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Effects Of Sudangrass Cover Crop And Soil Solarization On Weed And Pathogen Management In Organic Strawberry Production, Timothy Jacobs 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Effects Of Sudangrass Cover Crop And Soil Solarization On Weed And Pathogen Management In Organic Strawberry Production, Timothy Jacobs

Master's Theses

Field and lab experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of sudangrass (Sorghum X drumondii (Nees ex Steud.) Millsp. & Chase) cover crop management techniques and soil solarization on important agricultural weeds and pathogens in organic strawberry production in Central California. Lab experiments assessed the time needed to kill weed seeds at temperatures typically achieved during soil solarization (40°C, 45°C, 50°C, 55°C, and 60°C) in California. Seeds tested included little mallow, redstem filaree, bristly oxtongue, annual sowthistle, common purslane, nettleleaf goosefoot, and redroot pigweed. Efficacy of simulated solarization temperatures differed between different species. Cool-season annuals annual ...


B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2018, R. J. Norman, K. A.K. Moldenhauer 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2018, R. J. Norman, K. A.K. Moldenhauer

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

No abstract provided.


Control Of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase-Resistant Palmer Amaranth, Michael McKinley Houston 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Control Of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase-Resistant Palmer Amaranth, Michael Mckinley Houston

Theses and Dissertations

Already one of the most troublesome weeds in row crop production in the southern U.S., protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-resistant Palmer amaranth [Amaranthus palmeri (S.) Wats.] was first documented in Arkansas in 2015. Since this confirmation, PPO-resistant Palmer amaranth has been identified throughout the Midsouth. The following research evaluated both current and future herbicide programs for controlling PPO-resistant Palmer amaranth and quantified field-level resistance to PPO-inhibiting herbicides. On-farm research, located in fields with confirmed PPO-resistant Palmer amaranth, was conducted in 2016 and 2017. In preemergence (PRE) herbicide experiments, PPO-inhibiting herbicides still proved useful when combined with herbicides such as metribuzin ...


Mid To Late Season Weed Detection In Soybean Production Fields Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle And Machine Learning, Arun Narenthiran Veeranampalayam Sivakumar 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Mid To Late Season Weed Detection In Soybean Production Fields Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle And Machine Learning, Arun Narenthiran Veeranampalayam Sivakumar

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Mid-late season weeds are those that escape the early season herbicide applications and those that emerge late in the season. They might not affect the crop yield, but if uncontrolled, will produce a large number of seeds causing problems in the subsequent years. In this study, high-resolution aerial imagery of mid-season weeds in soybean fields was captured using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and the performance of two different automated weed detection approaches – patch-based classification and object detection was studied for site-specific weed management. For the patch-based classification approach, several conventional machine learning models on Haralick texture features were compared ...


Does Diversifying Crop Rotations Suppress Weeds? A Meta-Analysis, David Weisberger, Virginia Nichols, Matt Liebman 2019 Iowa State University

Does Diversifying Crop Rotations Suppress Weeds? A Meta-Analysis, David Weisberger, Virginia Nichols, Matt Liebman

Agronomy Publications

Over the past half-century, crop rotations have become increasingly simplified, with whole regions producing only one or two crops in succession. Simplification is problematic from a weed management perspective, because it results in weeds’ repeated exposure to the same set of ecological and agronomic conditions. This can exacerbate weed infestations and promote the evolution of herbicide resistance. Diversifying crop rotations through addition of crop species and their associated managements may suppress weeds and reduce selection pressure for herbicide resistance by altering stress and mortality factors affecting weed dynamics. Here we report the results of a meta-analysis using 298 paired observations ...


Garlic Mustard (Alliaria Petiolata) Management Effectiveness And Plant Community Response, Erin Coates-Connor 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Garlic Mustard (Alliaria Petiolata) Management Effectiveness And Plant Community Response, Erin Coates-Connor

Masters Theses

The control and eradication of the invasive biennial herb garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and the restoration of invaded forest habitats present important linked challenges to land managers in North America. Removing garlic mustard by hand and by glyphosate herbicide application have both been used as eradication strategies with mixed results. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, but they are rarely compared for effectiveness and community impact across multiple years of management. Some previous studies have shown improvements in species diversity and plant community composition following management, while others have found no differences. To better understand both garlic mustard population and ...


Herbicide Drift Influence On Amaranthus Spp. Herbicide Resistance Evolution, Bruno Canella Vieira 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Herbicide Drift Influence On Amaranthus Spp. Herbicide Resistance Evolution, Bruno Canella Vieira

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The adverse consequences of herbicide drift towards sensitive crops have been extensively reported in the literature. However, no information is available on the consequences of herbicide drift onto weed species inhabiting boundaries of agricultural fields. Exposure to herbicide drift could be detrimental to long-term weed management as several weed species have evolved herbicide resistance after recurrent selection with low herbicide rates. Despite the herbicide drift exposure and its potential implications on resistance evolution and weed management, resistance prone weed species such as Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) are often neglected and not properly managed in agricultural field ...


Cogongrass (Imperata Cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) In Louisiana: Cause And Consequence, Lorissa A. Radunzel-Davis 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Cogongrass (Imperata Cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) In Louisiana: Cause And Consequence, Lorissa A. Radunzel-Davis

LSU Master's Theses

Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.), an invasive species from East Asia, is found worldwide and is problematic in several countries. In the United States, it grows primarily in the Southeast, reducing biodiversity by growing in dense patches and potentially causing mortality and reducing value of native and planted pinelands due to a high burning temperature. Using Lee Memorial Forest, a Louisiana State University AgCenter property in Washington Parish as a study site, this thesis explores cogongrass in Louisiana with emphasis on soil microbes and soil legacy effects on native plant species. Cogongrass populations at Lee Memorial Forest were more likely ...


White-Tailed Deer Herbivory Impacts On Plant Community Composition And Recruitment In Western New York Deciduous Forests, Kira Broz 2019 The College at Brockport: State University of New York

White-Tailed Deer Herbivory Impacts On Plant Community Composition And Recruitment In Western New York Deciduous Forests, Kira Broz

Environmental Science and Ecology Theses

In high densities, white-tailed deer (Odocolius virginiana) have a multitude of detrimental effects on plant communities, particularly in forest ecosystems. Through intensive herbivory and dispersal of native and invasive seeds, deer can be considered ecosystem engineers in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States. To measure how removal of deer herbivory changes plant community composition over time, I constructed four fenced deer exclosures and delineated four unfenced control plots in a Brockport, NY deciduous forest fragment with an estimated population of 17 deer/km2. After three summers of data collection, the average height of all tree seedlings and root suckers less ...


Incidental Captures Of Plains Spotted Skunks In Central South Dakota, Samantha Fino, Joshua D. Stafford, Aaron T. Pearse, Jonathan A. Jenks 2019 South Dakota State University

Incidental Captures Of Plains Spotted Skunks In Central South Dakota, Samantha Fino, Joshua D. Stafford, Aaron T. Pearse, Jonathan A. Jenks

The Prairie Naturalist

The plains spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius interrupta) had a historically broad distribution in the central United States, extending from the Mississippi River west to the Rocky Mountains. This subspecies of the eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius) has experienced population declines in recent decades possibly due to habitat loss and reduction of prey through conversion of grasslands and forests to croplands, as well as reductions in abandoned buildings, fence rows, creek bottoms, and wood piles throughout the region (Crabb 1948, Kaplan and Mead 1991, Gompper and Hackett 2005, Sasse 2017). Woody debris provides access to prey, and a dense understory and ...


Factors Affecting White Bass Abundance In Two Missouri River Reservoirs, William J. Radigan, Mark J. Fincel 2019 South Dakota State University

Factors Affecting White Bass Abundance In Two Missouri River Reservoirs, William J. Radigan, Mark J. Fincel

The Prairie Naturalist

Annual angler harvest of white bass (Morone chrysops) increased from 1985–2005 in Lake Oahe and Lake Sharpe, two mainstem Missouri River reservoirs in South Dakota. In 2006, harvest rates dropped appreciably in both reservoirs and remained low through 2015. It is hypothesized that a confirmed 2005 columnaris disease outbreak led to reduced annual angler harvest of white bass from both reservoirs. Mean annual angler harvest prior to the outbreak (1985–2005) in Lake Oahe decreased 65% and in Lake Sharpe decreased 57% post outbreak (2006–2015). To assess potential causes of sustained decreased adult white bass abundance in the ...


Review Of A Field Guide To The Natural World Of The Twin Cities By John J. Moriarty, Photography By Siah L. St. Clair, Douglas H. Johnson, Bonnie Sample 2019 University of Minnesota

Review Of A Field Guide To The Natural World Of The Twin Cities By John J. Moriarty, Photography By Siah L. St. Clair, Douglas H. Johnson, Bonnie Sample

The Prairie Naturalist

A Field Guide to the Natural World of the Twin Cities has two foci: natural areas in the Twin Cities of Minnesota and the species that live in each. The geographical scope is the seven counties that envelop Minneapolis and Saint Paul. The author describes nine major habitat types that can be found there: prairie, savanna, big woods, oak woods, wetlands (marshes and swamps), fens and bogs, lakes, rivers, and urban and suburban. It is useful to know that “big woods” are not just woods that are large in extent, but woodlands that occur in Minnesota and western Wisconsin dominated ...


Channel Catfish Reproductive Traits In The Lower Platte River, Nebraska, Usa, Mackenzie Zwiener, Jonathan J. Spurgeon, Mark Pegg 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Channel Catfish Reproductive Traits In The Lower Platte River, Nebraska, Usa, Mackenzie Zwiener, Jonathan J. Spurgeon, Mark Pegg

The Prairie Naturalist

Reproductive traits including fecundity, egg diameter, and condition of freshwater fishes influence offspring survival and abundance and may provide insight regarding timing of reproduction (Winemiller and Rose 1992, Johnston and Leggett 2002). Fish size (i.e., length or weight) may influence the number of eggs produced by an individual female (i.e., fecundity; Michaletz 1998). Larger individuals may, thus, disproportionately contribute to year-classes through increased fecundity if egg and larval survival is similar or greater than those from smaller reproductive females (Gwinn et al. 2015). Likewise, maternal fish size may influence egg diameter and offspring survival, whereby larger egg diameters ...


Review Of Gulls Simplified: A Comparative Approach To Identification By Pete Dunne And Kevin T. Karlson, Garrett J. MacDonald 2019 USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Review Of Gulls Simplified: A Comparative Approach To Identification By Pete Dunne And Kevin T. Karlson, Garrett J. Macdonald

The Prairie Naturalist

The title of Pete Dunne and Kevin Karlson’s new book, Gulls Simplified, may seem like an oxymoron to many birders. Gulls are, after all, one of the most vexing groups of North American birds due to their myriad identification challenges, and many seasoned birders simply “don’t do gulls.” Indeed, Dunne, in the first line of the Introduction (page 13), writes, “Ask any bird-watcher to name the bird group that is most intimidating, and to a man, woman, and tour leader they often shout: GULLS!” The genesis of the book, and the authors’ approach to identification within, arises from ...


The Prairie Naturalist, Volume 51, No. 1, 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Prairie Naturalist, Volume 51, No. 1

The Prairie Naturalist

1 EDITOR’S NOTE

RESEARCH ARTICLES

3 Factors Affecting White Bass Abundance in Two Missouri River Reservoirs, William J. Radigan and Mark J. Fincel

17 Suitability of single-pass backpack electrofishing to estimate fish abundance and describe assemblage structure in prairie streams, Morgan J. Kauth, David A. Schumann, Katie N. B. Graeb, and W. Wyatt Hoback

NOTES

25 Channel Catfish Reproductive Traits in the Lower Platte River, Nebraska, USA - Mackenzie Zwiener, Jonathan Spurgeon, & Mark Pegg

30 Quantifying Signpost Usage By Captive Male White-Tailed Deer - Cassie L. Auxt, Eric S. Michel, and Jonathan A. Jenks.

33 Incidental Captures of Plains Spotted Skunks in Central South Dakota -Samantha Fino, Joshua D. Stafford, Aaron T. Pearse, & Jonathan A. Jenks,

BOOK REVIEWS

37 Carnivores of the World, second edition. Luke Hunter; reviewed by Shannon M. Barber-Meyer

39 Gulls Simplified: A Comparative Approach to Identification. Pete Dunne and Kevin T. Karlson; reviewed by Garrett J. MacDonald

41 A Field Guide ...


Suitability Of Single-Pass Backpack Electrofishing To Estimate Fish Abundance And Describe Assemblage Structure In Prairie Streams, Morgan J. Kauth, David A. Schumann, Katie N.B. Graeb, William Wyatt Hoback 2019 South Dakota State University

Suitability Of Single-Pass Backpack Electrofishing To Estimate Fish Abundance And Describe Assemblage Structure In Prairie Streams, Morgan J. Kauth, David A. Schumann, Katie N.B. Graeb, William Wyatt Hoback

The Prairie Naturalist

Electrofishing is commonly used by fisheries professionals to assess fish assemblage structure and species abundance in streams. Accurate estimates of fish abundance and, consequently assemblage metrics, are typically generated with mark-recapture or maximum-likelihood depletion techniques, but doing so requires considerable sampling effort. Less intensive sampling approaches may be beneficial to fisheries managers, particularly in cases where frequent sampling of many streams is preferred. We used regression and Spearman rank-order correlation analyses to compare species catch rates and the assemblage metrics generated from single-pass electrofishing samples with multiple-pass depletion abundance estimates in Nebraska streams. We examined the influence of instream habitat ...


Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal 2019 South Dakota State University

Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal

Madhav Nepal

In this teaching module, students will learn what Precision Agriculture is and how to apply drone into Precision Agriculture practices. To use data (images) taken by drone, students will learn the basic theory of Remote Sensing. Using images, students learn how to make NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps and how to apply drone (remote sensing technique) in agriculture.


Review Of Birds Of Prey Of The West: A Field Guide, By Brian K. Wheeler, Daniel Casey 2019 Northern Great Plains Joint Venture

Review Of Birds Of Prey Of The West: A Field Guide, By Brian K. Wheeler, Daniel Casey

The Prairie Naturalist

Birds of prey epitomize much of what attracts us to birding. Many are large and easy to observe, particularly in open landscapes. Their predatory nature and behavior give them an added aura of wildness; their migrations can be spectacular. And even veteran birders should enjoy the challenge of identifying the myriad of plumage variations shown by different ages, sexes, subspecies, and color morphs. With his newest effort, Birds of Prey of the West, Brian Wheeler has compiled a comprehensive and enhanced field guide with illustrations that stunningly capture that variation, combined with enough additional context to make it a valuable ...


Review Of Carnivores Of The World, Second Edition, By Luke Hunter, Shannon M. Barber-Meyer 2019 USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Review Of Carnivores Of The World, Second Edition, By Luke Hunter, Shannon M. Barber-Meyer

The Prairie Naturalist

Cracking open this fully revised field guide invites a new appreciation for the diversity of carnivores (members of the order Carnivora) in the world. Dig a little deeper and you’ll uncover just how little we know about so many of them. This second edition of the Carnivores of the World features 250 mammalian species—from a species so tiny it can squeeze through a wedding ring to one weighing thousands of times more, the polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Each detailed species account includes an illustration of the species (and sometimes varying forms or subspecies), information on morphological and identifying ...


Science Communication In Agriculture: The Role Of The Trusted Adviser, Lee Galen Briese 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Science Communication In Agriculture: The Role Of The Trusted Adviser, Lee Galen Briese

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Agronomy is not simply the selling of agricultural products to farmers, nor is it the process of solving singular production problems. Agronomy is defined as the integrated, holistic perspective of agriculture (ASA, 2019) and “agronomists are specialists in crop and soil sciences, as well as ecology” (ASA, 2019). While scientific investigation and discovery are essential to understanding systems function, the tangible benefits from our knowledge stems from the application to solve problems. Clear communication is vital to successfully help stakeholders understand the importance of the science and help scientists understand the challenges stakeholders face. However, to successfully put science into ...


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