development of high-fidelity models for corrosion in actual service environments. The difficulties arise since corrosion involves transfer of metal atoms between the solid and solution phases thus making the system non-adiabatic. Interfacial transfer of atoms increases the chance of establishing systemic feedback between chemical reactions and transport processes, which results in chemical oscillation and periodic patterns on the corroding surfaces. These oscillating behavior in electrochemical measurements and pattern formation on corroding surfaces have been reported in …


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