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Patterns And Sources Of Variation In Heterospecific Pollen Deposition In Flowers Of The Native Blue Cardinal Flower (Lobelia Siphilitica), Allie Drinnon 2023 East Tennessee State University

Patterns And Sources Of Variation In Heterospecific Pollen Deposition In Flowers Of The Native Blue Cardinal Flower (Lobelia Siphilitica), Allie Drinnon

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Plants species interactions via pollinators are a model system to understand the mechanisms that generate plant diversity in nature. However, most studies have focused on plant-plant interactions via pollinator attraction while ignoring the role of plant-plant interactions via pollen transfer. Heterospecific pollen transfer (henceforth HP) can be common and have negative fitness effects. Negative HP fitness effects may prompt the evolution of adaptive strategies to minimize them. However, the extent of spatial variation in HP load size within and among populations, a tenet for natural selection, remains unexplored. Such knowledge would hence constitute a first step in advancing our understanding ...


Mycorrhizae In Maize (Zea Mays L.) Cropping Systems Respond Differently To Nitrogen Fertilization Under Increasing Crop Rotational Diversity, Morgan McPherson 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mycorrhizae In Maize (Zea Mays L.) Cropping Systems Respond Differently To Nitrogen Fertilization Under Increasing Crop Rotational Diversity, Morgan Mcpherson

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) remain a vital obligate symbiont of nearly all plants. It is well established that the symbiosis between AMF and host plant improves plant nutrient acquisition, alleviates abiotic and biotic environmental stressors, defends against plant pathogens, and contributes to overall plant fitness and productivity through modification of the soil habitat. Modifications include increased soil aggregation and stability, carbon sequestration through provision of fungal wall precursors to soil organic matter (SOM) formation, and enhanced nutrient cycling in the mycorrhizosphere. The goal of this dissertation was to assess how AMF respond to nitrogen (N) fertilization regimes in maize cropping ...


Effects Of Elevated Co2 Concentrations And Elevated Temperatures On Isoprene Emissions Of Rhamnus Cathartica (European Buckthorn), Quercus Rubra (Red Oak) And Quercus Michauxii (Swamp Chestnut Oak), Janet G. Núñez 2022 DePaul University

Effects Of Elevated Co2 Concentrations And Elevated Temperatures On Isoprene Emissions Of Rhamnus Cathartica (European Buckthorn), Quercus Rubra (Red Oak) And Quercus Michauxii (Swamp Chestnut Oak), Janet G. Núñez

DePaul Discoveries

Tropospheric ozone is a ground-level pollutant and is produced from primary air pollutants like nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While many VOCs are anthropogenic, isoprene is emitted from certain species of plants and reacts with nitrogen oxides to form ozone. Previous studies have found that isoprene can be suppressed by CO2, but such suppression can be reduced under conditions of increased temperature. However, this pattern is not seen in all plants capable of emitting isoprene. The focus of this is study is to determine if similar patterns are present in the invasive tree species of buckthorn (Rhamnus ...


Optimization Of Nozzle, Application Height, And Speed For Uass Pesticide Applications, Trenton Houston 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Optimization Of Nozzle, Application Height, And Speed For Uass Pesticide Applications, Trenton Houston

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Unmanned aerial spray systems (UASS) applications have the potential to be efficient pesticide application platforms under conditions that are not accessible or fit for typical pesticide application equipment. Although this type of application is still under development in the U.S., UASS pesticide applications are common in Asia, as they have replaced backpack sprayers. There is limited literature on the optimization of UASS applications and many parameters need to be investigated to identify the best combination of application variables such as flight height, flight speed, and nozzle selection. The objectives were to identify the deposition patterns of a four rotor ...


Characterization And Selection Of Hop Cultivars Adapted To Nebraska, Kristina Alas 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization And Selection Of Hop Cultivars Adapted To Nebraska, Kristina Alas

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is an ingredient in the beer brewing industry that provides beer its flavor and aroma. High demand from the brewing industry has encouraged production outside of the traditional Pacific Northwest, the primary production region. Producers in the Midwest are attempting to grow cultivars adapted to the Pacific Northwest, but environmental differences have caused low yields and changes in secondary metabolite content. To aid producers, a regional breeding program was initiated to develop cultivars adapted to the Midwest. Success of any breeding program relies on the selection of genetically superior parents to generate progeny with the traits ...


Dicamba Tank Mixtures And Formulations And Their Effects On Sensitive Crops During Cleanout Procedures, Vinicius Velho 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dicamba Tank Mixtures And Formulations And Their Effects On Sensitive Crops During Cleanout Procedures, Vinicius Velho

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The introduction of dicamba-tolerant (DT) soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) in 2017 provided an additional tool for herbicide resistant weeds management. In the subsequent years, off-target movement of dicamba allegedly caused damage to sensitive crops and vegetation.

Possible causes of off-target movement include tank contamination, physical drift, and volatility. Additional products, such as herbicides to control grass, are often added to tank with dicamba, which is used to control broadleaf weeds, to increase the spectrum of control and application efficiency. Dicamba products registered for DT crops require the use of drift reducing agents to mitigate ...


The Importance Of Co2 Recapture In The Co2 Concentrating Mechanism Of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Ashwani Rai 2022 Louisiana State University

The Importance Of Co2 Recapture In The Co2 Concentrating Mechanism Of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Ashwani Rai

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The aim of this thesis is to investigate the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and to develop a quick method for estimating the activity of carbonic anhydrases (CAs). The first project demonstrates that there are two almost identical mitochondrial CAs in C. reinhardtii, CAH4 and CAH5, that help to maintain photosynthesis and minimize the leak of CO2 generated by respiration and photorespiration. We used an RNAi approach to reduce the expression of CAH4 and CAH5 so that their physiological functions could be studied. RNAi mutants with low expression of CAH4 and CAH5 have impaired rates of ...


Increasing The Resilience Of Plant Immunity To A Warming Climate, Jong Hum Kim, Christian Castroverde, Shuai Huang, Chao Li, Richard Hilleary, Adam Seroka, Reza Sohrabi, Diana Medina-Yerena, Bethany Huot, Jie Wang, Sharon Marr, Mary Wildermuth, Tao Chen, John MacMicking, Sheng Yang He 2022 Duke University

Increasing The Resilience Of Plant Immunity To A Warming Climate, Jong Hum Kim, Christian Castroverde, Shuai Huang, Chao Li, Richard Hilleary, Adam Seroka, Reza Sohrabi, Diana Medina-Yerena, Bethany Huot, Jie Wang, Sharon Marr, Mary Wildermuth, Tao Chen, John Macmicking, Sheng Yang He

Biology Faculty Publications

Extreme weather conditions associated with climate change affect many aspects of plant and animal life, including the response to infectious diseases. Production of salicylic acid (SA), a central plant defence hormone, is particularly vulnerable to suppression by short periods of hot weather above the normal plant growth temperature range via an unknown mechanism. Here we show that suppression of SA production in Arabidopsis thaliana at 28 °C is independent of PHYTOCHROME B (phyB) and EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), which regulate thermo-responsive plant growth and development. Instead, we found that formation of GUANYLATE BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 3 (GBPL3) defence-activated biomolecular condensates (GDACs ...


Identification Of Putative Snp Markers Associated With Resistance To Egyptian Loose Smut Race(S) In Spring Barley, Kamal A.M. Abo-Elyousr, Amira M.I. Mourad, P. Stephen Baenziger, Abdelaal H.A. Shehata, Peter E. Eckstein, Aaron D. Beattie, Ahmed Sallam 2022 Assiut University

Identification Of Putative Snp Markers Associated With Resistance To Egyptian Loose Smut Race(S) In Spring Barley, Kamal A.M. Abo-Elyousr, Amira M.I. Mourad, P. Stephen Baenziger, Abdelaal H.A. Shehata, Peter E. Eckstein, Aaron D. Beattie, Ahmed Sallam

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Loose smut (LS) disease is a serious problem that affects barley yield. Breeding of resistant cultivars and identifying new genes controlling LS has received very little attention. Therefore, it is important to understand the genetic basis of LS control in order to genetically improve LS resistance. To address this challenge, a set of 57 highly diverse barley genotypes were inoculated with Egyptian loose smut race(s) and the infected seeds/plants were evaluated in two growing seasons. Loose smut resistance (%) was scored on each genotype. High genetic variation was found among all tested genotypes indicating considerable differences in LS resistance ...


Recombination Hotspots In Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.], Samantha J. McConaughy 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Recombination Hotspots In Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.], Samantha J. Mcconaughy

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Recombination allows for the exchange of genetic material between two parents which plant breeders exploit to make new and improved varieties. This recombination is not distributed evenly across the chromosome. In crops, it mostly occurs in the euchromatic regions of the genome and even then, recombination is focused into recombination hotspots flanked by recombination cold spots. Understanding the distribution of these hotspots along with the sequence motifs associated with them may lead to methods that enable breeders to better exploit recombination in breeding.

In chapter 1 background information on recombination, recombination hotspots detection methods, landscape of recombination (describe recombination patterns ...


Water Quality, Carrier Volume And Droplet Size Effects On Herbicide Efficacy And Drift Potential, Barbara Houston 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Water Quality, Carrier Volume And Droplet Size Effects On Herbicide Efficacy And Drift Potential, Barbara Houston

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Herbicide performance is directly related to the amount of active ingredient that has been deposited on the plant. Hence, spray solution characteristics and application parameters are crucial in determining the efficacy of an herbicide application. To maximize the effectiveness of chemical control, methods to deliver full chemical dose must be utilized: allowing the active ingredient to be readily absorbed once added to the carrier and mitigating off-target movement and low herbicide doses. Water is the most frequently used carrier in herbicide applications. Chemical parameters, such as water hardness and pH, can have a critical role in herbicide performance. It is ...


Genetically Explicit Model May Explain Multigenerational Control Of Emergent Turing Patterns In Hybrid Mimulus, Emily Simmons 2022 William & Mary

Genetically Explicit Model May Explain Multigenerational Control Of Emergent Turing Patterns In Hybrid Mimulus, Emily Simmons

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Isolation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants Homozygous For An Insertional Inactivation Mutation Within Atprp4., Sydney Raitz, Timothy D. Trott 2022 Southern Adventist University

Isolation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants Homozygous For An Insertional Inactivation Mutation Within Atprp4., Sydney Raitz, Timothy D. Trott

Faculty Works

The AtPRP4 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana has been shown to function in several specific parts of the plant’s cell wall. It is shown to be expressed in the seeds, radicles, roots, leaves, inflorescences, and embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana. These patterns have suggested unique functions for ATPRP4 in determining cell-type-specific wall structure during the development of a plant as well as contributing to defense reactions against physical damage to the plant and pathogen infection within the plant. In this study, a simple DNA prep was performed on the true leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequent PCR reactions were performed using AtPRP4F ...


Effects Of One-Pass Microwave Drying On Rice’S Utilization In The Brewing Process., Christopher Stuckey 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of One-Pass Microwave Drying On Rice’S Utilization In The Brewing Process., Christopher Stuckey

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Rice is utilized as an adjunct grain by the beer manufacturing industry. Before utilization, the rice has to be dried to a desired moisture content. The drying process employed may have an impact on the rice’s physicochemical properties which influence the rice’s performance in the brewing process. This study focused on investigating the impact of microwave drying on rice’s physicochemical properties and utilization in the brewing process. Rough rice samples at an initial moisture content of 19.7% wet basis were exposed to microwave dryer set to deliver 525 kJ/kg of energy in a single drying ...


Plant Community Responses To Interactive Anthropogenic Disturbances Along A Natural-Wildland-Urban Gradient And Undergraduate Students’ Attitudes Toward Disturbances, Mali M. Hubert 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Plant Community Responses To Interactive Anthropogenic Disturbances Along A Natural-Wildland-Urban Gradient And Undergraduate Students’ Attitudes Toward Disturbances, Mali M. Hubert

Doctoral Dissertations

Anthropogenic disturbances are defined as any change caused by human activity that alters biodiversity. Wildfire and urbanization disturbances are among the most influential on the landscape because of their individual and interactive properties. Areas deemed wildland-urban interfaces (WUI; area where environment intermingles with human-built structures) are increasing near protected lands because of human population growth and movement, which often facilitates fire ignitions by humans. Houses that are adjacent to or overlap with wildland vegetation can complicate protection of urban development and wildlands from fires. The expansion of the WUI due to population growth will exacerbate fire risk, which can ultimately ...


Poa Annua: An Annual Species?, Devon E. Carroll 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Poa Annua: An Annual Species?, Devon E. Carroll

Doctoral Dissertations

Poa annua L. is ranked the most troublesome turfgrass weed but can also be a highly desirable turfgrass species. As the Latin name annua implies, the species is thought to persist via an annual life cycle; yet there are many reports in literature of P. annua persisting perennially. Considering that P. annua senescence patterns do not align with other true annual species such as Triticum spp. and Zea mays L., we hypothesized that P. annua presents itself similarly to other perennial, cool-season, turfgrass species that are subject to a confluence of environmental factors in summer that can cause mortality. Four ...


Nodulin 26 Like Intrinsic Proteins: Structurally Similar Membrane Channels With Diverse Functions In Plant Hypoxia Stress, Metalloid Nutrition & Toxicity, Zachary Beamer 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Nodulin 26 Like Intrinsic Proteins: Structurally Similar Membrane Channels With Diverse Functions In Plant Hypoxia Stress, Metalloid Nutrition & Toxicity, Zachary Beamer

Doctoral Dissertations

Plant nodulin 26 intrinsic proteins are categorized into three groups (NIP I, II, and III) based on pore architecture. NIP II and III participate in metalloid nutrition, whilst the function of a third (NIP I) is less understood. Here we investigate the physiological function of one NIP I protein (Arabidopsis thaliana NIP2;1) as a lactic acid channel, and also explore the structural basis for metalloid and water permeability of NIP I and NIP II proteins in general. In addition, a strategy was developed for the purification and crystallization of soybean nodulin 26 as a step towards structure determination of ...


Climate Change And Conservation Of Milkweed: Evidence Of Extensive Admixture Between Common Milkweed And Poke Milkweed, Elizabeth Davies 2022 William & Mary

Climate Change And Conservation Of Milkweed: Evidence Of Extensive Admixture Between Common Milkweed And Poke Milkweed, Elizabeth Davies

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Global climate change can drive many changes in species interactions. One primary way it affects species is by changing climates, causing species to expand their ranges and allowing them to interact with species from whom they were previously isolated. In plants, new species interactions can result in hybridization – the creation of hybrid offspring between two separate species. This hybridization can increase gene flow between the species and lead to introgression, the transfer of genetic material from one species to another through hybrid backcrossing with the parent species. My thesis investigates hybridization in the model system Asclepias (milkweed) by analyzing phenotypic ...


Floating Treatment Wetlands For Brackish Waters: Plant Selection And Nutrient Uptake Potential., Andrea Landaverde 2022 Clemson University

Floating Treatment Wetlands For Brackish Waters: Plant Selection And Nutrient Uptake Potential., Andrea Landaverde

All Theses

Brackish water bodies in coastal regions provide critical ecosystem services that support human and environmental health. Anthropogenic activities such as agricultural and industrial activities, construction, urban settlements, and tourism contribute to increased inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in brackish coastal ecosystems. Excess nutrients can lead to impaired water quality and affect marine organisms. Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) are a vegetated-base technology used to remove contaminants from water column, that has been mainly studied and applied in freshwater systems. Application of FTWs in brackish systems requires further investigation, as high salinity in brackish waters could result in toxicity to ...


Chromosome-Level Thlaspi Arvense Genome Provides New Tools For Translational Research And For A Newly Domesticated Cash Cover Crop Of The Cooler Climates, Adam Nunn, Isaac Rodríguez-Arévalo, Zenith Tandukar, Katherine Anna Frels, Adrián Contreras-Garrido, Pablo Carbonell-Bejerano, Panpan Zhang, Daniela Ramos Cruz, Katharina Jandrasits, Christa Lanz, Anthony Brusa, Marie Mirouze, Kevin Dorn, David W. Galbraith, Brice A. Jarvis, John C. Sedbrook, Donald L. Wyse, Christian Otto, David Langenberger, Peter F. Stadler, Detlef Weigel, M. David Marks, James A. Anderson, Claude Becker, Ratan Chopra 2022 ecSeq Bioinformatics GmbH

Chromosome-Level Thlaspi Arvense Genome Provides New Tools For Translational Research And For A Newly Domesticated Cash Cover Crop Of The Cooler Climates, Adam Nunn, Isaac Rodríguez-Arévalo, Zenith Tandukar, Katherine Anna Frels, Adrián Contreras-Garrido, Pablo Carbonell-Bejerano, Panpan Zhang, Daniela Ramos Cruz, Katharina Jandrasits, Christa Lanz, Anthony Brusa, Marie Mirouze, Kevin Dorn, David W. Galbraith, Brice A. Jarvis, John C. Sedbrook, Donald L. Wyse, Christian Otto, David Langenberger, Peter F. Stadler, Detlef Weigel, M. David Marks, James A. Anderson, Claude Becker, Ratan Chopra

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Thlaspi arvense (field pennycress) is being domesticated as a winter annual oilseed crop capable of improving ecosystems and intensifying agricultural productivity without increasing land use. It is a selfing diploid with a short life cycle and is amenable to genetic manipulations, making it an accessible field-based model species for genetics and epigenetics. The availability of a high-quality reference genome is vital for understanding pennycress physiology and for clarifying its evolutionary history within the Brassicaceae. Here, we present a chromosome-level genome assembly of var. MN106-Ref with improved gene annotation and use it to investigate gene structure differences between two accessions (MN108 ...


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