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The Synthesis Of Deuterated Isohumulones For Use As Internal Standards In Lc-Ms Stable Isotope Dilution Assays, Patrick Gleason, Bruce Hamper Dr. 2022 University of Missouri - St. Louis

The Synthesis Of Deuterated Isohumulones For Use As Internal Standards In Lc-Ms Stable Isotope Dilution Assays, Patrick Gleason, Bruce Hamper Dr.

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Humulones are compounds that are prevalent in the hops flowers (Humulus Lupulus) used in beer brewing. These compounds undergo isomerization during the brewing process, and the resulting isohumulones are considered to be the primary contributors to the bitter flavors present in beer. As such, quantifying their presence, and the relative presence of their homologs(n-, co-, ad-), is of great importance in the characterization of beer. In this effort, one of the homologs of humulone (co) was isolated before being subsequently isomerized and deuterated for the purpose of analyzing beer by stable isotope dilution assay mass spectrometry(SIDA-MS). The addition ...


Understanding Ch4 Emissions From Compostables: An Exploration Of Local Ch4 Emissions From Landfilled Compostables And The Efficacy Of Emission Mitigation Via Anaerobic Biogas Digestion, Jordan-Yoosuf Aljbour 2022 Portland State University

Understanding Ch4 Emissions From Compostables: An Exploration Of Local Ch4 Emissions From Landfilled Compostables And The Efficacy Of Emission Mitigation Via Anaerobic Biogas Digestion, Jordan-Yoosuf Aljbour

University Honors Theses

Methane (CH4) is the second most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gas within the atmosphere, comprising ~16% of the total anthropogenic greenhouse gas composition on Earth. It has an ~12-year lifetime relative to its eventual oxidation via reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl radicals (OH), and has a 100-year indirect global warming potential (GWP) approximately ranging between 28-36 [Environmental Protection Agency, 2021]. In recent years, the observed average global concentration of atmospheric CH4 has increased by ~11.0% from 2020 (~15.3 ppb) to 2021 (~17.0 ppb) [Dlugokencky et al., 1994; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2022]. With the specter of ...


Synthesis Of Diaryl And Alkyl-Aryl Ethers Via Diaryl Iodonium Reagents, Rory Tennessee Gallagher 2022 Portland State University

Synthesis Of Diaryl And Alkyl-Aryl Ethers Via Diaryl Iodonium Reagents, Rory Tennessee Gallagher

Dissertations and Theses

Substituted benzenoid rings are a prevalent motif in many industries including high tech, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. As a result, the arylation of chemical compounds is a highly sought-after chemical transformation. There are many literature methods to achieve this chemical transformation, nucleophilic aromatic substitution and transition metal catalysis are both widely used and studied. Diaryliodonium salt mediated chemistry is an attractive alternative to these methods as it does not require the expensive toxic metals and designer ligands of transition metal catalysis and is not restricted to electron deficient aryl rings with specific substitution patterns like nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

Many diaryliodonium salt ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Bioactivity Of 3-Substituted Coumarins As An Undergraduate Project, Karsen King, Nicholas Campbell, Ronald Okoth, Wathsala Medawala 2022 Georgia College and State University

Synthesis, Characterization, And Bioactivity Of 3-Substituted Coumarins As An Undergraduate Project, Karsen King, Nicholas Campbell, Ronald Okoth, Wathsala Medawala

Georgia Journal of Science

Coumarins are an important class of phytochemicals, a chemical defense presumed to be secreted by plants. More recently, Coumarins have gathered popularity for their basis in anti-cancer agents. This paper dives into the organic synthesis of two 3-substituted coumarins from o-vanillin using the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. The 3-substituted coumarin were characterized using melting point analysis, 1H-NMR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. In addition, the anticancer activity of synthesized 3-substituted coumarin compounds were assayed against topoisomeraseIIα, which is the target enzyme of FDA approved anti-cancer drug etoposide since it is an active enzyme in cancer cell replication. The demonstrated procedures can be ...


3,4-Annulated Indoles Via Tandem Cyclopropane Ring-Opening/Conia-Ene And Michael Addition/Conia-Ene Reactions, Shane R. Cochrane 2022 The University of Western Ontario

3,4-Annulated Indoles Via Tandem Cyclopropane Ring-Opening/Conia-Ene And Michael Addition/Conia-Ene Reactions, Shane R. Cochrane

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The indole moiety is ubiquitous in natural products, and as such their reactions and syntheses are a high priority for organic chemists. The use of tandem reactions is an excellent strategy to optimize the efficiency of chemical processes. This thesis details the process of designing and implementing of strategies for the syntheses of 3,4-annulated indoles from 4-ethynylindoles via tandem cyclopropane ring-opening/Conia-ene and Michael addition/Conia-ene reactions. It was discovered through optimization experiments that the reactions are highest yielding using superstoichiometric amounts of Lewis acidic zinc halides. The cyclopropane variant of the reaction was applied to successfully synthesize 23 ...


Nitro-Aromatic Polymers For Conversion-Style Battery Cathodic Materials, Brady P. Samuelson 2022 University of South Dakota

Nitro-Aromatic Polymers For Conversion-Style Battery Cathodic Materials, Brady P. Samuelson

Honors Thesis

The development of organic electrode materials in rechargeable batteries has seen a resurgence in recent decades. This spike in interest is mostly due to the increased investments in renewable energy sources, grid-scale energy storage, and the rapid transition to electric vehicles. Current lithium battery cathode materials typically use some form of lithium metal oxide (specific capacity: 272 mAh g-1 which has problems with limited capacity, thermal runaway, and an unreliable supply chain. Our research group’s solution involves investigating new lightweight, organic redox groups combined with a conductive polymer backbone to serve as a possible replacement for the cathode ...


Synthesis And Transition Metal-Catalyzed Coupling Of A-Chloro-B-Lactones, Tyler Lynn 2022 Bridgewater College

Synthesis And Transition Metal-Catalyzed Coupling Of A-Chloro-B-Lactones, Tyler Lynn

Honors Projects

No abstract provided.


Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Of Benzene With A Superacid Catalyst, Josh T. Cutright 2022 East Tennessee State University

Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Of Benzene With A Superacid Catalyst, Josh T. Cutright

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Long-chain alkylbenzenes are industrially synthesized precursors to commercial surfactants such as laundry detergent. The currently used catalysts in the processes of their synthesis are corrosive and harmful to the environment. These problems can be avoided utilizing heterogeneous highly acidic catalysts. Solid catalysts do not corrode equipment and are relatively simple to remove from the post-reaction mixture. Phosphotungstic acid (PTA) supported on silica gel could be a possible catalyst due to its high acidity with an estimated pKa ≈ -13. The catalyst PTA-SiO2 was prepared via the sol-gel method to covalently embed it in a silica support. The catalyst was granulated ...


Valorization Of Biopolymers And Biomass To Produce Materials For A More Circular Economy, Moira Lauer 2022 Clemson University

Valorization Of Biopolymers And Biomass To Produce Materials For A More Circular Economy, Moira Lauer

All Dissertations

With a globally increasing population and largely unchecked consumption of raw materials, human society is on track for devastating consequences. Two industries responsible for utilizing massive amounts of raw materials and generating equally gargantuan quantities of waste are the packaging and infrastructure sectors. In 2017 in Europe, for example, packaging reached a record 173 kg of packaging waste per capita. One of the largest packaging consumers is the food industry, in which 40% of packaging is made of petroleum-derived single-use plastic, leading to a massive carbon imbalance. “The Built Environment,” on the other hand, is responsible for about 50% of ...


Understanding The Transition From General To Organic Chemistry, Hannah Chan 2022 Chapman University

Understanding The Transition From General To Organic Chemistry, Hannah Chan

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Organic chemistry is commonly known to have high failure rates and regarded as one of the most difficult courses offered in undergrad. This study assessed whether a modified general chemistry curriculum allowing for more time focused on foundational organic chemistry concepts in general chemistry can improve students’ grade outcome and/or self efficacy when transitioning from general to organic chemistry courses. Two separate variables were tested: grade outcome and self efficacy. Using an independent sample t-test, a comparison of the two groups (modified versus traditional general chemistry) was performed. Grades were assessed by giving students four questions (out of 4 ...


Ketone Hydrosilylation Studies Using A Carbodiphosphorane Catalyst, Liam Sullivan, Allegra Liberman-Martin 2022 Chapman University

Ketone Hydrosilylation Studies Using A Carbodiphosphorane Catalyst, Liam Sullivan, Allegra Liberman-Martin

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The objective of this research is to discover an effective, safe, and low-cost catalyst for ketone hydrosilylation reactions, which involve the addition of a silicon–hydrogen bond across a C=O double bond. Improving catalyst efficiency could benefit the organic synthesis industry, as carbonyl hydrosilylation is used industrially in the synthesis of alcohol products. Use of the carbodiphosphorane catalyst as a replacement for toxic heavy-metal-containing catalysts could reduce waste and emissions harmful to the environment, while also providing an alternative means for accomplishing ketone reduction. Using a cyclic carbodiphosphorane catalyst, we have compared catalytic activity toward acetophenone hydrosilylation for a ...


Influence Of Tethered, Axially Coordinated Ligands On Rh(Ii,Ii)-Catalyzed Carbene Transfer Reactions, Cristian E. Zavala 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Influence Of Tethered, Axially Coordinated Ligands On Rh(Ii,Ii)-Catalyzed Carbene Transfer Reactions, Cristian E. Zavala

Doctoral Dissertations

Dirhodium (II,II) paddlewheel complexes have become ubiquitous in diazo-mediated carbene transfer reactions. The Rh(II,II)-carbene intermediate is capable of a large variety of transformations such as cyclopropanation, C-H and X-H (O, N, S, Si, B) insertion reactions, cyclopropenations, and ylide transformations. Cyclopropanation reactions resulting in the formation of functionalized cyclopropane structures has always been a major focus in Rh(II,II)-carbene chemistry. Improvements on catalytic performance in cyclopropanations has largely focused on the modification of the bridging ligands and has resulted in Rh(II,II) catalysts that exhibit high reactivity and selectivity in cyclopropanation reactions. However ...


Design, Synthesis, And Analysis Of Paired Coiled-Coil Peptidic Molecular Building Blocks Used For Linearly Controlled Self-Assembly Of Α-Helical Coiled-Coil Heterodimer Peptide Pairs, Jason DiStefano 2022 University of Texas at Tyler

Design, Synthesis, And Analysis Of Paired Coiled-Coil Peptidic Molecular Building Blocks Used For Linearly Controlled Self-Assembly Of Α-Helical Coiled-Coil Heterodimer Peptide Pairs, Jason Distefano

Chemistry Theses

Molecular building blocks are fundamental to biological synthesis and processes and have been utilized in advanced materials, drugs and drug delivery systems, and biotechnology. Proteins have been used as molecular building blocks for the construction of complex, well-ordered structures. Coiled-coil protein domains are essential subunits used for the oligomerization of protein complexes, gene expression, and structural elements of biological materials. The synthesis and assembly of proteins utilizing coiled-coil motifs are of great scientific interest due to their potential applications in disease treatment, biomechanical motors, nanoscale delivery systems, etc. However, assembling protein complexes with specific morphology is still challenging because the ...


Synthesis And Study Of Unsymmetrical Bidentate Bis(Phosphino)Pyrrole Ligands And Their Transition Metal Complexes, Julia F. Vidlak 2022 University of Richmond

Synthesis And Study Of Unsymmetrical Bidentate Bis(Phosphino)Pyrrole Ligands And Their Transition Metal Complexes, Julia F. Vidlak

Honors Theses

Our laboratory has reported the synthesis and characterization of a broad library of unsymmetrical bidentate bis(phosphino)pyrrole (BPP) ancillary ligands for use in nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The electronic and steric properties of nickel complexes bearing these ligands are examined, and our data support the hypothesis that these ligands produce nickel complexes with electron-deficient metal centers. The syntheses of (BPP)Ni(o-tolyl)Cl precatalysts for utilization in nickel-catalyzed Buchwald-Hartwig Amination are described, and preliminary reactivity studies reveal that (BPP)Ni(o-tolyl)Cl precatalysts are effective in promoting C–N cross-coupling reactions. Finally, we report steric measurements and electronic properties obtained ...


The Synthesis And Purification Methodology Of An Intermolecular Pyrophosphate Sensor: Applications For The Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Ethan Gevedon 2022 Bowling Green State University

The Synthesis And Purification Methodology Of An Intermolecular Pyrophosphate Sensor: Applications For The Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Ethan Gevedon

Honors Projects

The optimized synthesis and purification methodology for an intermolecular pyrophosphate sensor scaffold molecule was performed: high performance liquid chromatography afforded the scaffold in excellent purity and yield. The applications of the sensor assembly in the quantitative polymerase chain reaction were discussed, and preliminary results show that


X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis Of Quinoline N-Oxide And Isoquinoline N-Oxide With Zinc Halides, Nitrates, Perchlorates., Erin N. Groneck 2022 Georgia Southern University

X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis Of Quinoline N-Oxide And Isoquinoline N-Oxide With Zinc Halides, Nitrates, Perchlorates., Erin N. Groneck

Georgia Southern University Research Symposium

We have worked to analyze the chemistry between aromatic N-oxides, Quinoline N-oxide and Isoquinoline N-oxide, with zinc halides, nitrates, and perchlorates by X-ray crystallography. These structures were formed by reaction of the aromatic N-oxides with an equivalent of the zinc halide, nitrate, or perchlorate. These N-oxides had been chosen due to being the focus of this study. We will present the crystallographic X-ray structures of the synthesized novel complexes of the N-oxides with either a zinc halide, zinc nitrate, and zinc perchlorate.


Synthesis And Characterization Of A Novel Reaction-Based Azaborine Fluorescent Probe Capable Of Selectively Detect Carbon Monoxide Based On Palladium-Mediated Carbonylation Chemistry, Samuel Moore, Carl Jacky Saint-Louis 2022 Kennesaw State University

Synthesis And Characterization Of A Novel Reaction-Based Azaborine Fluorescent Probe Capable Of Selectively Detect Carbon Monoxide Based On Palladium-Mediated Carbonylation Chemistry, Samuel Moore, Carl Jacky Saint-Louis

Symposium of Student Scholars

Azaborines are fascinating compounds because they possess valuable properties such as photochemical stability, have high molar absorption coefficient and high fluorescent quantum yields, as well as large Stokes shifts and tunable absorption/emission spectra. Here, we designed, synthesized, and will examine a novel reaction-based azaborine fluorescent probe capable of selectively detect carbon monoxide (CO) based on palladium-mediated carbonylation chemistry. This novel azaborine fluorescent probe will exhibit high selectivity for CO and display a robust turn-on fluorescent response in the presence of CO in aqueous buffer solution.


Ketal-Azaborine Versus Ketal-Azaborine With A Spacer: Structural Effects On The Photophysical Properties Of Tunable Heteroaromatic Polycyclic Chromophores, Albert Campbell, Janiyah Riley, Samuel Moore, Albert Campbell 2022 Kennesaw State University

Ketal-Azaborine Versus Ketal-Azaborine With A Spacer: Structural Effects On The Photophysical Properties Of Tunable Heteroaromatic Polycyclic Chromophores, Albert Campbell, Janiyah Riley, Samuel Moore, Albert Campbell

Symposium of Student Scholars

Flat-structured heteroaromatic polycyclic compounds with extended conjugated π-systems such as azaborines are in high demand in the material and imaging technology markets because of their unique features such as simultaneous tunability of fluorescence color and intensity. We have designed, synthesized, and investigated a series of novel conjugated thermally stable ketal-azaborine chromophores that contain a phenyl ring as a spacer between electronic moieties and the ketal-azaborine core as easily tunable high-luminescent organic materials. We investigated the impact of the phenyl spacer on the ketal-azaborine unit. We examined the structural effects on their photophysical properties by incorporating electron –donating and –withdrawing substituents ...


Azaborine Versus Azaborine With A Spacer: Structural Effects On The Photophysical Properties Of Tunable Azaborine Chromophores, Kaia Ellis, Janiyah Riley, Lyric Gordon, Janiyah Riley 2022 Kennesaw State University

Azaborine Versus Azaborine With A Spacer: Structural Effects On The Photophysical Properties Of Tunable Azaborine Chromophores, Kaia Ellis, Janiyah Riley, Lyric Gordon, Janiyah Riley

Symposium of Student Scholars

Azaborines are fascinating compounds because of their valuable and interesting optical properties making them suitable to be utilized in many optoelectronic devices. We have designed, synthesized, and investigated a series of novel conjugated thermally stable azaborine chromophores by incorporating a phenyl ring as a spacer linking the chromophore to different electronic moieties as easily tunable high-luminescent organic materials. We investigated the effect of the phenyl spacer on the azaborine unit. The substituent effects of different electronic moieties were investigated by the insertion of electron –withdrawing and –donating moieties to the phenyl spacer. We examined the role of the electron –donating ...


Organic Chemistry Through Dance, Holly Gibson 2022 Stephen F Austin State University

Organic Chemistry Through Dance, Holly Gibson

Undergraduate Research Conference

This research project explores representing organic chemistry mechanisms using dance. Dancers represent molecules, electrons, and atoms in demonstrating the movement of electrons and bonds created and broken by the movement. It was concluded that some organic mechanisms and ideas can be easily transferred to a dance concept, while others take more time and exploration. Additionally, dancers representing the atoms and electrons were able to have a better grasp of what was occurring, regardless of chemical education background. This leads to the conclusion of a new way to implement kinesthetic learning into the chemistry classroom. The purpose of the videos are ...


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