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Bio Prospecting Of Lapachol Producing Endophytic Fungi, Chandrashekar Srinivasa, Sushma Pradeep, Shashank M Patil, Ramith Ramu, Shiva Prasad Kollur, Shashanka K Prasad, Chandan Shivamallu 2022 Department of Studies in Biotechnology, Davangere University, Shivagangotri, Davangere, India

Bio Prospecting Of Lapachol Producing Endophytic Fungi, Chandrashekar Srinivasa, Sushma Pradeep, Shashank M Patil, Ramith Ramu, Shiva Prasad Kollur, Shashanka K Prasad, Chandan Shivamallu

International Journal of Health and Allied Sciences

Background: The association of endophytic fungi with medicinal plants has been one of the evolving areas of research in the past few decades. The secondary metabolites produced owing to such associations have been recognised for a wide range of biological activities. Objectives: The aim of the present review is to highlight the isolation of lapachol from endophytic microorganisms with an emphasis on its biotransformation to improve its efficacy. Methodology: The researchers followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria. Published scientific articles on endophytes, host-pathogen interaction and lapachol isolation were collected from reputed journals from …


Using Xbeach To Describe The Performance Of An Intertidal Vegetation Shoreline Stabilization Treatment, Elizabeth Winter 2022 University of South Alabama

Using Xbeach To Describe The Performance Of An Intertidal Vegetation Shoreline Stabilization Treatment, Elizabeth Winter

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this project is to predict the hydrodynamic and morphodynamics of an engineered vegetation-only shoreline restoration project in Little Lagoon, Alabama under different storm and sea level rise scenarios. Little Lagoon is a shallow, single-inlet lagoon located in Baldwin County, Alabama that has been experiencing shoreline erosion for the past 28 years. A living shoreline using vegetation only (Spartina alterniflora) was implemented in the southwest corner of the lagoon, located within Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge, to create habitat, improve water quality, and prevent future erosion. This research compares “with-project” and “without-project” hydrodynamics and morphodynamics using XBeach in …


Nitrification Inhibitor, Nitrogen Source, And Herbicide Effects On Soil Nitrogen Transformations And Corn Yield, William Neels 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Nitrification Inhibitor, Nitrogen Source, And Herbicide Effects On Soil Nitrogen Transformations And Corn Yield, William Neels

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Nitrogen fertilizer management continue to be challenging due to potential nitrogen losses under variable weather conditions. The objective of this was to evaluate the performance of nitrification inhibitors, nitrogen sources and herbicides on in-season nitrogen availability and agronomy indicators. A two site-year field experiment was conducted in silty clay loam soil in corn phase of the corn-soybean rotation at Central Nebraska. The treatments included three herbicide (no pre-emergence, Acuron, Resicore) and five nitrogen treatments: 1) control, 2) anhydrous ammonia, 3) anhydrous ammonia without nitrification inhibitor, 4) urea with nitrification inhibitors, and 5) urea without nitrification inhibitors. Results indicated that nitrogen …


Addressing Challenges Of Dryland Production Of Sunflowers And Corn In The Semi-Arid High Plains Of Nebraska, Zhan Orazov 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Addressing Challenges Of Dryland Production Of Sunflowers And Corn In The Semi-Arid High Plains Of Nebraska, Zhan Orazov

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Corn and sunflower are value crops for America. Cultivation of corn and sunflower often vary depending on growing environment. Selecting appropriate planting dates, hybrids and plant density frequently concerns farmers. This concern is understandable because the decision made directly impacts final income. The objectives were to evaluate interaction of corn and sunflower planting dates and hybrid maturity and evaluate interaction of corn flex hybrids and plant density under conditions of western Nebraska. Nine corn hybrids with relative maturity ranging from 86 to 105 days were sown between early May and late June in first and between late April and early …


A Glass Bead Semi-Hydroponic System For Intact Maize Root Exudate Analysis And Phenotyping, Martha G. Lopez-Guerrero, Peng Wang, Felicia Phares, Daniel P. Schachtman, Sophie Alvarez, Karin V. van Dijk 2022 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

A Glass Bead Semi-Hydroponic System For Intact Maize Root Exudate Analysis And Phenotyping, Martha G. Lopez-Guerrero, Peng Wang, Felicia Phares, Daniel P. Schachtman, Sophie Alvarez, Karin V. Van Dijk

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Although there have been numerous studies describing plant growth systems for root exudate collection, a common limitation is that these systems require disruption of the plant root system to facilitate exudate collection. Here, we present a newly designed semi-hydroponic system that uses glass beads as solid support to simulate soil impedance, which combined with drip irrigation, facilitates growth of healthy maize plants, collection and analysis of root exudates, and phenotyping of the roots with minimal growth disturbance or root damage. Results: This system was used to collect root exudates from seven maize genotypes using water or 1 mM CaCl2, …


Comparative Genome Analysis Of Plant Ascomycete Fungal Pathogens With Different Lifestyles Reveals Distinctive Virulence Strategies, Yansu Wang, Jie Wu, Jiacheng Yan, Ming Guo, Lei Xu, Liping Hou, Quan Zou 2022 Shenzhen Polytechnic

Comparative Genome Analysis Of Plant Ascomycete Fungal Pathogens With Different Lifestyles Reveals Distinctive Virulence Strategies, Yansu Wang, Jie Wu, Jiacheng Yan, Ming Guo, Lei Xu, Liping Hou, Quan Zou

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Pathogens have evolved diverse lifestyles and adopted pivotal new roles in both natural ecosystems and human environments. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their adaptation to new lifestyles are obscure. Comparative genomics was adopted to determine distinct strategies of plant ascomycete fungal pathogens with different lifestyles and to elucidate their distinctive virulence strategies. Results: We found that plant ascomycete biotrophs exhibited lower gene gain and loss events and loss of CAZyme-encoding genes involved in plant cell wall degradation and biosynthesis gene clusters for the production of secondary metabolites in the genome. Comparison with the candidate effectome detected distinctive variations between …


The Impact Of Glycine Betaine Applications On Drought Response In Wild Blueberries, Abigail Fisher 2022 University of Maine

The Impact Of Glycine Betaine Applications On Drought Response In Wild Blueberries, Abigail Fisher

Honors College

Wild blueberries are an economically important crop for Maine, and with warming temperatures leading to increased periods of drought and increased soil moisture deficits, it is important to find new ways to combat the effects of drought. In this study, we aimed to look at the effect of foliar-applied glycine betaine applications on wild lowbush blueberries in both field and greenhouse experiments. The product being tested was Bluestim, a foliar-applied product containing >96% pure glycine betaine sold by Biobest. The product is claimed to work as an osmoprotectant allowing the plant to maintain turgor pressure and protect enzymes and macromolecules …


Technical Note: On Uncertainties In Plant Water Isotopic Composition Following Extraction By Cryogenic Vacuum Distillation, Haoyu Diao, Philipp Schuler, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Matthias Saurer, Marco M. Lehmann 2022 Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL

Technical Note: On Uncertainties In Plant Water Isotopic Composition Following Extraction By Cryogenic Vacuum Distillation, Haoyu Diao, Philipp Schuler, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Matthias Saurer, Marco M. Lehmann

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Recent studies have challenged the interpretation of plant water isotopes obtained through cryogenic vacuum distillation (CVD) based on observations of a large 2H fractionation. These studies have hypothesized the existence of an H-atom exchange between water and organic tissue during CVD extraction with the magnitude of H exchange related to relative water content of the sample; however, clear evidence is lacking. Here, we systematically tested the uncertainties in the isotopic composition of CVD-extracted water by conducting a series of incubation and rehydration experiments using isotopically depleted water, water at natural isotope abundance, woody materials with exchangeable H, and organic materials …


Taxonomic Revision And Morphometric Analysis Of Selected Anthurium (Araceae) Species From Bolivia And Peru, Daniel M. Tarazona Ocana 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Taxonomic Revision And Morphometric Analysis Of Selected Anthurium (Araceae) Species From Bolivia And Peru, Daniel M. Tarazona Ocana

Theses

The genus Anthurium (Araceae) consists of around 1,200 species distributed in the Neotropics, particularly in Central and South America. The montane forests in the eastern flank of the Andes, ranging from northern Ecuador to central Bolivia; hereafter, the East Andes Gradient region, are particularly rich in terms of species diversity, and include an understudied group of Anthurium species endemic to the region. Within this group of species, some taxa are difficult to distinguish from each other mainly due to the lack of identification keys, incomplete species descriptions and unknown synonyms. In this study, a combination of traditional taxonomic techniques and …


The Genome Of Orychophragmus Violaceus Provides Genomic Insights Into The Evolution Of Brassicaceaepolyploidizationandits Distinct Traits, Kang Zhang, Yinqing Yang, Xin Zhang, Lingkui Zhang, Yu Fu, Zhongwei Guo, Shumin Chen, Jian Wu, James C. Schnable, Keke Yi, Xiaowu Wang, Feng Cheng 2022 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

The Genome Of Orychophragmus Violaceus Provides Genomic Insights Into The Evolution Of Brassicaceaepolyploidizationandits Distinct Traits, Kang Zhang, Yinqing Yang, Xin Zhang, Lingkui Zhang, Yu Fu, Zhongwei Guo, Shumin Chen, Jian Wu, James C. Schnable, Keke Yi, Xiaowu Wang, Feng Cheng

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Orychophragmus violaceus, referred to as ‘‘eryuelan’’ (February orchid) in China, is an early-flowering ornamental plant. The high oil content and abundance of unsaturated fatty acids in O. violaceus seeds make it a potential high-quality oilseed crop. Here, we generated a whole-genome assembly for O. violaceus using Nanopore and Hi-C sequencing technologies. The assembled genome of O. violaceus was ~1.3 Gb in size, with 12 pairs of chromosomes. Through investigation of ancestral genome evolution, we determined that the genome of O. violaceus experienced a tetraploidization event from a diploid progenitor with the translocated proto-Calepineae karyotype. Comparisons between the reconstructed subgenomes …


Effects Of Intercropping On Garlic Growth In A Green Roof Setting, Kennedy Warden, Thomas Loose, Max Stone 2022 Belmont University

Effects Of Intercropping On Garlic Growth In A Green Roof Setting, Kennedy Warden, Thomas Loose, Max Stone

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

Growing crops together in the same plot, also known as intercropping, can increase soil nutrient quality and growth patterns for plants of different species. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of intercropping on the growth of garlic planted on a green roof, specifically the question, “does garlic grow better in a mixed group of different species, or better in a primarily single-species group?” We divided a 2-meter plot in half, one half was devoted to garlic only while the second plot was garlic mixed with strawberries and chili peppers. We predicted that the garlic in the …


Salt Tolerance Qtls Of An Endemic Rice Landrace, Horkuch At Seedling And Reproductive Stages, Taslima Haque, Sabrina M. Elias, Samsad Razzaque, Sudip Biswas, Sumaiya Farah Khan, G. M. Nurnabi Azad Jewel, Md. Sazzadur Rahman, Thomas E. Juenger, Zeba I. Seraj 2022 University of Dhaka, University of Texas

Salt Tolerance Qtls Of An Endemic Rice Landrace, Horkuch At Seedling And Reproductive Stages, Taslima Haque, Sabrina M. Elias, Samsad Razzaque, Sudip Biswas, Sumaiya Farah Khan, G. M. Nurnabi Azad Jewel, Md. Sazzadur Rahman, Thomas E. Juenger, Zeba I. Seraj

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Salinity has a significant negative impact on production of rice. To cope with the increased soil salinity due to climate change, we need to develop salt tolerant rice varieties that can maintain their high yield. Rice landraces indigenous to coastal Bangladesh can be a great resource to study the genetic basis of salt adaptation. In this study, we implemented a QTL analysis framework with a reciprocal mapping population developed from a salt tolerant landrace Horkuch and a high yielding rice variety IR29. Our aim was to detect genetic loci that contributes to the salt adaptive responses of the two …


Rice Chalky Grain 5 Regulates Natural Variation For Grain Quality Under Heat Stress, Anil Kumar Nalini Chandran, Jaspreet Sandhu, Larissa Irvin, Puneet Paul, Balpreet K. Dhatt, Waseem Hussain, Tian Gao, Paul E. Staswick, Hongfeng Yu, Gota Morota, Harkamal Walia 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Rice Chalky Grain 5 Regulates Natural Variation For Grain Quality Under Heat Stress, Anil Kumar Nalini Chandran, Jaspreet Sandhu, Larissa Irvin, Puneet Paul, Balpreet K. Dhatt, Waseem Hussain, Tian Gao, Paul E. Staswick, Hongfeng Yu, Gota Morota, Harkamal Walia

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Heat stress occurring during rice (Oryza sativa) grain development reduces grain quality, which often manifests as increased grain chalkiness. Although the impact of heat stress on grain yield is well-studied, the genetic basis of rice grain quality under heat stress is less explored as quantifying grain quality is less tractable than grain yield. To address this, we used an image-based colorimetric assay (Red, R; and Green, G) for genome-wide association analysis to identify genetic loci underlying the phenotypic variation in rice grains exposed to heat stress. We found the R to G pixel ratio (RG) derived from mature …


Alfalfa Water Productivity And Yield Gaps In The U.S. Central Great Plains, Kaylin P. Fink, Patricio Grassini, Alexandre Rocateli, Leonardo M. Bastos, Jude Kastens, Luke P. Ryan, Xiaomao Lin, Andres Patrignani, Romulo P. Lollato 2022 Kansas State University

Alfalfa Water Productivity And Yield Gaps In The U.S. Central Great Plains, Kaylin P. Fink, Patricio Grassini, Alexandre Rocateli, Leonardo M. Bastos, Jude Kastens, Luke P. Ryan, Xiaomao Lin, Andres Patrignani, Romulo P. Lollato

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Context: Yield gap (Yg) analyses using farmer-reported yield and management data have been performed for a number of annual grain crops, but it lacks for perennial forages. The U.S. accounts for 21 % of the global alfalfa production with a large rainfed area located in the central Great Plains, serving as an interesting case-study for Yg in perennial forages. Most existing alfalfa Yg analyses quantified the magnitude of the Yg but failed to identify associated management practices to reduce it. Challenging this analysis, a systematic benchmark for alfalfa water productivity [WP, kg dry matter per mm evapotranspiration (ETc)] that …


The Genomic And Bulked Segregant Analysis Of Curcuma Alismatifolia Revealed Its Diverse Bract Pigmentation, Xuezhu Liao, Yuanjun Ye, Xiaoni Zhang, Dan Peng, Mengmeng Hou, Gaofei Fu, Jianjun Tan, Jianli Zhao, Rihong Jiang, Yechun Xu, Jinmei Liu, Jinliang Yang, Wusheng Liu, Luke R. Tembrock, Genfa Zhu, Zhiqiang Wu 2022 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

The Genomic And Bulked Segregant Analysis Of Curcuma Alismatifolia Revealed Its Diverse Bract Pigmentation, Xuezhu Liao, Yuanjun Ye, Xiaoni Zhang, Dan Peng, Mengmeng Hou, Gaofei Fu, Jianjun Tan, Jianli Zhao, Rihong Jiang, Yechun Xu, Jinmei Liu, Jinliang Yang, Wusheng Liu, Luke R. Tembrock, Genfa Zhu, Zhiqiang Wu

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Compared with most flowers where the showy part comprises specialized leaves (petals) directly subtending the reproductive structures, most Zingiberaceae species produce showy ‘‘flowers’’ through modifications of leaves (bracts) subtending the true flowers throughout an inflorescence. Curcuma alismatifolia, belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, a plant species originating from Southeast Asia, has become increasingly popular in the flower market worldwide because of its varied and esthetically pleasing bracts produced in different cultivars. Here, we present the chromosome-scale genome assembly of C. alismatifolia ‘‘Chiang Mai Pink’’ and explore the underlying mechanisms of bract pigmentation. Comparative genomic analysis revealed C. alismatifolia contains a …


Cyclic Adp Ribose Isomers: Production, Chemical Structures, And Immune Signaling, Mohammad K. Manik, Yun Shi, Sulin Li, Mark A. Zaydman, Neha Damaraju, Samuel Eastman, Thomas G. Smith, Weixi Gu, Veronika Masic, Tamim Mosaiab, James S. Weagley, Steven J. Hancock, Eduardo Vasquez, Lauren Hartley-Tassell, Nestoras Kargios, Natsumi Maruta, Bryan Y.J. Lim, Hayden Burdett, Michael J. Landsberg, Mark A. Schembri, Ivan Prokes, Lijiang Song, Murray Grant, Aaron DiAntonio, Jeffrey D. Nanson, Ming Guo, Jeffrey Milbrandt, Thomas Ve, Bostjan Kobe 2022 The University of Queensland

Cyclic Adp Ribose Isomers: Production, Chemical Structures, And Immune Signaling, Mohammad K. Manik, Yun Shi, Sulin Li, Mark A. Zaydman, Neha Damaraju, Samuel Eastman, Thomas G. Smith, Weixi Gu, Veronika Masic, Tamim Mosaiab, James S. Weagley, Steven J. Hancock, Eduardo Vasquez, Lauren Hartley-Tassell, Nestoras Kargios, Natsumi Maruta, Bryan Y.J. Lim, Hayden Burdett, Michael J. Landsberg, Mark A. Schembri, Ivan Prokes, Lijiang Song, Murray Grant, Aaron Diantonio, Jeffrey D. Nanson, Ming Guo, Jeffrey Milbrandt, Thomas Ve, Bostjan Kobe

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Cyclic adenosine diphosphate (ADP)–ribose (cADPR) isomers are signaling molecules produced by bacterial and plant Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidized form) (NAD+) hydrolysis. We show that v-cADPR (2′cADPR) and v2-cADPR (3′cADPR) isomers are cyclized by O-glycosidic bond formation between the ribose moieties in ADPR. Structures of 2′cADPR-producing TIR domains reveal conformational changes that lead to an active assembly that resembles those of Toll-like receptor adaptor TIR domains. Mutagenesis reveals a conserved tryptophan that is essential for cyclization. We show that 3′cADPR is an activator of ThsA effector proteins from the bacterial antiphage defense system termed Thoeris and …


Spatial Patterns Of Woody Plant Encroachment In A Temperate Grassland, Dillon T. Fogarty, Robert B. Peterson, Dirac Twidwell 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Spatial Patterns Of Woody Plant Encroachment In A Temperate Grassland, Dillon T. Fogarty, Robert B. Peterson, Dirac Twidwell

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Context Woody encroachment is the process whereby grasslands transition to a woody-dominated state. This process is a global driver of grassland decline and is ultimately the outcome of increased woody plant recruitment in grasslands. Yet, little is known about how recruitment distances structure spatial patterns of encroachment.

Objectives Here, we develop a recruitment curve to describe the scatter of woody plant recruitment around seed sources and examine how this structures spatial patterns of encroachment.

Methods We developed a recruitment curve for Juniperus virginiana using an encroachment dataset that captures spread from tree plantings into treeless grassland sites in the Nebraska …


The Heterogeneity In The Landscape Of Gene Dominance In Maize Is Accompanied By Unique Chromatin Environments, Liangwei Yin, Gen Xu, Jinliang Yang, Meixia Zhao 2022 Miami University

The Heterogeneity In The Landscape Of Gene Dominance In Maize Is Accompanied By Unique Chromatin Environments, Liangwei Yin, Gen Xu, Jinliang Yang, Meixia Zhao

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Subgenome dominance after whole-genome duplication (WGD) has been observed in many plant species. However, the degree to which the chromatin environment affects this bias has not been explored. Here, we compared the dominant subgenome (maize1) and the recessive subgenome (maize2) with respect to patterns of sequence substitutions, genes expression, transposable element accumulation, small interfering RNAs, DNA methylation, histone modifications, and accessible chromatin regions (ACRs). Our data show that the degree of bias between subgenomes for all the measured variables does not vary significantly when both of the WGD genes are located in pericentromeric regions. Our data further indicate that the …


Next-Generation Technologies Unlock New Possibilities To Track Rangeland Productivity And Quantify Multi-Scale Conservation Outcomes, Caleb P. Roberts, David E. Naugle, Brady W. Allred, Victoria M. Donovan, Dillon T. Fogarty, Matthew O. Jones, Jeremy D. Maestas, Andrew C. Olsen, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr 2022 University of Arkansas

Next-Generation Technologies Unlock New Possibilities To Track Rangeland Productivity And Quantify Multi-Scale Conservation Outcomes, Caleb P. Roberts, David E. Naugle, Brady W. Allred, Victoria M. Donovan, Dillon T. Fogarty, Matthew O. Jones, Jeremy D. Maestas, Andrew C. Olsen, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Historically, relying on plot-level inventories impeded our ability to quantify large-scale change in plant biomass, a key indicator of conservation practice outcomes in rangeland systems. Recent technological advances enable assessment at scales appropriate to inform management by providing spatially comprehensive estimates of productivity that are partitioned by plant functional group across all contiguous US rangelands. We partnered with the Sage Grouse and Lesser Prairie-Chicken Initiatives and the Nebraska Natural Legacy Project to demonstrate the ability of these new datasets to quantify multi-scale changes and heterogeneity in plant biomass following mechanical tree removal, prescribed fire, and prescribed grazing. In Oregon’s sagebrush …


Cytogenetic And Genomic Characterization Of A Novel Tall Wheatgrass‑Derived Fhb7 Allele Integrated Into Wheat B Genome, Wei Zhang, Tatiana Danilova, Mingyi Zhang, Shuangfeng Ren, Xianwen Zhu, Qijun Zhang, Shaobin Zhong, Linda Dykes, Jason Fiedler, Steven Xu, Katherine Frels, Stephen Wegulo, Jeffrey Boehm Jr., Xiwen Cai 2022 Shanxi Agricultural University, North Dakota State University

Cytogenetic And Genomic Characterization Of A Novel Tall Wheatgrass‑Derived Fhb7 Allele Integrated Into Wheat B Genome, Wei Zhang, Tatiana Danilova, Mingyi Zhang, Shuangfeng Ren, Xianwen Zhu, Qijun Zhang, Shaobin Zhong, Linda Dykes, Jason Fiedler, Steven Xu, Katherine Frels, Stephen Wegulo, Jeffrey Boehm Jr., Xiwen Cai

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

A novel tall wheatgrass-derived (Thinopyrum elongatum, genome EE) Fhb7 allele, designated Fhb7The2, was identified and integrated into the wheat B genome through a small 7B–7E translocation (7BS·7BL–7EL) involving the terminal regions of the long arms. Fhb7The2 conditions significant Type II resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. Integration of Fhb7The2 into the wheat B genome makes this wild species-derived FHB resistance gene usable for breeding in both common and durum wheat. By contrast, other Fhb7 introgression lines involving wheat chromosome 7D can be utilized only in common wheat breeding programs, not in durum …


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