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Simultaneous Automatic Detection Of Optic Disc And Fovea, Xiayu Xu 2010 University of Iowa

Simultaneous Automatic Detection Of Optic Disc And Fovea, Xiayu Xu

Theses and Dissertations

Automated localization of the optic disc and fovea are important in the field of analysis of fundus images. We introduce a simultaneous detection method for optic disc and fovea with an enhancement and correction step. In the first step, a set of features are extracted from the color fundus image, and the relationship between the feature set and a distance variable d is established during training phase. For a test image, the same set of features is measured and the distance to the optic disc and fovea can be estimated using k-nearest-neighbor regression. A probability image is generated during this ...


Effects Of Static Stretching On Foot Velocity During The Instep Soccer Kick, Craig D. Workman 2010 Utah State University

Effects Of Static Stretching On Foot Velocity During The Instep Soccer Kick, Craig D. Workman

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to assess the acute effects of static stretching on foot velocity at impact with a soccer ball. Eighteen Division I female soccer athletes underwent two test conditions separated by 48 hr. Each condition was randomly assigned and began by placing four retro-reflective markers on bony landmarks of the ankle (total of eight markers, four on each ankle). One condition was the no-stretch condition, in which each participant performed a self-paced jog for 5 min as a warm-up, and then sat quietly for 6 min before performing three maximal instep kicks into a net. The ...


Developing Chitosan-Based Biomaterials For Brain Repair And Neuroprosthetics, Zheng Cao 2010 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UTK

Developing Chitosan-Based Biomaterials For Brain Repair And Neuroprosthetics, Zheng Cao

Masters Theses

Chitosan is widely investigated for biomedical applications due to its excellent properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, bioadhesivity, antibacterial, etc. In the field of neural engineering, it has been extensively studied in forms of film and hydrogel, and has been used as scaffolds for nerve regeneration in the peripheral nervous system and spinal cord. One of the main issues in neural engineering is the incapability of neuron to attach on biomaterials. The present study, from a new aspect, aims to take advantage of the bio-adhesive property of chitosan to develop chitosan-based materials for neural engineering, specifically in the fields of brain ...


Effects Of Reamer-Femoral Component Offset On Cement Mantle Penetration In Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty, Mark Lloyd Paulick 2010 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Effects Of Reamer-Femoral Component Offset On Cement Mantle Penetration In Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty, Mark Lloyd Paulick

Master's Theses

Hip resurfacing arthroplasty has changed the treatment of end stage arthritis without severe deformity for young, active adults. Presently, there are varying clinical approaches to implant design selection and cementation techniques. The purpose of this project is to determine what amount of reamer-femoral component offset allows for the best cement penetration into the femoral head.

Rapid prototyped femoral component models were produced with reamer femoral component offsets of 0.0 mm, 0.5 mm, and 1.0 mm. After implantation onto models of reamed femoral heads made from high-density open-cell reticulated carbon foam, cement penetration was assessed from cross-sections of ...


Finite Element Modeling Of Icd Lead Silicone Soft-Tips, Jose J. Lepe 2010 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Finite Element Modeling Of Icd Lead Silicone Soft-Tips, Jose J. Lepe

Master's Theses

Although highly underutilized by the medical device industry, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in the development of new technologies is gaining popularity as regulatory bodies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) begin to require additional proof of safety through scientific methods. Non-linear FEA allows engineers to realistically simulate the mechanical behavior of implants as seen in the in-vitro, or in some cases, the in-vivo configurations. The work presented in this report investigates how computational methods can be used to simulate the interaction of a St. Jude Medical silicone soft-tip as it passes through a Peel-Away Sheath (i.e. introducer ...


The Hypericum Perforatum Herb As An Antimycobacterial Agent And Its Implications As An Additional Tuberculosis Medication, Trent W. Mortensen 2010 Utah State University

The Hypericum Perforatum Herb As An Antimycobacterial Agent And Its Implications As An Additional Tuberculosis Medication, Trent W. Mortensen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

An immediate demand exists for new tuberculosis (TB) antibiotics due to the ever-increasing spread of drug-resistant strains. The drug-development process goes through four phases, the first (Phase 0) of which is to demonstrate and investigate drug effectiveness and toxicity. This research investigated the effectiveness of the Hypericum perforatum herb (commonly St. John's wort (SJW)) in its growth inhibition of mycobacteria and its viability effect on human lung cells. Organic-solvent SJW extracts were effective at inhibiting every nonpathogenic genetically sequenced Mycobacterium isolate currently available (six isolates) in preliminary studies. Quantitative studies of five Mycobacterium isolates showed an order of concentration ...


Effect Of Head-Neck Posture On Human Discomfort During Whole-Body Vibration, Jonathan DeShaw 2010 University of Iowa

Effect Of Head-Neck Posture On Human Discomfort During Whole-Body Vibration, Jonathan Deshaw

Theses and Dissertations

It is well known that sitting posture is associated with discomfort and a number of musculoskeletal disorders. Seat manufacturers have made great strides toward developing seats for equipment which helped in alleviating the vibration transferring to the lower area of the spine; however, increased neck and head motion resulting from these seat designs may have been overlooked. Many cervical spine studies have been developed to estimate the response of the head and neck; however, these current studies do not take head and neck posture into account. The objective of this work was to study and demonstrate the difference in human ...


Choroidal Endothelial Cell Activation In Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Jessica Marie Skeie 2010 University of Iowa

Choroidal Endothelial Cell Activation In Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Jessica Marie Skeie

Theses and Dissertations

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a devastating ocular disease affecting one third of the elderly population in the western world. Some cases of AMD develop neovascular membranes, which are characterized by the pathologic growth of new blood vessels into the retina. This pathology may be initiated by proteins capable of activating endothelial cells to become angiogenic or inflammatory, later causing them to grow abnormally. This investigation aimed to determine the causes of pathologic blood vessel growth in AMD.

Human eyes with AMD have been shown by us and others to have abnormal activities of angiogenin, complement component C5 anaphylatoxin (C5a ...


Osteoclast-Mediated Cell Therapy As An Attempt To Treat Elastin-Specific Vascular Calcification, Chartrisa Simpson 2010 Clemson University

Osteoclast-Mediated Cell Therapy As An Attempt To Treat Elastin-Specific Vascular Calcification, Chartrisa Simpson

All Dissertations

Vascular calcification occurs during physiological aging and is clinically recognized as a major risk factor for myocardial infarction, systolic hypertension, heart failure and coronary insufficiency caused by loss of aortic recoil. Medial arterial calcification is an active remodeling process that involves the deposition of bone-specific matrix in close association with elastic fibers. Elastin, a major structural protein in the extracellular matrix of arterial walls, provides elastic recoil to the arteries. Increasing evidence suggests that vascular calcification share features with skeletal bone formation such as bone matrix deposition and bone resorption. Bone morphogenetic proteins and bone cells have been found in ...


Mineralization Potential Of Electrospun Pdo-Nha-Fibrinogen Scaffolds Intended For Cleft Palate Repair, Isaac Rodriguez 2010 Virginia Commonwealth University

Mineralization Potential Of Electrospun Pdo-Nha-Fibrinogen Scaffolds Intended For Cleft Palate Repair, Isaac Rodriguez

Theses and Dissertations

The overall goal of this study was to identify mineralized scaffolds which can serve as potential alternatives to bone graft substitutes intended for cleft palate repair. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the role of fibrinogen (Fg) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) in enhancing mineralization potential of polydioxanone (PDO) electrospun scaffolds. Scaffolds were fabricated by blending PDO:nHA:Fg in the following weight ratios: 100:0:0, 50:25:25, 50:50:0, 50:0:50, 0:0:100 and 0:50:50. Scaffolds were immersed in different simulated body fluids for 5 and 14 days to induce mineralization ...


Electrophysiological Analysis In An Animal Model Of Dystonia, Kunal Chaniary 2010 Virginia Commonwealth University

Electrophysiological Analysis In An Animal Model Of Dystonia, Kunal Chaniary

Theses and Dissertations

Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by patterned, repetitive, and sustained muscle contractions that cause ineffective and often painful movements. The overall goal of this project was to understand the physiological mechanisms of dystonia in a rodent model as a basis for developing innovative treatments for secondary dystonias. The first half of the project was focused at developing essential techniques for systematically investigating the movement disorder in these animals. For achieving this, an innovative, multi-faceted approach was pursued starting with electromyographic (EMG) analysis for animal model validation, gait analysis for dystonia quantification, and development of a novel stereotaxic apparatus for ...


Determination Of Material Emission Signatures By Ptr-Ms And Their Correlations With Odor Assessments By Human Subjects, Kwanghoon Han 2010 BEESL Lab., Syracuse University

Determination Of Material Emission Signatures By Ptr-Ms And Their Correlations With Odor Assessments By Human Subjects, Kwanghoon Han

Kwanghoon Han

The objectives of this study were to determine volatile organic compound (VOC) emission signatures of nine typical building materials by using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and to explore the correlation between the PTR-MS measurements and the measurements of acceptability by human subjects. VOC emissions from each material were measured in a 50-l small-scale chamber. Chamber air was sampled by PTR-MS to determine emission signatures. Sorbent tube sampling and TD-GC/MS analysis were also performed to identify the major VOCs emitted and to compare the resulting data with the PTR-MS emission signatures. The data on the acceptability of air quality ...


Synthesis Of An Endothelial Cell Mimicking Surface Containing Thrombomodulin And Endothelial Protein C Receptor, Karl E. Kador 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Synthesis Of An Endothelial Cell Mimicking Surface Containing Thrombomodulin And Endothelial Protein C Receptor, Karl E. Kador

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

Synthetic materials for use in blood contacting applications have been studied for many years with limited success. One of the main areas of need for these materials is the design of synthetic vascular grafts for use in the hundreds of thousands of patients who have coronary artery bypass grafting, many without suitable veins for autologous grafts. The design of these grafts is constrained by two common modes of failure, the formation of intimal hyperplasia (IH) and thrombosis. IH formation has been previously linked to a mismatching of the mechanical properties of the graft and has been overcome by creating grafts ...


Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals, Second Annual Report, Volume I, NSF Engineering Research Center for Biorenewable Chemicals 2010 Iowa State University

Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals, Second Annual Report, Volume I, Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals

Center for Biorenewable Chemicals Annual Reports

In the U.S., the production of industrial chemicals is a $400 billion-plus enterprise that impacts all aspects of society from personal care products to building materials. Unfortunately, this vital industry is not self-sustaining; its long-term future is predicated on transitioning from current nonrenewable, petroleum feedstocks to renewable biobased feedstocks. The development of conversion technologies needed to facilitate this transition is the focus of the NSF Engineering Research Center for Biorenewable Chemicals (CBiRC).


Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals, Second Annual Report, Volume Ii, NSF Engineering Research Center for Biorenewable Chemicals 2010 Iowa State University

Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals, Second Annual Report, Volume Ii, Nsf Engineering Research Center For Biorenewable Chemicals

Center for Biorenewable Chemicals Annual Reports

In the U.S., the production of industrial chemicals is a $400 billion-plus enterprise that impacts all aspects of society from personal care products to building materials. Unfortunately, this vital industry is not self-sustaining; its long-term future is predicated on transitioning from current nonrenewable, petroleum feedstocks to renewable biobased feedstocks. The development of conversion technologies needed to facilitate this transition is the focus of the NSF Engineering Research Center for Biorenewable Chemicals (CBiRC).


Detecting Mutually-Salient Landmark Pairs With Mrf Regularization, Yangming Ou, Ahmed Besbes, Michel Bilello, Mohamed Mansour, Christos Davatzikos, Nikos Paragios 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Detecting Mutually-Salient Landmark Pairs With Mrf Regularization, Yangming Ou, Ahmed Besbes, Michel Bilello, Mohamed Mansour, Christos Davatzikos, Nikos Paragios

Departmental Papers (BE)

In this paper, we present a framework for extracting mutually-salient landmark pairs for registration. Traditional methods detect landmarks one-by-one and separately in two images. Therefore, the detected landmarks might inherit low discriminability and are not necessarily good for matching. In contrast, our method detects landmarks pair-by-pair across images, and those pairs are required to be mutually-salient, i.e., uniquely corresponding to each other. The second merit of our framework is that, instead of finding individually optimal correspondence, which is a local approach and could cause self-intersection of the resultant deformation, our framework adopts a Markov-random-field (MRF)-based spatial arrangement to ...


Tracking Of Bone Mass And Density During Childhood And Adolescence, Heidi J. Kalkwarf, Vicente Gilsanz, Joan M. Lappe, Sharon Oberfield, John A. Shepherd, Thomas N. Hangartner, Xangke Huang, Margaret M. Frederick, Karen K. Winer, Babette S. Zemel 2010 Wright State University - Main Campus

Tracking Of Bone Mass And Density During Childhood And Adolescence, Heidi J. Kalkwarf, Vicente Gilsanz, Joan M. Lappe, Sharon Oberfield, John A. Shepherd, Thomas N. Hangartner, Xangke Huang, Margaret M. Frederick, Karen K. Winer, Babette S. Zemel

Biomedical, Industrial & Human Factors Engineering Faculty Publications

Context: Whether a child with low bone mineral density (BMD) at one point in time will continue to have low BMD, despite continued growth and maturation, is important clinically. The stability of a characteristic during growth is referred to as “tracking.”

Objective: We examined the degree of tracking in bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD during childhood and adolescence and investigated whether tracking varied according to age, sexual maturation, and changes in growth status.

Design: We conducted a longitudinal study with measurements at baseline and annually for 3 yr.

Setting: The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study was conducted at ...


Locked Plate Fixation Of Osteoporotic Humeral Shaft Fractures: Are Two Locking Screws Per Segment Enough?, David J. Hak, Peter Althausen, S J. Hazelwood 2010 University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center

Locked Plate Fixation Of Osteoporotic Humeral Shaft Fractures: Are Two Locking Screws Per Segment Enough?, David J. Hak, Peter Althausen, S J. Hazelwood

Biomedical Engineering

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical behavior of using two versus three locking screws per bone segment in a cadaveric humerus fracture gap model.

Methods: Six matched pairs of elderly osteoporotic fresh–frozen human cadaveric humerii were used. An eight-hole locking compression plate was placed posteriorly on the humeral shaft and secured with either four or six bicortical locking screws. A 5-mm middiaphyseal gap osteotomy was created to simulate a comminuted fracture without bony contact. Specimens were tested in offset axial compression, four-point anteroposterior bending, four-point medial– lateral bending, and torsion. After the initial testing ...


Section Abstracts: Biomedical And General Engineering, 2010 Old Dominion University

Section Abstracts: Biomedical And General Engineering

Virginia Journal of Science

Abstracts of the Biomedical and General Engineering Section for the 88th Annual Meeting of the Virginia Academy of Science, May 20-21, 2010, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA.


Dna Microarray Image Segmentation Using Active Contours Without Edges Method, Shenghua Ni 2010 Louisiana Tech University

Dna Microarray Image Segmentation Using Active Contours Without Edges Method, Shenghua Ni

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this dissertation is to build a better segmentation method for DNA microarray image processing. Segmentation is a partitioning process used to separate a spot area from a non-spot area in DNA microarrays. It directly affects the accuracy of gene expression analysis in the data mining process that follows. A number of DNA microarray segmentation methods have been proposed in the area, but even modern segmentation methods seem to have accuracy problems. In this dissertation, I will present a segmentation method based on the Active Contours Without Edges (ACWE) algorithm and apply it to two types of DNA ...


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