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Weed-Induced Crop Yield Loss: A New Paradigm And New Challenges, David Horvath, Sharon A. Clay, Clarence J. Swanton, James V. Anderson, Wun S. Chao 2023 USDA-ARS, Fargo, North Dakota

Weed-Induced Crop Yield Loss: A New Paradigm And New Challenges, David Horvath, Sharon A. Clay, Clarence J. Swanton, James V. Anderson, Wun S. Chao

Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science Faculty Publications

Direct competition for resources is generally considered the primary mechanism for weed-induced yield loss. A re-evaluation of physiological evidence suggests weeds initially impact crop growth and development through resource-independent interference. We suggest weed perception by crops induce a shift in crop development, before resources become limited, which ultimately reduce crop yield, even if weeds are subsequently removed. We present the mechanisms by which crops perceive and respond to weeds and discuss the technologies used to identify these mechanisms. These data lead to a fundamental paradigm shift in our understanding of how weeds reduce crop yield and suggest new research directions …


Early Detection, Rapid Response Invasives Management: Documenting Perennial Pepperweed In New Hampshire Using Eddmaps, Final Project Report, December 2022, Malin Clyde 2022 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Early Detection, Rapid Response Invasives Management: Documenting Perennial Pepperweed In New Hampshire Using Eddmaps, Final Project Report, December 2022, Malin Clyde

UNH Cooperative Extension

No abstract provided.


Demonstration Farm Provides Educational Opportunity For Ipm, Nick Volesky, Mair Murray 2022 Utah State University

Demonstration Farm Provides Educational Opportunity For Ipm, Nick Volesky, Mair Murray

Outcomes and Impact Quarterly

The mission of USU Extension’s Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program is to increase the use of sustainable pest management practices within urban and rural landscapes to provide economic, human, and environmental health in Utah. In the spring of 2022, the IPM program established a vegetable farm to test and demonstrate IPM practices. The farm served as an experiential learning classroom for almost 50 farmers and home gardeners.


Characterization And Management Of Auxin-Resistant Palmer Amaranth In Tennessee, Delaney C. Foster 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Characterization And Management Of Auxin-Resistant Palmer Amaranth In Tennessee, Delaney C. Foster

Doctoral Dissertations

Palmer amaranth has a long history of evolving resistance to herbicides to the point it has become a significant row crop production obstacle. Cotton and soybean growers were offered new technologies in 2016, expanding in-crop herbicide options to include dicamba or 2,4-D. Within three years of commercialization, dicamba use in these crops increased ten-fold and growers began to report Palmer amaranth escapes in west Tennessee auxin-tolerant production systems. A survey of Palmer amaranth escapes in dicamba and 2,4-D-tolerant cotton and soybean fields in Tennessee was conducted in the fall of 2021 with the objective of determining if poor control was …


Effects Of Sowing Date And Phosphorus Fertiliser Application On Winter Survival Of Lucerne Cv. Aohan In The Northern Semi-Arid Region Of China, Z. L. Wang, Q. Zh. Sun, Y. W. Wang, Zh. Y. Li, Sh. F. Zhao 2022 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Effects Of Sowing Date And Phosphorus Fertiliser Application On Winter Survival Of Lucerne Cv. Aohan In The Northern Semi-Arid Region Of China, Z. L. Wang, Q. Zh. Sun, Y. W. Wang, Zh. Y. Li, Sh. F. Zhao

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In the northern semi-arid region of China, winter survival is always a limiting factor for lucerne production, because low temperatures and a dry climate in winter (Zhou et al., 1993; Ma, 2000; Sun & Gui, 2001; Sun et al., 2003). An experiment was conducted to find an appropriate sowing date and P application rate in order to improve lucerne winter survival.


Ear Emergence Of Different Grass Species Under Finnish Growing Conditions, M. Niskanen, O. Niemeläinen, L. Jauhiainen 2022 MTT Agrifood Research, Finland

Ear Emergence Of Different Grass Species Under Finnish Growing Conditions, M. Niskanen, O. Niemeläinen, L. Jauhiainen

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Timothy is the most commonly cultivated grass species in Finland. Swards cultivated for silage of hay are of pure timothy or timothy is the dominant species of the mixture. Successful timing of harvesting of the primary growth is very critical in Northern latitudes where the stand develops very rapidly at daylengths of above 18 hours with a daily mean temperature close to 20 °C. The primary growth has to be harvested within a very short period to obtain a yield of high and uniform quality. Short harvesting periods require high capacity harvest machinery which lead to high costs. If it …


Reasons For The Premature Decline In Astragalus Adsurgens Stands In Kerqin Sandy Land, Q. Zh. Sun, Z. L. Wang, J. G. Han, Y. W. Wang, G. R. Liu 2022 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Reasons For The Premature Decline In Astragalus Adsurgens Stands In Kerqin Sandy Land, Q. Zh. Sun, Z. L. Wang, J. G. Han, Y. W. Wang, G. R. Liu

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Diseases partly account for reductions in Astragalus adsurgens, stand longevity. The effect of some cultural practices on the control of pests and diseases have been reported (Hou, 1986; Nan, 1996), but few reports have detailed the relationship among soil fertiliser status, diseases and premature stand decline. This study was conducted to investigate these relationships in order to extend the longevity of Astragalus adsurgens stands.


Range-Based Livestock Production In Turkmenistan, R. H. Behnke, G. Davidson 2022 Macaulay Institute, UK

Range-Based Livestock Production In Turkmenistan, R. H. Behnke, G. Davidson

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Turkmenistan retains a centralized system of livestock production in which many critical assets are owned by the state. Though technically in the temperate zone, the country's climate is harsh and unstable. Groundwater resources are unevenly distributed, leaving many potential grazing areas seasonally inaccessible due to lack of drinking water for livestock. This paper summarizes the results of a three-year study of rangelands, livestock production, flock economics and land tenure at two study sites, one in central and the other in eastern Turkmenistan. The results of this study suggest that pastoral communities in Turkmenistan have coped remarkably well with the institutional …


The Influence Of Fertiliser Application To Strip-Sown Grasslands On Herbage Production And Quality, A. Kohoutek, P. Komárek, V. Odstrčilová, P. Nerušil 2022 Research Institute of Crop Production, Czech Republic

The Influence Of Fertiliser Application To Strip-Sown Grasslands On Herbage Production And Quality, A. Kohoutek, P. Komárek, V. Odstrčilová, P. Nerušil

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

To increase the productivity of dairy cattle in the Czech Republic requires an improvement in herbage quality and an increase in the net energy of herbage. The decrease in cattle numbers by 50 % and the expansion of the grassland area both result in a surplus of feedstuffs of low quality. Introduction of strip-seeding of legumes and grasses into grasslands in interaction with fertilisation provides a possible solution to this problem.


Perennial Pepperweek Id Card_2022, Malin Clyde, Charlotte Thompson 2022 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Perennial Pepperweek Id Card_2022, Malin Clyde, Charlotte Thompson

UNH Cooperative Extension

No abstract provided.


Auxin-Based Herbicide Program For Weed Control In Auxin Resistant Soybean, Joy Amajioyi, Thandiwe Nleya, Graig Reicks, Janet Moriles- Miller, David Clay, Sharon Clay 2022 South Dakota State University

Auxin-Based Herbicide Program For Weed Control In Auxin Resistant Soybean, Joy Amajioyi, Thandiwe Nleya, Graig Reicks, Janet Moriles- Miller, David Clay, Sharon Clay

Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science Faculty Publications

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars resistant to synthetic auxin herbicides have provided another mode of action for the postemergence broadleaf weed control. This field study was conducted at three South Dakota locations [Northeast, NERF; east-central, ARF; and Southeast, SERF) in 2019 and two locations (ARF and SERF) in 2020. The Enlist E3 and Roundup Ready 2 Xtend cultivars were planted at three dates (early, mid-, and late season) to examine weed control, agronomic characteristics, nodulation, and yield. Preemergence (PRE) treatment was flumioxazin + metribuzin + S-metolachlor + glyphosate + pendimethalin. Two postemergence (POST) treatments, based on cultivar, were compared …


Associations Between Cannabis, Psychosis, And Schizophrenia In Adolescents, Lauren Moment 2022 University of Colorado - Denver

Associations Between Cannabis, Psychosis, And Schizophrenia In Adolescents, Lauren Moment

Academic Leadership Journal in Student Research

The effects of cannabis use on the brain, mind, and body have been studied for decades. The developing brain, particularly the adolescent and young adult brain, undergoes critical development that makes it especially susceptible to the effects of cannabis use. Among the adverse effects of cannabis use in adolescence and young adulthood, psychosis and psychotic disorders (e.g., schizophrenia) have been examined. The association of cannabis use with schizophrenia was first elucidated in a Swedish study of army conscripts. Specifically, conscripts reported their cannabis use exposure and were followed longitudinally to assess the emergence of schizophrenia. The authors found that those …


B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2021, J. Hardke, X. Sha, N. Bateman 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2021, J. Hardke, X. Sha, N. Bateman

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

Arkansas is the leading rice producer in the United States. The state represents 47.5% of total U.S. rice production and 47.8% of the total acres planted to rice in 2021. Rice cultural practices vary across the state and across the U.S. However, these practices are also dynamic and continue to evolve in response to changing political, environmental, and economic times. This survey was initiated in 2002 to monitor and record changes in the way Arkansas rice producers approach their livelihood. The survey was conducted by polling county extension agents in each of the counties in Arkansas that produce rice. Questions …


Environmental Weed Risk Assessment Protocol For Growing Non-Indigenous Plants In The Western Australian Rangelands, Geoff A. Moore Mr, Christine Munday Ms, Papori Barua Dr 2022 DPIRD, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development

Environmental Weed Risk Assessment Protocol For Growing Non-Indigenous Plants In The Western Australian Rangelands, Geoff A. Moore Mr, Christine Munday Ms, Papori Barua Dr

Bulletins 4000 -

This bulletin is a post-border environmental weed risk assessment (WRA) protocol which is based on the Environmental WRA Protocol developed for the Future Farm Industries Co-operative Research Centre (FFI CRC), but with some changes to reflect the different environment and objectives.

The WRA protocol was developed specifically as a post-border assessment of non-indigenous species that may have agricultural value in the WA rangelands and the risk that they may become environmental weeds. Weeds can occur in many land-use systems including agriculture, horticulture and forestry; however, the focus of this protocol is on the risk that non-indigenous agricultural plants may become …


Flora Of Doe Mountain Recreation Area, Johnson County, Tennessee, Benjamin McCullough 2022 East Tennessee State University

Flora Of Doe Mountain Recreation Area, Johnson County, Tennessee, Benjamin Mccullough

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A botanical inventory of Doe Mountain Recreation Area (DMRA) in northeastern Tennessee was conducted to help guide conservation-based management. A total of 484 species were found in DMRA, comprising 94 families, and 285 genera, 10 species listed in the state rare plant list, and 76 exotic species. Two species, Liatris virgata and Lycopodiella inundata, were new state records. Water in the Lycopodiella seep was an order of magnitude more acid than at other sites. An analysis of the wildland-urban interface showed that only 13% of the area was classified as uninhabited. The inventory-invasion index, introduced to quantify the relative …


Arkansas Corn And Grain Sorghum Research Studies 2021, Victor Ford, Jason Kelley, Nathan McKinney II 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Arkansas Corn And Grain Sorghum Research Studies 2021, Victor Ford, Jason Kelley, Nathan Mckinney Ii

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

The 2021 edition of the Arkansas Corn and Grain Sorghum Research Studies Series includes research results on topics pertaining to corn and grain sorghum production, including weed, disease, and insect management; economics; sustainability; irrigation; post-harvest drying; soil fertility; mycotoxins; cover crop management; and research verification program results. Our objective is to capture and broadly distribute the results of research projects funded by the Arkansas Corn and Grain Sorghum Board. The intended audience includes producers and their advisors, current investigators, and future researchers. The Series serves as a citable archive of research results.


Helping Utah Landowners Reduce Pesticide Use Through A Statewide Ipm Program, Nick Volesky, Mair Murray 2022 Utah State University

Helping Utah Landowners Reduce Pesticide Use Through A Statewide Ipm Program, Nick Volesky, Mair Murray

Outcomes and Impact Quarterly

The Utah Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program provides outreach and education to Utahns to reduce pesticide use and ultimately protect human and environmental health. In 2022, the IPM program responded to stakeholders’ needs by partnering with county Extension offices to deliver eight (8) in-person workshops across the state. The workshops connected Extension specialists and county faculty with managers of home landscapes and farms. The objective of the workshops was to provide participants with IPM skills to identify, monitor, and manage pest problems in preparation for the upcoming growing season.


Perceptions And Management Of Ventenata By Producers In The Inland Pacific Northwest, Lisa Jones, John Wallace, Kathleen Painter, Pamela Pavek, Timothy S. Prather 2022 University of Idaho

Perceptions And Management Of Ventenata By Producers In The Inland Pacific Northwest, Lisa Jones, John Wallace, Kathleen Painter, Pamela Pavek, Timothy S. Prather

The Journal of Extension

Ventenata is an annual grass that has invaded agricultural and wildland settings in the Inland Pacific Northwest, causing economic and ecological losses. We know little about producers’ perceived risks and management of ventenata. We present results of surveys in 2011 and 2014 targeting producers across affected counties in Idaho and Washington. Awareness of ventenata and costs to producers increased across that time interval. Respondents attending ventenata Extension events adopted recommended management strategies more than those who did not attend. Our study documents the importance of continued integrated pest management research in concert with stakeholder engagement and education.


Evaluating Cover Crops To Determine The Best Management Practice For The Suppression Of Tall Waterhemp And Italian Ryegrass, Samuel R. Reeves 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluating Cover Crops To Determine The Best Management Practice For The Suppression Of Tall Waterhemp And Italian Ryegrass, Samuel R. Reeves

Theses and Dissertations

To combat herbicide resistance among weeds, non-herbicide methods of control, such as cover crops, are becoming widely adapted. Experiments were conducted to determine how to effectively establish and manage cover crops in order to suppress tall waterhemp and Italian ryegrass and to assess their overall impact on soybean growth and yield. Various cover crop establishment methods were evaluated, and it was determined that interseeding at the R7 growth stage of soybean was the least effective method for proper cover crop establishment. Biomass data demonstrated that interseeding created the least amountof cover crop biomass, with no differences found among the other …


Site-Specific Pest Management In Nebraska Corn And Soybean Production Systems, Zachary D. Rystrom 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Site-Specific Pest Management In Nebraska Corn And Soybean Production Systems, Zachary D. Rystrom

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Site-specific management (SSM) is widely used by farm producers to fertilize their fields. However, whole field management is currently practiced in integrated pest management (IPM). Site-specific management and agricultural technology can improve IPM especially when precision application of inputs can reduce selection pressure on pest populations, benefit the environment, or save costs of inputs. There is potential for site-specific pest management (SSPM) where pests, or environments vary spatially, and recommended management practices can be applied with precision. Three case studies are evaluated for SSPM to be applied in Nebraska corn and soybean production systems including corn rootworm, preemergence herbicides, and …


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