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B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2021, J. Hardke, X. Sha, N. Bateman 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2021, J. Hardke, X. Sha, N. Bateman

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

Arkansas is the leading rice producer in the United States. The state represents 47.5% of total U.S. rice production and 47.8% of the total acres planted to rice in 2021. Rice cultural practices vary across the state and across the U.S. However, these practices are also dynamic and continue to evolve in response to changing political, environmental, and economic times. This survey was initiated in 2002 to monitor and record changes in the way Arkansas rice producers approach their livelihood. The survey was conducted by polling county extension agents in each of the counties in Arkansas ...


Helping Utah Landowners Reduce Pesticide Use Through A Statewide Ipm Program, Nick Volesky, Mair Murray 2022 Utah State University

Helping Utah Landowners Reduce Pesticide Use Through A Statewide Ipm Program, Nick Volesky, Mair Murray

Outcomes and Impact Quarterly

The Utah Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program provides outreach and education to Utahns to reduce pesticide use and ultimately protect human and environmental health. In 2022, the IPM program responded to stakeholders’ needs by partnering with county Extension offices to deliver eight (8) in-person workshops across the state. The workshops connected Extension specialists and county faculty with managers of home landscapes and farms. The objective of the workshops was to provide participants with IPM skills to identify, monitor, and manage pest problems in preparation for the upcoming growing season.


Arkansas Corn And Grain Sorghum Research Studies 2021, Victor Ford, Jason Kelley, Nathan McKinney II 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Arkansas Corn And Grain Sorghum Research Studies 2021, Victor Ford, Jason Kelley, Nathan Mckinney Ii

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

The 2021 edition of the Arkansas Corn and Grain Sorghum Research Studies Series includes research results on topics pertaining to corn and grain sorghum production, including weed, disease, and insect management; economics; sustainability; irrigation; post-harvest drying; soil fertility; mycotoxins; cover crop management; and research verification program results. Our objective is to capture and broadly distribute the results of research projects funded by the Arkansas Corn and Grain Sorghum Board. The intended audience includes producers and their advisors, current investigators, and future researchers. The Series serves as a citable archive of research results.


Increasing The Resilience Of Plant Immunity To A Warming Climate, Jong Hum Kim, Christian Castroverde, Shuai Huang, Chao Li, Richard Hilleary, Adam Seroka, Reza Sohrabi, Diana Medina-Yerena, Bethany Huot, Jie Wang, Sharon Marr, Mary Wildermuth, Tao Chen, John MacMicking, Sheng Yang He 2022 Duke University

Increasing The Resilience Of Plant Immunity To A Warming Climate, Jong Hum Kim, Christian Castroverde, Shuai Huang, Chao Li, Richard Hilleary, Adam Seroka, Reza Sohrabi, Diana Medina-Yerena, Bethany Huot, Jie Wang, Sharon Marr, Mary Wildermuth, Tao Chen, John Macmicking, Sheng Yang He

Biology Faculty Publications

Extreme weather conditions associated with climate change affect many aspects of plant and animal life, including the response to infectious diseases. Production of salicylic acid (SA), a central plant defence hormone, is particularly vulnerable to suppression by short periods of hot weather above the normal plant growth temperature range via an unknown mechanism. Here we show that suppression of SA production in Arabidopsis thaliana at 28 °C is independent of PHYTOCHROME B (phyB) and EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), which regulate thermo-responsive plant growth and development. Instead, we found that formation of GUANYLATE BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 3 (GBPL3) defence-activated biomolecular condensates (GDACs ...


Michigan Conifer Growers’ Perspectives On Disease Management, Emily S. Huff, Monique L. Sakalidis 2022 Michigan State University

Michigan Conifer Growers’ Perspectives On Disease Management, Emily S. Huff, Monique L. Sakalidis

The Journal of Extension

A survey of commercial nursery and Christmas tree growers was implemented online and by mail in 2018 to understand disease issues and information preferences. Overall, the majority of the respondents reported that they prefer online sources of information and many are using Extension bulletins and sources. Cultural, chemical, and weed control methods were considered extremely effective by participants and very few used biological control methods to control disease. Participants identified spruce decline, boxwood blight, and hemlock woolly adelgid as emerging disease threats, so future information to growers should focus on identification and management of these threats.


Interdisciplinary Team Addresses Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus In Alabama, Kassie N. Conner, Edward Sikora, Jenny Koebernick, Marcio Zaccaron 2022 Auburn University

Interdisciplinary Team Addresses Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus In Alabama, Kassie N. Conner, Edward Sikora, Jenny Koebernick, Marcio Zaccaron

The Journal of Extension

A multi-state and interdisciplinary team was formed to address the Extension and research needs of CLRDV, an emerging cotton disease with high potential impact for U.S. cotton production. In 2017, CLRDV was identified in AL and Auburn University immediately formed an interdisciplinary working group composed of plant breeders, plant pathologists, entomologists, and agronomists. Since then, scientists from ten other states have joined the CLRDV group. Thus, allowing research to be coordinated efficiently and best deploy limited resources to attend the stakeholder’s needs. The CLRDV group produces and shares new and relevant information with the scientific community and cotton ...


Efficacy And Timing Of Application Of Fungicides, Biofungicides, Host-Plant Defense Inducers, And Fertilizer To Control Phytophthora Root Rot Of Flowering Dogwoods In Simulated Flooding Conditions In Container Production, Krishna Neupane, Bhawana Ghimire, Fulya Baysal-Gurel 2022 Tennessee State University

Efficacy And Timing Of Application Of Fungicides, Biofungicides, Host-Plant Defense Inducers, And Fertilizer To Control Phytophthora Root Rot Of Flowering Dogwoods In Simulated Flooding Conditions In Container Production, Krishna Neupane, Bhawana Ghimire, Fulya Baysal-Gurel

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is one of the major diseases of flowering dogwoods (Cornus florida L.). The severity of root rot disease increases when the plants are exposed to flooding conditions. A study was conducted to determine the efficacy and timing of application of different fungicides, biofungicides, host plant defense inducers, and fertilizer to manage Phytophthora root rot in month-old seedlings in simulated flooding events for 1-, 3-, and 7- days. Preventative treatments were drench applied 3 weeks and 1 week before flooding whereas curative treatments were applied 24 hrs. after flooding. Dogwood seedlings were inoculated ...


Site-Specific Pest Management In Nebraska Corn And Soybean Production Systems, Zachary D. Rystrom 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Site-Specific Pest Management In Nebraska Corn And Soybean Production Systems, Zachary D. Rystrom

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Site-specific management (SSM) is widely used by farm producers to fertilize their fields. However, whole field management is currently practiced in integrated pest management (IPM). Site-specific management and agricultural technology can improve IPM especially when precision application of inputs can reduce selection pressure on pest populations, benefit the environment, or save costs of inputs. There is potential for site-specific pest management (SSPM) where pests, or environments vary spatially, and recommended management practices can be applied with precision. Three case studies are evaluated for SSPM to be applied in Nebraska corn and soybean production systems including corn rootworm, preemergence herbicides, and ...


An In Vitro Approach To Identify Sources Of Resistance To Fusarium Wilt Caused By Fusarium Oxysporum F. Sp. Vasinfectum Race 4 In Domesticated Cotton, Stephen Parris 2022 Clemson University

An In Vitro Approach To Identify Sources Of Resistance To Fusarium Wilt Caused By Fusarium Oxysporum F. Sp. Vasinfectum Race 4 In Domesticated Cotton, Stephen Parris

All Theses

Cotton lint produced by the plants Gossypium barbadense L. (pima cotton) and Gossypium hirsutum L. (upland cotton) is the world’s leading source of renewable textiles. The fibers of the cotton plant have been woven so intricately into our society that it would be hard to imagine life without their products. Cotton breeders must then not only continue to work to improve the quality of cotton fibers (fineness, strength, dyability, etc.) but also to improve the resilience of the plant against biotic and abiotic factors. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4 (FOV4) is an aggressive fungal pathogen, which causes ...


Distribution And Genomic Diversity Of Pollen-Borne Viruses And Viroids At The Interface Of Peach And Wild Prunus Spp. In The Southeastern United States, Fabian Omar Rodriguez Bonilla 2022 Clemson University

Distribution And Genomic Diversity Of Pollen-Borne Viruses And Viroids At The Interface Of Peach And Wild Prunus Spp. In The Southeastern United States, Fabian Omar Rodriguez Bonilla

All Theses

Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), prune dwarf virus (PDV), and peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) are important pollen-borne pathogens that affect peach orchards in the southeastern United States. My aim with this research is to identify potential sources of virus/viroid inoculum sources in the wild and determine pathogen movement and interactions between wild Prunus spp. and cultivars of peach (P. persica). In Chapter I, I review the literature on pollen borne viruses and viroids in peach. In Chapter II, I surveyed for these pathogens near peach production areas in South Carolina and Georgia, sampling from three endemic wild Prunus ...


Identification Of Cytospora Species Isolated From Canker In Peach Trees In South Carolina, Stephen T. Baker 2022 Clemson University

Identification Of Cytospora Species Isolated From Canker In Peach Trees In South Carolina, Stephen T. Baker

All Theses

In 2016, a survey was conducted into the causes of twig blight on peach (Prunus persica) in five orchards across South Carolina. From this survey, isolates from the fungal genus of Cytospora (Sordariomycetes, Diaporthales) were reported on peach, for the first time, within the state. Cytospora species are known to cause oozing cankers on a wide range of woody hosts leading to dieback, loss of limbs, and reduction in yield, prompting concern for important economic crops. Past methods of identification of Cytospora species have been confounded by indistinguishable morphology, overlapping host preference among species, and genetic sequencing of barcoding regions ...


Improved And Sustainable Management Of Economically Important Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Of Field Crops And Fungal Diseases Of Soybean And Hemp In Tennessee, Rufus J. Akinrinlola 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Improved And Sustainable Management Of Economically Important Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Of Field Crops And Fungal Diseases Of Soybean And Hemp In Tennessee, Rufus J. Akinrinlola

Doctoral Dissertations

Nematodes and diseases can limit field crops and hemp production in Tennessee. Therefore, seven research objectives were undertaken to improve the management of the crops: First, the prevalence and density of plant-parasitic nematode populations were evaluated across many field crop acreages in Tennessee through a survey from 2018 through 2020. Second, the virulence phenotypes of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), (Heterodera glycines [HG]), populations were assessed in Tennessee fields using the HG types test. Third, the impact of the virulent SCN HG type 1.2.5.7 on soybean nitrogen fixation activity and growth was evaluated on different soybean genotypes in ...


Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones

Doctoral Dissertations

Systems biology offers the opportunity to understand the complex mechanisms of various biological phenomena. The wealth of data that is produced, at an increasing rate, provides the potential to meet this opportunity. Here we take an applied approach to integrate multiple omic level data sources in order to generate biologically relevant hypotheses. We apply a novel analysis pipeline to model both, in concert, the microbial and transcriptomic signature from COVID-19 positive patients. We show patients may suffer from an increased microbial burden, with an increased pathogen potential. Gene expression evidence further shows patients may exhibit a compromised barrier immunity, owing ...


A Small Stem Assay For Chestnut Blight Resistance In Hybrid American Chestnut Trees, Evelyn Odle 2022 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

A Small Stem Assay For Chestnut Blight Resistance In Hybrid American Chestnut Trees, Evelyn Odle

Honors Theses

Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr is the causal agent for the chestnut blight disease, which was brought to North America in the late 19th century on nursery stock from Japan (Anagnostakis 1987). A pandemic of chestnut blight lasted for the next half century, nearly wiping out all American chestnut trees (Castanea dentata Borkh.). Restoration works to restoring the American chestnut to its native range in North America’s canopy has been going on for the past century. The American Chestnut Foundation has strived to breed a resistant American chestnut by backcross breeding with Chinese species (C. mollissima Blume) since the 1980s ...


Evaluation Of Fenclorim Safener For Use In Rice With Group 15 Herbicides, Tristen Heath Avent 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Fenclorim Safener For Use In Rice With Group 15 Herbicides, Tristen Heath Avent

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The development of herbicide resistance and the lack of effective herbicides to control problematic weeds has caused Arkansas rice (Oryza sativa L.) production to pursue alternative sites of action. Currently, very long-chain fatty acid elongase inhibitors are not labeled for U.S. rice production but have been widely used for Asian rice production systems. Previous research has demonstrated the utility of acetochlor and pyroxasulfone to provide in-season weed control for Arkansas rice production, but variable crop tolerance has been observed. Additionally, acetochlor at 1,260 g ai ha-1 elicited less rice injury when seeds were treated with a herbicide safener ...


Functional Characterization Of A Putative Alternative Oxidase In Sporisorium Reilianum F. Sp. Zeae., Emma A Lamb 2022 University of Louisville

Functional Characterization Of A Putative Alternative Oxidase In Sporisorium Reilianum F. Sp. Zeae., Emma A Lamb

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Sporisorium reilianum is a pathogenic basidiomycete fungus with two formae speciales, each capable of infecting corn (SRZ) or sorghum (SRS), respectively. This fungus is also a dimorphic variety, meaning it can switch between its haploid, yeast-like sporidia and diploid teliospore stages over the course of its life cycle (Schirawski). When S. reilianum is found in a haploid state and conditions are favorable, it will mate with a compatible non-self mating type to begin filamentous growth and proliferation in the plant host (Zhao). S. relianum, like most fungi, utilizes the four classical components of the electron transport chain to produce the ...


Abiotic Disorders Of Tomatoes, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray, Sheriden M. Hansen, Maegen A. Lewis 2022 Utah State University

Abiotic Disorders Of Tomatoes, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray, Sheriden M. Hansen, Maegen A. Lewis

All Current Publications

Monitoring tomato plants regularly from seedling to harvest allows for early detection of abnormal conditions. Although tomato plants can be attacked by a variety of living organisms (insects, mites, pathogens, vertebrates), nonliving (abiotic) conditions can cause just as much damage. Abiotic diseases in tomato plants can arise from nutrient deficiencies, temperature extremes, abnormal lighting, chemical application, changes in water uptake, mechanical damage, genetic mutations, and more. This guide will cover most of the abiotic disorders and diseases that can affect tomatoes in Utah.


Big Bud Disease In Tomatoes And Peppers, Claudia Nischwitz, Erin Petrizzo 2022 Utah State University

Big Bud Disease In Tomatoes And Peppers, Claudia Nischwitz, Erin Petrizzo

All Current Publications

This fact sheet provides information on the symptoms of big bud on tomatoes and peppers. It reviews the disease cycle and recommendations on controlling beet leafhopper and managing big bud disease in Utah.


Genetic Diversity In Helianthus Annuus: Selective Breeding And Induced Mutagenesis, Dillon Holton 2022 University of Southern Maine

Genetic Diversity In Helianthus Annuus: Selective Breeding And Induced Mutagenesis, Dillon Holton

Thinking Matters Symposium

H. annuus, more commonly known as the sunflower, is a single species that has many different variations. Traits have been selectively bred for hundreds of years in order to produce a beautiful flower as well as essential agricultural products. Recently interest in the sunflower as a food and fuel crop has led to selective breeding of seeds that produce high yields of sunflower oil. To further push the limits of this plant's genome, researchers have used mutagenesis to force mutations in hopes of developing novel modifications that could increase yield. With the entire genome mapped, the goal for many ...


Landscapes Are Cornerstones Of Sustainability Programs, Don Spence 2022 Ayres and Associates

Landscapes Are Cornerstones Of Sustainability Programs, Don Spence

Sustainability Conference

Typical American landscapes are not sustainable in an economic or biological framework. The essence of the idea of sustainable growth and development are centered on the idea that those activities are not degrading natural resources or that they are outstrip budgets. A significant piece of any sustainable management plan is tied to how we manage our landscapes, how we use plants; specifically, how much grass there is, and how many native plants there are. Sustainable landscapes should require less chemical and financial inputs, which in the end, saves money and increases the biological value of the land and creates a ...


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