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Understanding The Effect Of Adaptive Mutations On The Three-Dimensional Structure Of Rna, Justin Cook 2021 Duquesne University

Understanding The Effect Of Adaptive Mutations On The Three-Dimensional Structure Of Rna, Justin Cook

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are variations in the genome where one base pair can differ between individuals.1 SNPs occur throughout the genome and can correlate to a disease-state if they occur in a functional region of DNA.1According to the central dogma of molecular biology, any variation in the DNA sequence will have a direct effect on the RNA sequence and will potentially alter the identity or conformation of a protein product. A single RNA molecule, due to intramolecular base pairing, can acquire a plethora of 3-D conformations that are described by its structural ensemble. One SNP, rs12477830, which ...


Nanocellulose Conduits For Enhanced Regeneration Of Peripheral Nerve Injuries, Nicklaus R. Carter 2021 The University of Maine

Nanocellulose Conduits For Enhanced Regeneration Of Peripheral Nerve Injuries, Nicklaus R. Carter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Peripheral neuropathy is estimated to afflict 20 million people in the United States. Most cases of neuropathy result from physical injuries and trauma arising from automobile accidents and war. Peripheral nerves have the intrinsic ability to regenerate over time, bridging the injury gap. However native regeneration is limited to a distance of only a few millimeters. Current methods utilized to assist in the regeneration of peripheral nerves over distances exceeding those amenable to native repair include nerve autografts and allografts, and implantation of conduits. Nerve autografts are regarded as the most effective method but require a second surgical site to ...


Preclinical Development Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Optical Biosensors, Eric M. Hofferber 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Preclinical Development Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Optical Biosensors, Eric M. Hofferber

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

High resolution, long-term monitoring of key biological analytes would improve patient outcomes by providing earlier detection of disease states and improved efficacy of treatment. One class of biosensors that have gained much attention in recent years are optical biosensors. Optical probes are attractive biosensors due to their noninvasive nature of detection, as certain light can pass through tissue, water, and blood. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are a specific type of optical biosensor that fluoresce in the near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum and offer unparalleled spatial and temporal resolution. SWNT have been applied as biosensors in vitro, ex ...


A Novel Method To Commercialize Medical Devices Initially Developed At California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, Christina Grigorian 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

A Novel Method To Commercialize Medical Devices Initially Developed At California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, Christina Grigorian

Master's Theses

California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo is a university that encourages students to approach learning hands-on. As such, there is cutting-edge technology being developed by students in all departments on campus. Being that the university possesses an outstanding biomedical engineering department, there are groundbreaking medical devices that students are creating at Cal Poly SLO. These are devices that can better the lives of individuals suffering from ailments or fulfill needs in the medical industry. Subsequently, it is vital that these devices make it out of campus laboratories and into the hands of consumers. In order to move a product ...


An Investigation On The Influences Of Radial Head Hemiarthroplasty Stem Fixation Techniques On Articular Mechanics, Jakub Szmit 2020 The University of Western Ontario

An Investigation On The Influences Of Radial Head Hemiarthroplasty Stem Fixation Techniques On Articular Mechanics, Jakub Szmit

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Radial head hemiarthroplasty design has been extensively studied with a focus on utilizing the geometrical characteristics of the native radial dish as a guide of implant placement and design. Although implant design has been studied, optimal radial head implant fixation technique remains unknown. This thesis focused on the effect of stem fit on radiocapitellar contact mechanics, using both finite element and experimental bench-top approaches. Additionally, investigation into the impact of varus/valgus malalignment of the radial head in both the native state and following hemiarthroplasty was conducted. It was found that loose fitting a smooth stem axisymmetric radial head implant ...


Urine Volume Reduction During Long-Duration Cave Exploration By A Light-Weight And Portable Forward Osmosis System, Sebastian Engelhardt, Katey E. Bender, Jörg Vogel, Stephen E. Duirk, Francisco B. Moore, Hazel A. Barton 2020 University of Akron

Urine Volume Reduction During Long-Duration Cave Exploration By A Light-Weight And Portable Forward Osmosis System, Sebastian Engelhardt, Katey E. Bender, Jörg Vogel, Stephen E. Duirk, Francisco B. Moore, Hazel A. Barton

International Journal of Speleology

The preservation of caves is a challenge during long-duration cave expeditions where human waste can add significant nitrogen to the cave ecosystem. Since the removal of urine that accumulates during a multi-day caving trip is not always feasible due to weight and volume constraints, a light-weight and portable filtration system that is capable of reducing urine volume would be desirable. In this study we tested the Aquaporin Inside hollow fiber membrane in a forward osmosis (FO) setup to evaluate its capability to reduce urine volume while rejecting nitrogenous compounds using different draw solution chemistries and water recovery rates. As a ...


The Effect Of Joint Alignment After A Wrist Injury On Joint Mechanics And Osteoarthritis Development, Puneet Kaur Ranota 2020 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Joint Alignment After A Wrist Injury On Joint Mechanics And Osteoarthritis Development, Puneet Kaur Ranota

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Wrist injuries are common and can lead to the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. For example, one major complication after a wrist fracture, is when the fractured bone heals in a mal-aligned position, called malunion. It has been assumed that a malunion after wrist fractures alters joint congruency and mechanics leading to the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and poor functional outcomes. It is unclear whether anatomical restoration is a key component for the management of wrist injuries and to limit the progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. However, the mechanistic pathways between joint structure (and mal-alignment) and patient outcomes, such as the development ...


Comparison Of Machine Learning Models: Gesture Recognition Using A Multimodal Wrist Orthosis For Tetraplegics, Charlie Martin 2020 Purdue University

Comparison Of Machine Learning Models: Gesture Recognition Using A Multimodal Wrist Orthosis For Tetraplegics, Charlie Martin

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Many tetraplegics must wear wrist braces to support paralyzed wrists and hands. However, current wrist orthoses have limited functionality to assist a person’s ability to perform typical activities of daily living other than a small pocket to hold utensils. To enhance the functionality of wrist orthoses, gesture recognition technology can be applied to control mechatronic tools attached to a novel fabricated wrist brace. Gesture recognition is a growing technology for providing touchless human-computer interaction that can be particularly useful for tetraplegics with limited upper-extremity mobility. In this study, three gesture recognition models were compared—two dynamic time-warping models and ...


Computational Modeling Of The Human Brain For Mtbi Prediction And Diagnosis, Yanir Levy 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Computational Modeling Of The Human Brain For Mtbi Prediction And Diagnosis, Yanir Levy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sports related concussions and mild traumatic brain injuries have seen an increase in frequency over the past decade. The creation of highly biofidelic computational head models is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of these mild brain injuries and preventing them. Hence, the purpose of this research is to combine state-of-the-art computational models, brain imaging modalities and traditional head injury assessment protocols to simulate and predict the brains responses during traumatic head impacts. A novel, atlas-based, parcellated axon fiber embedded head model was developed which allows for in-depth analysis of the brain’s structural connectome tracts for injury diagnosis ...


Anti-Crispr Proteins: Applications In Genome Engineering, Jooyoung Lee 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Anti-Crispr Proteins: Applications In Genome Engineering, Jooyoung Lee

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) constitute a bacterial and archaeal adaptive immune system. The ongoing arms race between prokaryotic hosts and their invaders such as phages led to the emergence of anti-CRISPR proteins as countermeasures against the potent antiviral defense. Since the first examples of anti-CRISPRs were shown in a subset of CRISPR-Cas systems, we endeavored to uncover these naturally-occurring inhibitors that inactivate different types of CRISPR-Cas systems. In the first part of my thesis, we have identified and characterized Type II anti-CRISPR proteins that inactivate several Cas9 orthologs. We share mechanistic insights into anti-CRISPR ...


Automatic Detection Of Dynamic And Static Activities Of The Older Adults Using A Wearable Sensor And Support Vector Machines, Jian Zhang, Rahul Soangra, Thurmon E. Lockhart 2020 Glassdoor

Automatic Detection Of Dynamic And Static Activities Of The Older Adults Using A Wearable Sensor And Support Vector Machines, Jian Zhang, Rahul Soangra, Thurmon E. Lockhart

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

Although Support Vector Machines (SVM) are widely used for classifying human motion patterns, their application in the automatic recognition of dynamic and static activities of daily life in the healthy older adults is limited. Using a body mounted wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU), this paper explores the use of an SVM approach for classifying dynamic (walking) and static (sitting, standing and lying) activities of the older adults. Specifically, data formatting and feature extraction methods associated with IMU signals are discussed. To evaluate the performance of the SVM algorithm, the effects of two parameters involved in SVM algorithm—the soft margin ...


A Comprehensive Analysis Of Balance, Symmetry, And Center Of Mass In The Gait Cycle Of Transfemoral Amputees, Kayla T. Etienne 2020 Florida International University

A Comprehensive Analysis Of Balance, Symmetry, And Center Of Mass In The Gait Cycle Of Transfemoral Amputees, Kayla T. Etienne

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this thesis is to create a framework that assists in the transfemoral prosthesis fitting process by calculating balance and symmetry to quantify patient comfort with an understanding of bipedal locomotion and human anatomy. Three different software applications were used to compare (1) the body position during gait cycle, (2) the natural and amputee anatomies, (3) the natural and prosthetic legs, and (4) the equilibrium and torque movements of the hip, knee, and ankle joints. Models were created in Maya for analysis in Solidworks and MEL code evaluation with MatLab. The MatLab code tested combinations of joint degrees ...


3d Architectural Analysis Of Neurons, Astrocytes, Vasculature & Nuclei In The Motor And Somatosensory Murine Cortical Columns, Jared Leichner 2020 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University

3d Architectural Analysis Of Neurons, Astrocytes, Vasculature & Nuclei In The Motor And Somatosensory Murine Cortical Columns, Jared Leichner

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Characterization of the complex cortical structure of the brain at a cellular level is a fundamental goal of neuroscience which can provide a better understanding of both normal function as well as disease state progression. Many challenges exist however when carrying out this form of analysis. Immunofluorescent staining is a key technique for revealing 3-dimensional structure, but subsequent fluorescence microscopy is limited by the quantity of simultaneous targets that can be labeled and intrinsic lateral and isotropic axial point-spread function (PSF) blurring during the imaging process in a spectral and depth-dependent manner. Even after successful staining, imaging and optical deconvolution ...


Septal Closure Device, Olivia N. Welch, Hillal H. Jarrar, Kai Harrison 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Septal Closure Device, Olivia N. Welch, Hillal H. Jarrar, Kai Harrison

Biomedical Engineering

The septal closure device was designed to seal defects in the atrial septum. To fully seal an atrial defect, the device was designed to consist of two circular seals to cover the defect in both the right and left atria, attached with a central rod. The materials were chosen for compressibility (for ease of insertion), biocompatibility, and tissue ingrowth. A CAD model was drafted in SolidWorks. Key customer requirements include ease of implantation (specifications: adjustable sizing and clear directions for use), physician controlled (specifications: short implantation time and compatibility with current catheter/scope techniques), and a long lifetime (specifications: materials ...


Investigation Of Experimental Variation Of Bovine Sphingomyelin As A Novel Ingredient For Ultraviolet Protection, Esther Chen 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Investigation Of Experimental Variation Of Bovine Sphingomyelin As A Novel Ingredient For Ultraviolet Protection, Esther Chen

Master's Theses

Skin cancer is a prevalent disease that globally affects 2-3 million people per year [1]. This number is expected to grow tenfold as depletion of the ozone layer contributes to harsher rays reaching Earth’s surface [2]. A common way to protect against those ultraviolet waves is to apply sunscreen, however, recent reports call into question the safety of some active ingredients as they can enter through the skin into the bloodstream [3]. This thesis aims to investigate an alternative solution that uses bovine sphingomyelin (BSM) as photoprotective solution against UV irradiation.

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of BSM ...


Exploring Attacks And Defenses In Additive Manufacturing Processes: Implications In Cyber-Physical Security, Nicholas Deily 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Exploring Attacks And Defenses In Additive Manufacturing Processes: Implications In Cyber-Physical Security, Nicholas Deily

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Many industries are rapidly adopting additive manufacturing (AM) because of the added versatility this technology offers over traditional manufacturing techniques. But with AM, there comes a unique set of security challenges that must be addressed. In particular, the issue of part verification is critically important given the growing reliance of safety-critical systems on 3D printed parts. In this thesis, the current state of part verification technologies will be examined in the con- text of AM-specific geometric-modification attacks, and an automated tool for 3D printed part verification will be presented. This work will cover: 1) the impacts of malicious attacks on ...


From Branches To Fibers - Investigating F-Actin Networks With Biochemistry And Mathematical Modeling, Melissa Riddle 2020 James Madison University

From Branches To Fibers - Investigating F-Actin Networks With Biochemistry And Mathematical Modeling, Melissa Riddle

Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current

F-actin networks have different structures throughout the cell depending on their location or mechanical role. For example, at the leading edge of a migrating cell, F-actin is organized in a region called the lamellipodia as a branched network responsible for pushing the membrane outwards. Behind the lamellipodia is a lamellar actin network where focal adhesions and stress fibers originate, and then within the cell cortex, actin is arranged in a gel-like network. Stress fibers are an important organization of F-actin and how they arise from either the branched lamellipodia network or the gel-like cortex network is poorly understood. Our approach ...


Ml-Medic: A Preliminary Study Of An Interactive Visual Analysis Tool Facilitating Clinical Applications Of Machine Learning For Precision Medicine, Laura Stevens, David Kao, Jennifer Hall, Carsten Görg, Kaitlyn Abdo, Erik Linstead 2020 University of Colorado, Aurora

Ml-Medic: A Preliminary Study Of An Interactive Visual Analysis Tool Facilitating Clinical Applications Of Machine Learning For Precision Medicine, Laura Stevens, David Kao, Jennifer Hall, Carsten Görg, Kaitlyn Abdo, Erik Linstead

Engineering Faculty Articles and Research

Accessible interactive tools that integrate machine learning methods with clinical research and reduce the programming experience required are needed to move science forward. Here, we present Machine Learning for Medical Exploration and Data-Inspired Care (ML-MEDIC), a point-and-click, interactive tool with a visual interface for facilitating machine learning and statistical analyses in clinical research. We deployed ML-MEDIC in the American Heart Association (AHA) Precision Medicine Platform to provide secure internet access and facilitate collaboration. ML-MEDIC’s efficacy for facilitating the adoption of machine learning was evaluated through two case studies in collaboration with clinical domain experts. A domain expert review was ...


Implementation Of A Computer-Vision System As A Supportive Diagnostic Tool For Parkinson’S Disease, Diego Machado Reyes 2020 University of Mississippi

Implementation Of A Computer-Vision System As A Supportive Diagnostic Tool For Parkinson’S Disease, Diego Machado Reyes

Honors Theses

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting nearly 1 million people in the US and it is predicted that the number will keep increasing. Parkinson’s disease is difficult to diagnose due to its similarity with other diseases that share the parkinsonian symptoms and the subjectivity of its assessment, thus increasing the probabilities of misdiagnosis. Therefore, it is relevant to develop diagnostic tools that are quantitatively based and monitoring tools to improve the patient’s quality of life. Computer-based assessment systems have shown to be successful in this field through diverse approaches that can be classified ...


Theoretical Applicability Of Crispr-Mediated Exon Skipping In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Andrew Greek 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Theoretical Applicability Of Crispr-Mediated Exon Skipping In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Andrew Greek

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) affects approximately 1 in 5,000 males. DMD results from genetic mutations within the gene that interrupts the open reading frame and prematurely truncates the protein. From a non-functional dystrophin protein, DMD results in serious muscle weakening and muscle wasting ultimately leading to death around the age of 26. In some cases of muscular dystrophy, a mutation can occur in areas of the gene that are less essential. In Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), these mutations cause less significant consequences in phenotype as the dystrophin protein is still semi-functional. With gene editing techniques, it may be possible ...


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