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Review Of Grasslands And Climate Change By David J. Gibson And Jonathan A. Newman, Neal D. Noemuth 2019 US FWS

Review Of Grasslands And Climate Change By David J. Gibson And Jonathan A. Newman, Neal D. Noemuth

The Prairie Naturalist

The last decade has seen an explosion of information about climate change, some of which is contradictory, much of which is confusing, and the entirety of which is too much for the typical biologist or scientist to assemble and comprehend. This is why reviews such as Grasslands and Climate Change, edited by David Gibson and Jonathan Newman, are so valuable. To produce this review of climate change issues and influences relative to grasslands, Gibson and Newman recruited 30 scientists—predominantly from Europe and North America—who wrote 19 chapters dealing with various aspects of grasslands and climate change. The chapters ...


Bats Of The Loess Hills Ecoregion Of Southeast Nebraska, Virgil Brack Jr, Dale W. Sparks, Darwin C. Brack 2019 Environmental Solutions & Innovations, Inc., Cincinnati, OH

Bats Of The Loess Hills Ecoregion Of Southeast Nebraska, Virgil Brack Jr, Dale W. Sparks, Darwin C. Brack

The Prairie Naturalist

We surveyed bats at 49 sites in the Loess Hills Ecoregion of southeastern Nebraska, along the western edge of the eastern forest biome in eastern Richardson, Nemaha, and Otoe counties. We completed this study shortly before the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) was listed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service under the Endangered Species Act. The expectation of listing, along with potential presence of the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), motivated the study. We captured 183 bats of five species: eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) (n = 103; 56 %), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) (n = 47; 26 %), evening bat ...


Review Of Sky Dance Of The Woodcock: The Habits And Habitats Of A Strange Little Bird, By Greg Hoch, David E. Andersen 2019 USGS Minnesota Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit

Review Of Sky Dance Of The Woodcock: The Habits And Habitats Of A Strange Little Bird, By Greg Hoch, David E. Andersen

The Prairie Naturalist

American Woodcock (Scolopax minor) have enthralled conservationists (including Aldo Leopold), bird watchers, wildlife enthusiasts, hunters, and others interested in the natural world for centuries. No doubt, woodcock also have enthralled humans in North America for millennia prior to written descriptions of the woodcock’s courtship displays, habitat preferences, and curious behavior and anatomy. As perhaps the most extensively studied species of shorebird in the world, there is a rich and extensive literature, both scientific and popular, focused on woodcock ecology, behavior, and hunting. To that extensive body of literature, Sky Dance of the Woodcock provides an updated summary of their ...


The Prairie Naturalist, Vol. 51, Issue 2, December 2019, 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Prairie Naturalist, Vol. 51, Issue 2, December 2019

The Prairie Naturalist

45 EDITOR’S NOTE: Final Thoughts as Editor-in-Chief, by Christopher N. Jacques

RESEARCH ARTICLES

47 Bats of the Loess Hills Ecoregion of Southeast Nebraska, by Virgil Brack, Jr., Dale W. Sparks, and Darwin C. Brack

58 Serological Survey and Pathogen Exposure of Adult Female White-tailed Deer in the Western Dakotas, by Katherine L. Moratz, Bailey S. Gullikson, Eric S. Michel, Daniel M. Grove, Jonathan A. Jenks, and William F. Jensen

68 Factors Limting Reintroduced Plains Topminnow, Fundulus sciadicus, Populations in Central Great Plains Streams, by Joseph D. Thiessen, Keith D. Koupal, and Casey W. Schoenebeck

NOTES

77 Recent Observations of ...


Factors Limiting Reintroduced Plains Topminnow, Fundulus Sciadicus, Populations In Central Great Plains Streams, Joseph Thiessen, Keith D. Koupal, Casey W. Schoenebeck 2019 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Factors Limiting Reintroduced Plains Topminnow, Fundulus Sciadicus, Populations In Central Great Plains Streams, Joseph Thiessen, Keith D. Koupal, Casey W. Schoenebeck

The Prairie Naturalist

The plains topminnow (Fundulus sciadicus) is an endemic Great Plains stream fish that has experienced declines in geographic range and local abundance. Due to these declines, the species has been considered for federal protection and designated with conservation status in states throughout its historic range. The reasons for declines are likely similar to hypothesized factors for other endemic stream fish declines in the Great Plains. To investigate potential limiting factors a suite of 17 historic sites with reintroduced plains topminnow populations across Nebraska were evaluated for current populations and if plains topminnow were absent, additional fish were introduced. These sites ...


Final Thoughts As Editor-In-Chief, Christopher N. Jacques 2019 Western Illinois University

Final Thoughts As Editor-In-Chief, Christopher N. Jacques

The Prairie Naturalist

Greetings GPNSS members! I write this editorial during a time of reflection as Editor-in-Chief of The Prairie Naturalist (TPN), and during unprecedented times as the global COVID-19 pandemic continues. In full disclosure, I do not have a particular topic for this editorial, other than to offer a few final thoughts as my time serving the Great Plains Natural Science Society and TPN.


Serological Survey And Pathogen Exposure Of Adult Female White-Tailed Deer In The Western Dakotas, Katherine L. Moratz, Bailey S. Gullikson, Eric S. Michel, Daniel M. Grove, Jonathan A. Jenks, William Jensen 2019 South Dakota State University

Serological Survey And Pathogen Exposure Of Adult Female White-Tailed Deer In The Western Dakotas, Katherine L. Moratz, Bailey S. Gullikson, Eric S. Michel, Daniel M. Grove, Jonathan A. Jenks, William Jensen

The Prairie Naturalist

Establishing baseline values for pathogen exposure and nutritional indices is necessary to monitor population health. However, little is known about white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) pathogen exposure and nutritional condition in the Northern Great Plains. Our objective was to assess pathogen exposure and establish nutritional indices for female white-tailed deer in Dunn and Grant counties, North Dakota and Perkins County, South Dakota. During 2014, we collected blood serum from 150 adult female white-tailed deer. Pathogens with the highest antibody prevalence included West Nile Virus (WNV; 85%), epizootic hemorrhagic disease (48%), and malignant catarrhal fever (32%). Serum values for creatine kinase, globulin ...


Soil Characteristics Drive Ficaria Verna Abundance And Reproductive Output, Justin P. Kermack, Emily Rauschert 2019 Cleveland State University

Soil Characteristics Drive Ficaria Verna Abundance And Reproductive Output, Justin P. Kermack, Emily Rauschert

Biological, Geological, and Environmental Faculty Publications

Lesser celandine (Ficaria verna Huds.), an invasive plant from Europe, is becoming widespread in river valleys throughout the northeastern United States and the Pacific Northwest. Its high rate of asexual bulbil and tuber production creates dense infestations threatening native spring ephemerals. Ficaria verna abundance and reproductive output (seeds, bulbils, and tubers) were examined in invaded transects spanning a disturbance gradient away from a river. Site characteristics (photosynthetically active radiation [PAR], soil pH, moisture, texture, and nutrients) were quantified to examine their roles in plant abundance and reproduction. A larger-scale study examined random transects not specifically chosen based on F. verna ...


Use Of Harvest Weed Seed Control Strategies In Arkansas Soybean, Jeremy Kyle Green 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Use Of Harvest Weed Seed Control Strategies In Arkansas Soybean, Jeremy Kyle Green

Theses and Dissertations

Today, most growers use chemical weed management programs; however, a sole reliance on herbicides will place more resistance selection pressure on the weeds to which the herbicide is being applied. As herbicide resistance continues to grow and rob growers of yield, alternative weed control options are being sought to create complex integrated weed management programs to prolong the use of effective herbicides. Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) is a non-chemical practice that has been widely adopted in Australia due to herbicide resistance problems. In most cases, herbicide-resistant weeds that survive applications of herbicides produce viable seed that pass through the ...


The Influence Of Adjacent Weed Populations On Thrips And Iysv In Onion, S. Andrew Swain 2019 Utah State University

The Influence Of Adjacent Weed Populations On Thrips And Iysv In Onion, S. Andrew Swain

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) and Iris Yellow Spot Virus (IYSV) constitute a pest complex of global concern for allium growers. Yield losses due to onion thrips alone can be heavy, and in tandem with IYSV, these losses can be complete.

This study was one phase of a multi-phase research project intent on exploring the potential drivers of thrips and virus infestation in onion. Preliminary observations in participating growers’ fields in northern Utah pointed towards a potential link between weedy field borders and thrips/IYSV infestation in onion. Field work was carried out at the Kaysville experiment station examining the possible ...


Mitigating Herbicide Impacts To Soybean, Grant Lawson Priess 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Mitigating Herbicide Impacts To Soybean, Grant Lawson Priess

Theses and Dissertations

The rapidity in evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds and the resulting cost to U.S. farmers demonstrate the need to responsibly steward the limited number of herbicides available in agricultural systems. To reduce weed emergence and likewise added selection pressures placed on herbicides, early-season crop canopy formation has been promoted. However, impacts to soybean following a potentially injurious herbicide application have not been thoroughly evaluated. Therefore, field experiments were conducted to determine whether: 1) soybean injury from metribuzin or flumioxazin delayed canopy formation or changed the incidence of pathogen colonization; 2) residual herbicides applied preplant reduced the potential for soybean injury ...


Evaluation Of Topramezone For Use In Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Production, Matthew Moore 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Topramezone For Use In Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Production, Matthew Moore

Theses and Dissertations

The rapid development of resistant weeds, particularly to postemergence-applied herbicides, is a growing concern to rice producers worldwide. Barnyardgrass, one of the most problematic weeds in rice cropping systems, alone has been found to be resistant to four herbicide sites of action (SOA) in certain populations, leaving growers no options for control. This unsettling fact has led to research on other SOAs that have not previously been used in US rice. One SOA that has garnered interest is the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)- inhibiting herbicides. The only HPPD-inhibitor that will soon be labeled for use in US rice is benzobicyclon. The ...


Investigating Dicamba Tolerance In Grapevine Cultivars Through Drift Simulation Assays, Bryce David Bentley 2019 Missouri State University

Investigating Dicamba Tolerance In Grapevine Cultivars Through Drift Simulation Assays, Bryce David Bentley

MSU Graduate Theses

Dicamba is a synthetic auxin herbicide which acts systematically and selectively controls broadleaf plants and has become increasingly popular in the past several years for weed control in commercial agriculture following widespread adoption of dicamba-resistant, transgenic soybean and cotton. Dicamba may be better acknowledged by growers of specialty crops, like grapes, for its capacity to drift miles away from the site of application and deposit on fields, remaining potent enough to cause crop damage and yield loss to vulnerable plants. Grapes are among the most susceptible agronomic crops to dicamba drift, showing visible injury at rates less than 1% of ...


Evaluation Of Metsulfuron-Methyl For Giant Salvinia (Salvinia Molesta) Control And Non-Target Species Sensitivity, William Prevost 2019 Louisiana State University

Evaluation Of Metsulfuron-Methyl For Giant Salvinia (Salvinia Molesta) Control And Non-Target Species Sensitivity, William Prevost

LSU Master's Theses

The invasive aquatic fern giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell) has been invading waterbodies across Louisiana and Texas since 1998. Recently, the non-aquatic herbicide metsulfuron-methyl was found to be highly efficacious against giant salvinia, but limited information is available on application techniques, use rates and concentrations, as well as its impact on non-target species. Therefore, a series of mesocosm experiments were conducted to further evaluate foliar and subsurface applications of metsulfuron against giant salvinia, as well as foliar applications of metsulfuron in combination with aquatic herbicides commonly used for giant salvinia control. When applied to the foliage of giant ...


Review Of Great Plains Birds, By Larkin Powell, William E. Jensen 2019 Emporia State University

Review Of Great Plains Birds, By Larkin Powell, William E. Jensen

The Prairie Naturalist

Biologists who live in the Great Plains of North America know well the general aspersion cast toward our regional home by those unfamiliar with the region and its natural treasures. Larkin Powell alludes to this all-too-common aspersion and diplomatically dispels it in his ornithological showcase of the Great Plains, simply titled Great Plains Birds. The book is a nice, quick read and a well-composed profile of the region’s avian biogeographical history, its disruptions, conservation remedies, examples of basic bird biology, and tips on how to enjoy the bird life on display in this dynamic region. Having been an ornithologist ...


Review Of Birds Of Prey Of The East: A Field Guide By Brian K. Wheeler, Janet W. Ng 2019 University of Alberta

Review Of Birds Of Prey Of The East: A Field Guide By Brian K. Wheeler, Janet W. Ng

The Prairie Naturalist

Brian Wheeler’s new field guide, Birds of Prey of the East, is a well-researched, comprehensive field guide to birds of prey found in eastern Canada and United States. This 13- year labor of love reflects a life spent studying the nuances of North American birds of prey, as well as partnerships with fellow enthusiasts who provided detailed range maps and other valuable inputs. Birds of Prey of the East features 72 color plates of 27 species, including 14 plates for the Redtailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), which can be one of the most challenging species to identify in North America ...


Varying Weed Densities Alter The Corn Transcriptome, Highlighting A Core Set Of Weed-Induced Genes And Processes With Potential For Manipulating Weed Tolerance, David P. Horvath, Sharon A. Clay, Stephanie A. Bruggeman, James V. Anderson, Wun S. Chao, Kathleen Yeater 2019 USDA-ARS, Fargo, North Dakota

Varying Weed Densities Alter The Corn Transcriptome, Highlighting A Core Set Of Weed-Induced Genes And Processes With Potential For Manipulating Weed Tolerance, David P. Horvath, Sharon A. Clay, Stephanie A. Bruggeman, James V. Anderson, Wun S. Chao, Kathleen Yeater

Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science Faculty Publications

The phenological responses of corn (Zea mays L.) to competition with increasing densities of winter canola (Brassica napus L.) as the weedy competitor were investigated. Changes in the corn transcriptome resulting from varying weed densities were used to identify genes and processes responsive to competition under controlled conditions where light, nutrients, and water were not limited. Increasing densities of weeds resulted in decreased corn growth and development and increased the number and expression intensity of competition-responsive genes. The physiological processes identified in corn that were consistently induced by competition with weeds included protein synthesis and various transport functions. Likewise, numerous ...


Land Rolling Does Not Influence Productivity Of Subsequent-Year Spring Wheat, A. W. Lenssen, U. M. Sainju 2019 Iowa State University

Land Rolling Does Not Influence Productivity Of Subsequent-Year Spring Wheat, A. W. Lenssen, U. M. Sainju

Agronomy Publications

Land rolling is a common practice in the northern Great Plains and upper Midwest to push rocks to the soil surface after planting annual grain legumes and forage crops to protect harvest equipment despite the potential to increase weed density and soil erosion and decrease crop yield. Field trials were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to determine if land rolling the previous season influenced weed density or productivity of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) planted following summer fallow or two crops planted the previous season, pea (Pisum sativum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Density of green foxtail [Setaria viridis ...


Herbicide, Douglas D. Archbold, Marta Nosarzewski 2019 University of Kentucky

Herbicide, Douglas D. Archbold, Marta Nosarzewski

Horticulture Faculty Patents

Provided herein are SDH substrates that have use as herbicides in treating pre-emergent and post-emergent weed control. The presently-disclosed subject matter includes an herbicide including SDH substrates such as ribitol and a growth inhibitive effective amount of another adjuvant SDH substrate and/or adjuvant. Methods of treating pre-emergent and post-emergent weeds comprising applying the herbicides disclosed herein in an effective amount to suppress weed growth are also provided.


Insect Population Dynamics, Varietal Preference And Performance Of Organic Bio-Pesticides, Anitha Chitturi, Jeanine Davis, Margaret Bloomquist, Franklin Quarcoo, Kokoasse Kpomblekou-A, Desmond Mortley 2019 Tuskegee University

Insect Population Dynamics, Varietal Preference And Performance Of Organic Bio-Pesticides, Anitha Chitturi, Jeanine Davis, Margaret Bloomquist, Franklin Quarcoo, Kokoasse Kpomblekou-A, Desmond Mortley

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

Organic farming prohibits use of synthetic agrochemicals and encourages use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methods. States in the Southeastern US generally lag behind the rest of the country in organic vegetable production partly because of high insect pressures that make it difficult to grow vegetables without pesticides. This study on summer squash (Cucurbita pepo), grown using organic management practices, was conducted at a research station located in Mills River, North Carolina. The objectives of the study were to assess insect population dynamics and to evaluate performance of three OMRI-approved bio-pesticides: Azadirachtin, Pyrethrin and Spinosad against major insect pests ...


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