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Evaluation Of Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.] Cultivar Response To Prophylactic Fungicide Application, Steven B. Stoker 2022 Mississippi State University

Evaluation Of Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.] Cultivar Response To Prophylactic Fungicide Application, Steven B. Stoker

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean growers in the southern United States commonly deal with disease issues that can limit yield potential. As a result, growers have adopted prophylactic fungicide application targeted at specific growth stages as a standard management practice. However, yield responses to prophylactic applications have become sporadic over time. One major change that has occurred is adoption of cultivars with improved disease tolerances. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate yield response of cultivars representing multiple genetic backgrounds to fungicides applied prophylactically at the R4 soybean growth stage. Experiments were conducted in 2020 and 2021 to determine the yield impact …


The Emerging Value Of The Viroid Model In Understanding Plant Responses To Foreign Rnas, Junfei Ma 2022 Mississippi State University

The Emerging Value Of The Viroid Model In Understanding Plant Responses To Foreign Rnas, Junfei Ma

Theses and Dissertations

RNAs play essential roles in various biological processes. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that RNA subcellular localization and intercellular trafficking govern their functions in coordinating plant growth at the organismal level. Beyond that, plants constantly encounter foreign RNAs (i.e., RNAs from pathogens including viruses and viroids). The subcellular localizations of RNAs are crucial for their function. While numerous types of RNAs (i.e., mRNAs, small RNAs, rRNAs, tRNAs, and long noncoding RNAs) have been found to traffic in a non-cell-autonomous fashion within plants, the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. Viroids are single-stranded circular noncoding RNAs, which entirely rely …


Demonstration Farm Provides Educational Opportunity For Ipm, Nick Volesky, Mair Murray 2022 Utah State University

Demonstration Farm Provides Educational Opportunity For Ipm, Nick Volesky, Mair Murray

Outcomes and Impact Quarterly

The mission of USU Extension’s Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program is to increase the use of sustainable pest management practices within urban and rural landscapes to provide economic, human, and environmental health in Utah. In the spring of 2022, the IPM program established a vegetable farm to test and demonstrate IPM practices. The farm served as an experiential learning classroom for almost 50 farmers and home gardeners.


Arkansas Soybean Research Studies 2021, Jeremy Ross 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Arkansas Soybean Research Studies 2021, Jeremy Ross

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

Arkansas is the leading soybean-producing state in the mid-southern United States. Arkansas ranked 11th in soybean production in 2021 compared to the other soybean-producing states in the U.S. The state represented 3.49% of the total U.S. soybean production and 3.49% of the total acres planted in soybean in 2021. The 2021 state soybean average yield was 52.0 bushels per acre, setting a new state record and surpassing the previous yield record of 51.5 bushels per acre set in 2020. The top five soybean-producing counties in 2021 were Mississippi, Phillips, Crittenden, Poinsett, and Arkansas (Table 1). These five counties accounted for …


The Backyard Garden - Cole Crops Pests, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray 2022 Utah State University

The Backyard Garden - Cole Crops Pests, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray

All Current Publications

This fact sheet contains information about pests and diseases that affect cole crops. Cole crops are plants that belong to the mustard (Brassica) family, including hardy, cool-season crops such as broccoli, kohlrabi, cabbage, rutabaga, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, and turnips. The fact sheet offers general information and guidance on severity, other hosts, symptoms, and management.


The Backyard Garden - Leafy Greens Pests, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray 2022 Utah State University

The Backyard Garden - Leafy Greens Pests, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray

All Current Publications

This fact sheet provides information about the diseases that affect leafy greens. It includes general information, other hosts, disease symptoms to watch for, and management options.


The Backyard Garden - Tomato Pests, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray 2022 Utah State University

The Backyard Garden - Tomato Pests, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray

All Current Publications

This fact sheet contains information about pests and diseases that affect tomatoes. It includes general information and guidance on severity, other hosts, symptoms, and management.


Effects Of Sowing Date And Phosphorus Fertiliser Application On Winter Survival Of Lucerne Cv. Aohan In The Northern Semi-Arid Region Of China, Z. L. Wang, Q. Zh. Sun, Y. W. Wang, Zh. Y. Li, Sh. F. Zhao 2022 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Effects Of Sowing Date And Phosphorus Fertiliser Application On Winter Survival Of Lucerne Cv. Aohan In The Northern Semi-Arid Region Of China, Z. L. Wang, Q. Zh. Sun, Y. W. Wang, Zh. Y. Li, Sh. F. Zhao

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In the northern semi-arid region of China, winter survival is always a limiting factor for lucerne production, because low temperatures and a dry climate in winter (Zhou et al., 1993; Ma, 2000; Sun & Gui, 2001; Sun et al., 2003). An experiment was conducted to find an appropriate sowing date and P application rate in order to improve lucerne winter survival.


Ear Emergence Of Different Grass Species Under Finnish Growing Conditions, M. Niskanen, O. Niemeläinen, L. Jauhiainen 2022 MTT Agrifood Research, Finland

Ear Emergence Of Different Grass Species Under Finnish Growing Conditions, M. Niskanen, O. Niemeläinen, L. Jauhiainen

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Timothy is the most commonly cultivated grass species in Finland. Swards cultivated for silage of hay are of pure timothy or timothy is the dominant species of the mixture. Successful timing of harvesting of the primary growth is very critical in Northern latitudes where the stand develops very rapidly at daylengths of above 18 hours with a daily mean temperature close to 20 °C. The primary growth has to be harvested within a very short period to obtain a yield of high and uniform quality. Short harvesting periods require high capacity harvest machinery which lead to high costs. If it …


Reasons For The Premature Decline In Astragalus Adsurgens Stands In Kerqin Sandy Land, Q. Zh. Sun, Z. L. Wang, J. G. Han, Y. W. Wang, G. R. Liu 2022 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Reasons For The Premature Decline In Astragalus Adsurgens Stands In Kerqin Sandy Land, Q. Zh. Sun, Z. L. Wang, J. G. Han, Y. W. Wang, G. R. Liu

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Diseases partly account for reductions in Astragalus adsurgens, stand longevity. The effect of some cultural practices on the control of pests and diseases have been reported (Hou, 1986; Nan, 1996), but few reports have detailed the relationship among soil fertiliser status, diseases and premature stand decline. This study was conducted to investigate these relationships in order to extend the longevity of Astragalus adsurgens stands.


Range-Based Livestock Production In Turkmenistan, R. H. Behnke, G. Davidson 2022 Macaulay Institute, UK

Range-Based Livestock Production In Turkmenistan, R. H. Behnke, G. Davidson

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Turkmenistan retains a centralized system of livestock production in which many critical assets are owned by the state. Though technically in the temperate zone, the country's climate is harsh and unstable. Groundwater resources are unevenly distributed, leaving many potential grazing areas seasonally inaccessible due to lack of drinking water for livestock. This paper summarizes the results of a three-year study of rangelands, livestock production, flock economics and land tenure at two study sites, one in central and the other in eastern Turkmenistan. The results of this study suggest that pastoral communities in Turkmenistan have coped remarkably well with the institutional …


The Influence Of Fertiliser Application To Strip-Sown Grasslands On Herbage Production And Quality, A. Kohoutek, P. Komárek, V. Odstrčilová, P. Nerušil 2022 Research Institute of Crop Production, Czech Republic

The Influence Of Fertiliser Application To Strip-Sown Grasslands On Herbage Production And Quality, A. Kohoutek, P. Komárek, V. Odstrčilová, P. Nerušil

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

To increase the productivity of dairy cattle in the Czech Republic requires an improvement in herbage quality and an increase in the net energy of herbage. The decrease in cattle numbers by 50 % and the expansion of the grassland area both result in a surplus of feedstuffs of low quality. Introduction of strip-seeding of legumes and grasses into grasslands in interaction with fertilisation provides a possible solution to this problem.


Population Genomic Characterization Of Cercospora Janseana On Rice In The Southern United States, Jacob Searight 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Population Genomic Characterization Of Cercospora Janseana On Rice In The Southern United States, Jacob Searight

LSU Master's Theses

Cercospora janseana is the causative agent of narrow brown leaf spot (NBLS). Effort had been undertaken since the 1940’s to control this disease through resistance breeding in the Southern United States. However, a severe epidemic of NBLS in 2006 inspired renewed focus on managing this disease. One tool for managing this disease has been identified among resistant cultivars, the CRSP-2.1 resistance locus to NBLS. One thing limiting the investment and deployment of CRSP-2.1, and other unknown resistance genes, is the historical observation that resistance to NBLS rapidly breaks-down in the field. Together, the rapid breakdown of resistance to NBLS …


Near-Atomic, Non-Icosahedrally Averaged Structure Of Giant Virus Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1, Qianqian Shao, Irina V. Agarkova, Eric A. Noel, David D. Dunigan, Yunshu Liu, Aohan Wang, Mingcheng Guo, Linlin Xie, Xinyue Zhao, Michael G. Rossmann, James L. Van Etten, Thomas Klose, Qianglin Fang 2022 Sun Yat-sen University

Near-Atomic, Non-Icosahedrally Averaged Structure Of Giant Virus Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1, Qianqian Shao, Irina V. Agarkova, Eric A. Noel, David D. Dunigan, Yunshu Liu, Aohan Wang, Mingcheng Guo, Linlin Xie, Xinyue Zhao, Michael G. Rossmann, James L. Van Etten, Thomas Klose, Qianglin Fang

Papers in Plant Pathology

Giant viruses are a large group of viruses that infect many eukaryotes. Although components that do not obey the overall icosahedral symmetry of their capsids have been observed and found to play critical roles in the viral life cycles, identities and high-resolution structures of these components remain unknown. Here, by determining a near-atomic-resolution, five-fold averaged structure of Parameciumbursaria chlorella virus 1, we unexpectedly found the viral capsid possesses up to five major capsid protein variants and a penton protein variant. These variants create varied capsidmicroenvironments for the associations of fibers, a vesicle, and previously unresolved minor capsid proteins. Our structure …


Variation In Morpho‑Physiological And Metabolic Responses To Low Nitrogen Stress Across The Sorghum Association Panel, Marcin Grzybowski, Mackenzie Zwiener, Mackenzie Zwiener, Hongyu Jin, Nuwan K. Wijewardane, Abbas Atefi, Michael J. Naldrett, Sophie Alvarez, Yufeng Ge, James C. Schnable 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln, University of Warsaw, Warsw

Variation In Morpho‑Physiological And Metabolic Responses To Low Nitrogen Stress Across The Sorghum Association Panel, Marcin Grzybowski, Mackenzie Zwiener, Mackenzie Zwiener, Hongyu Jin, Nuwan K. Wijewardane, Abbas Atefi, Michael J. Naldrett, Sophie Alvarez, Yufeng Ge, James C. Schnable

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Background: Access to biologically available nitrogen is a key constraint on plant growth in both natural and agricultural settings. Variation in tolerance to nitrogen deficit stress and productivity in nitrogen limited conditions exists both within and between plant species. However, our understanding of changes in different phenotypes under long term low nitrogen stress and their impact on important agronomic traits, such as yield, is still limited.

Results: Here we quantified variation in the metabolic, physiological, and morphological responses of a sorghum association panel assembled to represent global genetic diversity to long term, nitrogen deficit stress and the relationship …


Arkansas Wheat Performance Tests 2021-2022, J. F. Carlin, R. B. Morgan, R. D. Bond, D. E. Moon 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Arkansas Wheat Performance Tests 2021-2022, J. F. Carlin, R. B. Morgan, R. D. Bond, D. E. Moon

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

Wheat variety performance tests are conducted each year in Arkansas by the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture’s Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences. The tests provide information to companies developing varieties and marketing seed within the state and aid the Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service in formulating variety recommendations for small-grain producers. The tests are conducted at the Northeast Research and Extension Center at Keiser, the Vegetable Substation near Kibler, the Lon Mann Cotton Research Station near Marianna, the Pine Tree Research Station near Colt, and the Rohwer Research Station near Rohwer. Specific location …


Clavibacter Nebraskensis Causing Goss's Wilt Of Maize: Five Decades Of Detaining The Enemy In The New World, Ebrahim Osdaghi, Alison E. Robertson, Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Hamid Abachi, Xiang Li, Robert M. Harveson 2022 University of Tehran

Clavibacter Nebraskensis Causing Goss's Wilt Of Maize: Five Decades Of Detaining The Enemy In The New World, Ebrahim Osdaghi, Alison E. Robertson, Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Hamid Abachi, Xiang Li, Robert M. Harveson

Papers in Plant Pathology

Goss's bacterial wilt and leaf blight of maize (Zea mays) caused by the gram-positive coryneform bacterium Clavibacter nebraskensis is an economically important disease in North America. C. nebraskensis is included within the high-risk list of quarantine pathogens by several plant protection organizations (EPPO code: CORBMI), hence it is under strict quarantine control around the world. The causal agent was reported for the first time on maize in Nebraska (USA) in 1969. After an outbreak during the 1970s, prevalence of the disease decreased in the 1980s to the early 2000s, before the disease resurged causing a serious threat to …


Genetic Sources Of Resistance To Potato Blackleg Soft Rot Caused By Dickeya Dianthicola, Lucas K. Heroux 2022 University of Maine

Genetic Sources Of Resistance To Potato Blackleg Soft Rot Caused By Dickeya Dianthicola, Lucas K. Heroux

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Solanum tuberosum L. is the world's most important non-cereal food crop, capable of producing more food per land unit on less water than any other crop. Only rice, wheat, and maize are produced in larger quantities than potato. The potato tuber, a modified stem turned storage organ is nutrient dense and a staple in diets across the world. The potato crop is expected to grow and contribute significantly to the global food supply. However, potato production has increasingly been threatened by unfavorable environmental conditions, and susceptibility to pest and disease. Perhaps the most famous of all the Irish Potato Famine …


Fungal Co-Pathogenicity On Panax Quinquefolius, Andrea Ong 2022 Western University

Fungal Co-Pathogenicity On Panax Quinquefolius, Andrea Ong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is a perennial crop commonly grown for its medicinal properties. Ginseng replant disease (GRD) is a condition that prevents the re-cultivation of ginseng in previous ginseng gardens and is normally associated with extensive root rot caused by the fungus Ilyonectria mors-panacis. My project aims to investigate the relationship common GRD fungal pathogens and their pathogenicity on 1 year old ginseng seedlings.


A Bacterial Microbiome Analysis Of Solarized Ginseng Garden Soils, Anka Colo 2022 Western University

A Bacterial Microbiome Analysis Of Solarized Ginseng Garden Soils, Anka Colo

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is a highly valued perennial crop grown for its roots during a four-year cultivation cycle. American ginseng is subject to ginseng replant disease (GRD) in which severe root rot develops in newly planted ginseng grown in a former ginseng garden. A common strategy to mitigating GRD is not available and techniques such as fumigation, fungicides, and biocontrol are ineffective, banned, or are slowly being phased out. Alternatively, soil solarization is a pre-plant technique used to treat soil to reduce disease inoculum and alter soil microbiomes. In summer 2019, a six-week soil solarization experiment was …


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