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Articles 1 - 30 of 1722

Full-Text Articles in Weed Science

Associations Between Cannabis, Psychosis, And Schizophrenia In Adolescents, Lauren Moment Sep 2022

Associations Between Cannabis, Psychosis, And Schizophrenia In Adolescents, Lauren Moment

Academic Leadership Journal in Student Research

The effects of cannabis use on the brain, mind, and body have been studied for decades. The developing brain, particularly the adolescent and young adult brain, undergoes critical development that makes it especially susceptible to the effects of cannabis use. Among the adverse effects of cannabis use in adolescence and young adulthood, psychosis and psychotic disorders (e.g., schizophrenia) have been examined. The association of cannabis use with schizophrenia was first elucidated in a Swedish study of army conscripts. Specifically, conscripts reported their cannabis use exposure and were followed longitudinally to assess the emergence of schizophrenia. The authors found that ...


B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2021, J. Hardke, X. Sha, N. Bateman Aug 2022

B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2021, J. Hardke, X. Sha, N. Bateman

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

Arkansas is the leading rice producer in the United States. The state represents 47.5% of total U.S. rice production and 47.8% of the total acres planted to rice in 2021. Rice cultural practices vary across the state and across the U.S. However, these practices are also dynamic and continue to evolve in response to changing political, environmental, and economic times. This survey was initiated in 2002 to monitor and record changes in the way Arkansas rice producers approach their livelihood. The survey was conducted by polling county extension agents in each of the counties in Arkansas ...


Flora Of Doe Mountain Recreation Area, Johnson County, Tennessee, Benjamin Mccullough Aug 2022

Flora Of Doe Mountain Recreation Area, Johnson County, Tennessee, Benjamin Mccullough

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A botanical inventory of Doe Mountain Recreation Area (DMRA) in northeastern Tennessee was conducted to help guide conservation-based management. A total of 484 species were found in DMRA, comprising 94 families, and 285 genera, 10 species listed in the state rare plant list, and 76 exotic species. Two species, Liatris virgata and Lycopodiella inundata, were new state records. Water in the Lycopodiella seep was an order of magnitude more acid than at other sites. An analysis of the wildland-urban interface showed that only 13% of the area was classified as uninhabited. The inventory-invasion index, introduced to quantify the relative degree ...


Environmental Weed Risk Assessment Protocol For Growing Non-Indigenous Plants In The Western Australian Rangelands, Geoff A. Moore Mr, Christine Munday Ms, Papori Barua Dr Aug 2022

Environmental Weed Risk Assessment Protocol For Growing Non-Indigenous Plants In The Western Australian Rangelands, Geoff A. Moore Mr, Christine Munday Ms, Papori Barua Dr

Bulletins 4000 -

This bulletin is a post-border environmental weed risk assessment (WRA) protocol which is based on the Environmental WRA Protocol developed for the Future Farm Industries Co-operative Research Centre (FFI CRC), but with some changes to reflect the different environment and objectives.

The WRA protocol was developed specifically as a post-border assessment of non-indigenous species that may have agricultural value in the WA rangelands and the risk that they may become environmental weeds. Weeds can occur in many land-use systems including agriculture, horticulture and forestry; however, the focus of this protocol is on the risk that non-indigenous agricultural plants may become ...


Helping Utah Landowners Reduce Pesticide Use Through A Statewide Ipm Program, Nick Volesky, Mair Murray Jul 2022

Helping Utah Landowners Reduce Pesticide Use Through A Statewide Ipm Program, Nick Volesky, Mair Murray

Outcomes and Impact Quarterly

The Utah Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program provides outreach and education to Utahns to reduce pesticide use and ultimately protect human and environmental health. In 2022, the IPM program responded to stakeholders’ needs by partnering with county Extension offices to deliver eight (8) in-person workshops across the state. The workshops connected Extension specialists and county faculty with managers of home landscapes and farms. The objective of the workshops was to provide participants with IPM skills to identify, monitor, and manage pest problems in preparation for the upcoming growing season.


Arkansas Corn And Grain Sorghum Research Studies 2021, Victor Ford, Jason Kelley, Nathan Mckinney Ii Jul 2022

Arkansas Corn And Grain Sorghum Research Studies 2021, Victor Ford, Jason Kelley, Nathan Mckinney Ii

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

The 2021 edition of the Arkansas Corn and Grain Sorghum Research Studies Series includes research results on topics pertaining to corn and grain sorghum production, including weed, disease, and insect management; economics; sustainability; irrigation; post-harvest drying; soil fertility; mycotoxins; cover crop management; and research verification program results. Our objective is to capture and broadly distribute the results of research projects funded by the Arkansas Corn and Grain Sorghum Board. The intended audience includes producers and their advisors, current investigators, and future researchers. The Series serves as a citable archive of research results.


Perceptions And Management Of Ventenata By Producers In The Inland Pacific Northwest, Lisa Jones, John Wallace, Kathleen Painter, Pamela Pavek, Timothy S. Prather Jun 2022

Perceptions And Management Of Ventenata By Producers In The Inland Pacific Northwest, Lisa Jones, John Wallace, Kathleen Painter, Pamela Pavek, Timothy S. Prather

The Journal of Extension

Ventenata is an annual grass that has invaded agricultural and wildland settings in the Inland Pacific Northwest, causing economic and ecological losses. We know little about producers’ perceived risks and management of ventenata. We present results of surveys in 2011 and 2014 targeting producers across affected counties in Idaho and Washington. Awareness of ventenata and costs to producers increased across that time interval. Respondents attending ventenata Extension events adopted recommended management strategies more than those who did not attend. Our study documents the importance of continued integrated pest management research in concert with stakeholder engagement and education.


Evaluating Cover Crops To Determine The Best Management Practice For The Suppression Of Tall Waterhemp And Italian Ryegrass, Samuel R. Reeves May 2022

Evaluating Cover Crops To Determine The Best Management Practice For The Suppression Of Tall Waterhemp And Italian Ryegrass, Samuel R. Reeves

Theses and Dissertations

To combat herbicide resistance among weeds, non-herbicide methods of control, such as cover crops, are becoming widely adapted. Experiments were conducted to determine how to effectively establish and manage cover crops in order to suppress tall waterhemp and Italian ryegrass and to assess their overall impact on soybean growth and yield. Various cover crop establishment methods were evaluated, and it was determined that interseeding at the R7 growth stage of soybean was the least effective method for proper cover crop establishment. Biomass data demonstrated that interseeding created the least amountof cover crop biomass, with no differences found among the other ...


Site-Specific Pest Management In Nebraska Corn And Soybean Production Systems, Zachary D. Rystrom May 2022

Site-Specific Pest Management In Nebraska Corn And Soybean Production Systems, Zachary D. Rystrom

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Site-specific management (SSM) is widely used by farm producers to fertilize their fields. However, whole field management is currently practiced in integrated pest management (IPM). Site-specific management and agricultural technology can improve IPM especially when precision application of inputs can reduce selection pressure on pest populations, benefit the environment, or save costs of inputs. There is potential for site-specific pest management (SSPM) where pests, or environments vary spatially, and recommended management practices can be applied with precision. Three case studies are evaluated for SSPM to be applied in Nebraska corn and soybean production systems including corn rootworm, preemergence herbicides, and ...


Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2021, Nathan A. Slaton May 2022

Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2021, Nathan A. Slaton

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

Rapid technological changes in crop management and production require that the research efforts be presented in an expeditious manner. The contributions of soil fertility and fertilizers are major production factors in all Arkansas crops. The studies described within will allow producers to compare their practices with the university’s research efforts. Additionally, soil-test data and fertilizer sales are presented to allow comparisons among years, crops, and other areas within Arkansas.


Poa Annua: An Annual Species?, Devon E. Carroll May 2022

Poa Annua: An Annual Species?, Devon E. Carroll

Doctoral Dissertations

Poa annua L. is ranked the most troublesome turfgrass weed but can also be a highly desirable turfgrass species. As the Latin name annua implies, the species is thought to persist via an annual life cycle; yet there are many reports in literature of P. annua persisting perennially. Considering that P. annua senescence patterns do not align with other true annual species such as Triticum spp. and Zea mays L., we hypothesized that P. annua presents itself similarly to other perennial, cool-season, turfgrass species that are subject to a confluence of environmental factors in summer that can cause mortality. Four ...


Evaluation Of Cotton Management Decisions: Cover Crops, Weed Control, And Injured Stands, Savana D. Denton May 2022

Evaluation Of Cotton Management Decisions: Cover Crops, Weed Control, And Injured Stands, Savana D. Denton

Doctoral Dissertations

Herbicide-resistant weed species have altered the challenges faced by Tennessee cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) producers. While the weed control and environmental benefits of cover crops have been well-documented, the integration of cover crops into cotton production systems has presented management challenges. In-season broadcast postemergence weed control options are limited in cotton. Furthermore, off-target movement of 2,4-D and dicamba can result in additional management challenges if susceptible cotton is injured. Studies were conducted from 2018 to 2021 to evaluate: 1) cotton response to cover crop termination timings and methods; 2) postemergence weed control programs in cotton without the use of ...


Effect Of Herbicide Concentration On Atrazine, Pyroxasulfone, And Saflufenacil Dissipation Under Field And Lab Conditions, Randall Lee Landry May 2022

Effect Of Herbicide Concentration On Atrazine, Pyroxasulfone, And Saflufenacil Dissipation Under Field And Lab Conditions, Randall Lee Landry

Doctoral Dissertations

Widespread herbicide resistant weeds over the last several years have fueled a renewed interest in the utility of soil-applied residual herbicides. Residual activity of a herbicide is based on a myriad of factors within and among environments. A common assumption used in simulation models examining herbicide persistence is that herbicide degradation is independent of application rate. These studies compared herbicide concentration on dissipation with three commonly used residual herbicides under field and lab conditions. Atrazine, pyroxasulfone, and saflufenacil represent herbicides with a relative field persistence of medium, high, and low, respectively. Field studies were conducted over two years where herbicides ...


Evaluation Of Benzobicyclon In Midsouth Rice (Oryza Sativa) Production Systems, Jake Patterson May 2022

Evaluation Of Benzobicyclon In Midsouth Rice (Oryza Sativa) Production Systems, Jake Patterson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Controlling weedy rice postemergence is challenging for rice producers in the United States because of the lack of herbicide options. Weedy rice is genetically similar to cultivated rice, thus making it difficult to control with mid-season postemergence herbicide applications without also damaging the crop. Hence, there is a need for a new effective postemergence weedy rice control herbicide. Findings from this research indicate that the use of benzobicyclon in current standard quizalofop- and imidazolinone-resistant rice herbicide programs provides tremendous utility for Midsouth rice producers. In both of these production systems, the addition of benzobicyclon to the respective standard herbicide programs ...


Evaluation Of Fenclorim Safener For Use In Rice With Group 15 Herbicides, Tristen Heath Avent May 2022

Evaluation Of Fenclorim Safener For Use In Rice With Group 15 Herbicides, Tristen Heath Avent

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The development of herbicide resistance and the lack of effective herbicides to control problematic weeds has caused Arkansas rice (Oryza sativa L.) production to pursue alternative sites of action. Currently, very long-chain fatty acid elongase inhibitors are not labeled for U.S. rice production but have been widely used for Asian rice production systems. Previous research has demonstrated the utility of acetochlor and pyroxasulfone to provide in-season weed control for Arkansas rice production, but variable crop tolerance has been observed. Additionally, acetochlor at 1,260 g ai ha-1 elicited less rice injury when seeds were treated with a herbicide safener ...


Economic Viability Of Weed Management Strategies In High-Tunnel Tomato, Gracie Morrison May 2022

Economic Viability Of Weed Management Strategies In High-Tunnel Tomato, Gracie Morrison

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cost-effective weed suppression is an important consideration for tomato growers. Growers often choose methods which minimize hand labor, as hand weeding can be prohibitively expensive. This project determined economic viability of high tunnel tomatoes treated with several methods of weed control, both organic and chemical. These methods included: 2-week hand weeding, 1-week hand weeding, preemergent, straw, landscape fabric, and untreated weedy control plots. These treatments were applied to randomized blocks in a high-tunnel. Weeding, planting, and harvest were all timed to determine labor and material costs of weed management strategy implementation. After harvest, marketable yield was weighed to determine revenue ...


Evaluation, Characterization, And Utilization Of Weed-Suppressive Sweetpotato Cultivars For Sustainable Weed Management, Isabel Schlegel Werle May 2022

Evaluation, Characterization, And Utilization Of Weed-Suppressive Sweetpotato Cultivars For Sustainable Weed Management, Isabel Schlegel Werle

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a low-technology, subsistence crop that enhances food and nutrition security particularly in developing nations. Weed interference with the crop can reduce sweetpotato storage root yields and product quality. Current weed management practices in sweetpotato include PRE or POST herbicides application, cultivation, mowing, or handweeding. Unlike row crops, herbicide options for sweetpotato are few; therefore, alternative weed control practices are needed. The overall objective of this research was to determine the weed suppressive ability of several sweetpotato cultivars. This research also provides information about cover crop use for weed suppression in sweetpotato production in Arkansas. Field ...


Examining The Invasion Of Bush Honeysuckle Through A Phylogenetic Analysis, Phoebe Bruffett May 2022

Examining The Invasion Of Bush Honeysuckle Through A Phylogenetic Analysis, Phoebe Bruffett

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The mechanisms underlying the continual spread of invasive plants within their respective non-native ranges is a major focal point to invasion research. Many theories have been proposed to understand these invasions, each with different implications for the predicted range for invasive plants. Lonicera maackii provides an exceptional opportunity to examine the effectiveness of these theories to explain the trends of invasive plants. Lonicera maackii is native to eastern Asia, but has invaded much of the eastern United States, presenting a severe threat to the health of forest and other natural areas. Recent analysis of the climatic envelopes uncovered a significant ...


A Bioassay To Determine Poa Annua Responses To Indaziflam, Benjamin D. Pritchard May 2022

A Bioassay To Determine Poa Annua Responses To Indaziflam, Benjamin D. Pritchard

Masters Theses

Herbicide resistance within Poa annua is widespread in managed turfgrass systems. In 2020, a P. annua collection from a golf course in the southeastern United States was reported to be resistant to indaziflam as well as six other mode-of-action groups. Considering P. annua is the most troublesome weed in turfgrass, a bioassay to screen other collections with putative indaziflam resistance is needed. A dose-response experiment was conducted with ten concentrations of indaziflam (0, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500, 2000, 4500, and 9000 pM) in Gelrite® culture during 2021 and 2022. An herbicide-susceptible (S1) collection of P. annua, a resistant ...


Examination Of Pre-Emergence Control Of Johnsongrass In Sugarcane Seedlings, Carleton Baucum Apr 2022

Examination Of Pre-Emergence Control Of Johnsongrass In Sugarcane Seedlings, Carleton Baucum

LSU Master's Theses

Sugarcane is susceptible to many diseases and insect pests; therefore, to maintain high sugar yield new varieties must be developed. Producing new varieties contributes to the overall crop success through enhanced yield, insect and/or disease resistance, cold tolerance, and ratooning ability. However, unlike conventional sugarcane, which is vegetatively propagated, new sugarcane varieties are produced from true seed. These seedlings are more susceptible to herbicidal injury and weed competition than conventional sugarcane. For sugarcane seedlings to succeed, weeds must be controlled therefore, the most effective herbicide program with regards to seedling safety must be implemented. The objectives of this research ...


Winter Cover Crop Impacts On Weed Dynamics In Eastern And Central Nebraska, Elizabeth Ann Oys Apr 2022

Winter Cover Crop Impacts On Weed Dynamics In Eastern And Central Nebraska, Elizabeth Ann Oys

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Reducing tillage in cropping systems causes weed management to be dependent on chemical and cultural methods for weed control. Over time, herbicide-resistant weeds have developed due to the continuous selection pressures from herbicides, particularly in the Midwest Corn Belt. Integrated weed management strategies, such as cover crops, can be used to mitigate some of these issues. Cover crops are primarily known for their soil health benefits, but there is evidence that cover crops can suppress weeds. However, less research has been done at the field-scale level to address cover crop impacts on the weed seedbank and aboveground weeds during the ...


Weed Management With Pro-Herbicides Benzobicylon And Florpyrauxifen-Benzyl In Louisiana Rice Production, William Bradley Greer Mar 2022

Weed Management With Pro-Herbicides Benzobicylon And Florpyrauxifen-Benzyl In Louisiana Rice Production, William Bradley Greer

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Field studies were conducted in 2020 and 2021 to evaluate benzobicyclon tolerance to 71 weedy rice accessions collected from Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Benzobicyclon was applied at 373 g ai ha-1 as a postflood application on 3- to 4-leaf rice. At 28 DAT, less than 15% control was observed on 70% of the accessions and 80% or better control was observed on 3% of accessions. Inconsistent weedy rice control can be attributed to the presence or absence of a functional HIS1 allele. The functional HIS1 allele was present in 96% of accessions when treated with benzobicyclon control was less ...


Effect Of Mulch Type And Depth On Rooting Of Stem Cuttings And Weed Control In Containers, Isha Poudel, Anthony L. Witcher Feb 2022

Effect Of Mulch Type And Depth On Rooting Of Stem Cuttings And Weed Control In Containers, Isha Poudel, Anthony L. Witcher

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Weeds are a major problem in cutting propagation and compete with the main crop for water, sunlight, and nutrients, thus reducing growth and marketable quality of rooted cuttings. Due to the high labor cost of hand weeding, mulches can be an alternative method for weed control in the propagation environment. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of mulches (coarse vermiculite, rice hulls, paper pellets, and pine pellets) on rooting of stem cuttings and weed control when applied at 0.5- and 1-inch depths. Cuttings of three plant species [‘Nanho Blue’ butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii), ‘Catawba’ crape ...


Benefits Of Cover Cropping Systems In Walnut Orchards As Sustainable Agricultural Practice, Ana Medic, Consuelo B. Baez Vega Jan 2022

Benefits Of Cover Cropping Systems In Walnut Orchards As Sustainable Agricultural Practice, Ana Medic, Consuelo B. Baez Vega

CSU Journal of Sustainability and Climate Change

In recent years walnut orchards implemented cover crops in between rows to improve soil’s quality, lessen soil’s erosion, increase organic matter, manage nutrient movement and availability, enhance water retention, and expand microbe, insect, and flora diversity. Commonly selected cover crops in California are from families Poaceae, Brassicaceae, and Fabaceae. Considerations should be made when choosing a particular cover crop mixture to enhance multiple benefits and improve sustainable practices in orchard settings. An experiment was conducted in a walnut orchard to compare functionality and benefits of three systems multi-crop, monocrop, and no vegetation cover crop system. The following components ...


Modeling The Evolution Of Herbicide Resistance In Weed Species With A Complex Life Cycle, K. Harrison Holmes, John L. Lindquist, Richard Rebarber, Rodrigo Werle, Melinda K. Yerka, Brigitte Tenhumberg Jan 2022

Modeling The Evolution Of Herbicide Resistance In Weed Species With A Complex Life Cycle, K. Harrison Holmes, John L. Lindquist, Richard Rebarber, Rodrigo Werle, Melinda K. Yerka, Brigitte Tenhumberg

Brigitte Tenhumberg Papers

A growing number of weed species have evolved resistance to herbicides in recent years, which causes an immense financial burden to farmers. An increasingly popular method of weed control is the adoption of crops that are resistant to specific herbicides, which allows farmers to apply the herbicide during the growing season without harming the crop. If such crops are planted in the presence of closely related weed species, it is possible that resistance genes could transfer from the crop species to feral populations of the wild species via gene flow and become stably introgressed under ongoing selective pressure by the ...


Invasion Of Plant Communities, Stephen L. Young, Sarah Kimball, Stephen J. Novak Jan 2022

Invasion Of Plant Communities, Stephen L. Young, Sarah Kimball, Stephen J. Novak

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Due to numerous human activities, organisms have been transported and either accidentally or deliberately introduced all around the globe. Biological invasions are now considered to be one of the main drivers of global change because many invasive plants have severe ecological, economic, and health consequences. Thus, there is an ever-growing need to better understand invasions to determine how specific plant species are able to establish in communities and, in many cases, expand their range. Here, we describe the invasion process and how it contributes to the invasion of plant communities. We present an invasion-factor framework (IFF) model that uses three ...


Garden Bot: Autonomous Home Garden Weed Removal Robot, Brendon Lovejoy, Robert Connolly, Isaac Lucas, Stevan Veselinov Jan 2022

Garden Bot: Autonomous Home Garden Weed Removal Robot, Brendon Lovejoy, Robert Connolly, Isaac Lucas, Stevan Veselinov

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

With frequent weeding being a tedious chore and an essential task for a successful garden, there is need for an automated method of handling this routine. Existing technologies utilize computer vision, GPS, multiple units and other tools to remove weeds from garden plots. However, these solutions are often complex and expensive, suited for large agricultural plots in contrast to small-scale home gardens. In addition, many of these technologies, along with manual tillers and cultivators suited for home use, are unable to perform weeding within rows of crops in a process known as intra-row weeding. The Garden Bot is an autonomous ...


Second Twenty-Five Year Index: Volumes 26–50, 1994–2018, Jane E. Austin Jan 2022

Second Twenty-Five Year Index: Volumes 26–50, 1994–2018, Jane E. Austin

The Prairie Naturalist

The first 50 years of the Prairie Naturalist reside on the shelves of libraries and personal collections. The articles and notes published over those years provide invaluable knowledge about Great Plains biota, communities, conservation, and landscape ecologies. Awareness of the wealth of information in those 50 print volumes has been limited, relying on references from other published papers or the limited number of articles that have been made available online by authors. This index serves as resource for individuals to digitally tap into the information published since 1994. This index, together with the first 25-year index, serves to complement the ...


Herbicide Activity On Old World Bluestems, Keith Harmoney Jan 2022

Herbicide Activity On Old World Bluestems, Keith Harmoney

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Two main species of old world bluestems (OWB), yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum) and Caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa bladhii), have encroached on rangelands, pastures, and road right-of-ways in Kansas. Patches of these OWB have been shown to reduce species diversity and abundance at multiple trophic levels, and pose a long-term threat to native plant, insect, rodent, and grassland bird populations. These OWB species are utilized by cattle early in the growing season, directly following prescribed burns, and during droughts when other forages lack water uptake and may go dormant. However, these OWB species mature more quickly than native grass species and quickly ...


Reclaiming Old World Bluestem Pasture With Imazapyr Application And Native Grass Overseeding, Keith Harmoney Jan 2022

Reclaiming Old World Bluestem Pasture With Imazapyr Application And Native Grass Overseeding, Keith Harmoney

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Old world bluestems (OWB), mainly Caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa bladhii) and yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum) introduced from parts of eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, have been shown to reduce abundance and diversity of some insect and wildlife species compared to native grasses when these OWB grasses form dense stands. These OWBs have been invading native pastures in the southern Great Plains and are rapidly increasing in the amount of area occupied in Kansas. Two landowners purchased pasture property in Ellsworth County, KS, and observed that Caucasian old world bluestem had increased in the pasture significantly over the course of several ...