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Effect Of Developer Temperature On Photoresist Contrast In Grayscale Lithography, Dale Farnan, George Patrick Watson 2021 Singh Center for Nanotechnology

Effect Of Developer Temperature On Photoresist Contrast In Grayscale Lithography, Dale Farnan, George Patrick Watson

Protocols and Reports

SPR 220-3 photoresist was spin-coated onto a silicon wafer, exposed using a Heidelberg DWL66+ laserwriter at different laser powers, and developed at different temperatures. The effect of developer temperature on photoresist contrast was examined. Results show that increasing developer temperature decreased photoresist contrast and increased required dose.


2-Ns Electrostimulation Of Ca2+ Influx Into Chromaffin Cells: Rapid Modulation By Field Reversal, Josette Zaklit, Gale L. Craviso, Normand Leblanc, P. Thomas Vernier, Esin B. Sözer 2021 Old Dominion University

2-Ns Electrostimulation Of Ca2+ Influx Into Chromaffin Cells: Rapid Modulation By Field Reversal, Josette Zaklit, Gale L. Craviso, Normand Leblanc, P. Thomas Vernier, Esin B. Sözer

Bioelectrics Publications

Cellular effects of nanosecond pulsed electric field exposures can be attenuated by an electric field reversal, a phenomenon called bipolar pulse cancellation. Our investigations of this phenomenon in neuroendocrine adrenal chromaffin cells show that a single 2 ns, 16 MV/m unipolar pulse elicited a rapid, transient rise in intracellular Ca2+ levels due to Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. The response was eliminated by a 2 ns bipolar pulse with positive and negative phases of equal duration and amplitude, and fully restored (unipolar-equivalent response) when the delay between each phase of the bipolar pulse was 30 ns ...


Ecg Monitoring In Athletes, Jalal Jwayyed, Kelly Purgason, Joseph Linder, Annamarie Alfery, Silvia Furman 2021 The University of Akron

Ecg Monitoring In Athletes, Jalal Jwayyed, Kelly Purgason, Joseph Linder, Annamarie Alfery, Silvia Furman

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Athletes and medical personnel need reliable methods to monitor vital signs and detect potentially life-threatening issues before they occur. Electrocardiograph (ECG) monitors are currently the best method of detecting heart-related health issues. Current ECG monitors worn by athletes are difficult to use and lack the ability to track ECGs in real time. Through research and interviews with various clinicians, further problems have been identified that include poor electrode adhesion, and a lack of compatibility with the equipment worn by athletes. Our team proposes to develop solutions that will improve performance and comfort associated with ECG monitors for athletic applications. This ...


A Note From The Editor, Daphne Fauber 2020 Purdue University

A Note From The Editor, Daphne Fauber

Ideas: Exhibit Catalog for the Honors College Visiting Scholars Series

This piece is a letter from Daphne Fauber, the editor of this issue of Ideas. In the letter, the editor introduces the work of Dr. Paschalis Gkoupidenis as well as the moment in time in which his Visiting Scholars talk occurs.


Introduction To Neuromorphic Computing, Sadid R. Khan 2020 Purdue University

Introduction To Neuromorphic Computing, Sadid R. Khan

Ideas: Exhibit Catalog for the Honors College Visiting Scholars Series

Neuromorphic computing is an emerging field that has the potential to drastically influence every human’s life within the next decades. Neuromorphic computing explores the computing process of the brain and attempts to replicate it onto modern electronics. It offers improvements on current computer architecture, the von Neumann architecture, and will lead to more efficient computing, easier development of machine learning, and further integration of electronics and biology.


Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation For Post-Stroke Motor Recovery - A Phase Ii Study (Transport2), Muhammed E. Gunduz, Anant B. Shinde, Karl D. Lerud, Wayne Feng, Gottfried Schlaug 2020 Baystate Medical Center – University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation For Post-Stroke Motor Recovery - A Phase Ii Study (Transport2), Muhammed E. Gunduz, Anant B. Shinde, Karl D. Lerud, Wayne Feng, Gottfried Schlaug

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

Stroke is a leading cause of disability, most commonly with motor deficit. The motor recovery is associated with the structural and/or functional degree of injury to descending motor pathways. Additionally, neuroplasticity contributes to the recovery by unmasking pre-existing connections, establishing new synaptic contacts, reorganizing peri-lesional and contralesional regions. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive brain stimulation technique, enhances neuroplasticity. When combined with peripheral therapy, tDCS can enhance motor skill acquisition/consolidation by modulating afferent inputs to the cortex while concurrently receiving central stimulation. Furthermore, meta-analyses showed that bihemispheric stimulation (anodal over affected M1, cathodal over contralesional M1) is ...


Targeted Multielectrode Tdcs Increases Functional Connectivity Within The Arcuate Fasciculus Network: An Exploratory Study And Analysis, Karl D. Lerud, Anant B. Shinde, Axel Thielscher, David A. Ross, Gottfried Schlaug 2020 Baystate Medical Center – University of Massachusetts Medical School

Targeted Multielectrode Tdcs Increases Functional Connectivity Within The Arcuate Fasciculus Network: An Exploratory Study And Analysis, Karl D. Lerud, Anant B. Shinde, Axel Thielscher, David A. Ross, Gottfried Schlaug

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

Non-invasive electrical stimulation can modulate not only targeted local intrinsic brain activity, but also activity in remote, yet connected brain regions. Such modulation of connected regions and/or entire networks may account for some of the treatment-induced changes in complex behaviors and cognitive processes. The current study tested whether strategically-placed electrodes delivering transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to single or several nodal cortical regions within a structurally-defined network, the arcuate fasciculus network (AF-network), have the potential to strengthen functional connectivity between network regions more effectively than a single electrode placed over an individual nodal region within that same network. Concurrent ...


Characterization Of Neuronal Differentiation And Activity In Human-Induced Pluripotent Neural Stem Cells, Allison Biddinger 2020 Purdue University

Characterization Of Neuronal Differentiation And Activity In Human-Induced Pluripotent Neural Stem Cells, Allison Biddinger

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Computational Modeling Of The Human Brain For Mtbi Prediction And Diagnosis, Yanir Levy 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Computational Modeling Of The Human Brain For Mtbi Prediction And Diagnosis, Yanir Levy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sports related concussions and mild traumatic brain injuries have seen an increase in frequency over the past decade. The creation of highly biofidelic computational head models is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of these mild brain injuries and preventing them. Hence, the purpose of this research is to combine state-of-the-art computational models, brain imaging modalities and traditional head injury assessment protocols to simulate and predict the brains responses during traumatic head impacts. A novel, atlas-based, parcellated axon fiber embedded head model was developed which allows for in-depth analysis of the brain’s structural connectome tracts for injury diagnosis ...


Validation Of Nanosecond Pulse Cancellation Using A Quadrupole Exposure System, Hollie A. Ryan 2020 Old Dominion University

Validation Of Nanosecond Pulse Cancellation Using A Quadrupole Exposure System, Hollie A. Ryan

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offer a plethora of opportunities for developing integrative technologies as complements or alternatives to traditional medicine. Studies on the biological effects of nsPEFs in vitro and in vivo have revealed unique characteristics that suggest the potential for minimized risk of complications in patients, such as the ability of unipolar nsEPs to create permanent or transient pores in cell membranes that trigger localized lethal or non-lethal outcomes without consequential heating. A more recent finding was that such responses could be diminished by applying a bipolar pulse instead, a phenomenon dubbed bipolar cancellation, paving the way for ...


Measurement And Modeling Of The Effects Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation On The Brain, Oluwaponmile F. Afuwape, Hiroyuki Oya, Aaron D. Boes, David C. Jiles 2020 Iowa State University

Measurement And Modeling Of The Effects Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation On The Brain, Oluwaponmile F. Afuwape, Hiroyuki Oya, Aaron D. Boes, David C. Jiles

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a method of non-invasively modulating the excitability of the brain. TMS relies on the principle of electromagnetic induction in producing an electric field that stimulates neurons. Measuring the effect of TMS in real time and being able to determine its spatiotemporal resolution increase its potential in both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the authors model the electric fields of three TMS coils: Quadruple Butterfly Coil (QBC), Triple Halo Coil (THC) and the Magventure B65 coils, by performing computational finite element (FE) analysis using the Sim4life software. To evaluate the accuracy of the electromagnetic ...


Comparison Of The Effect Of Coil Configuration And The Variability Of Anatomical Structure On Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Oluwaponmile F. Afuwape, Priyam Rastogi, David C. Jiles 2020 Iowa State University

Comparison Of The Effect Of Coil Configuration And The Variability Of Anatomical Structure On Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Oluwaponmile F. Afuwape, Priyam Rastogi, David C. Jiles

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive therapeutic and restorative mode of treating neurological disorders which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It has proven to be an effective way of treating disorders as it is a less risky technology compared to conventional brain surgery. Various researchers have proposed coil designs for TMS aimed at achieving high focality and increased penetration depth of the induced electric field in the brain. In the present research, the authors compare the Figure of Eight (FOE) coil, Quadruple Butterfly Coil (QBC) and Triple Halo Coil (THC) on different ...


Secretion Of Proteins And Antibody Fragments From Transiently Transfected Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Loree Heller, Reynald Thinard, Melanie Chevalier, Sezgi Arpag, Yu Jing, Ruth Greferath, Richard Heller, Claude Nicolau 2020 Old Dominion University

Secretion Of Proteins And Antibody Fragments From Transiently Transfected Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Loree Heller, Reynald Thinard, Melanie Chevalier, Sezgi Arpag, Yu Jing, Ruth Greferath, Richard Heller, Claude Nicolau

Bioelectrics Publications

In neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, neuroinflammation can lead to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. After intravenous or intra-arterial injection into mice, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) home to the damaged BBB to promote neurovascular repair. Autologous EPCs transfected to express specific therapeutic proteins offer an innovative therapeutic option. Here, we demonstrate that EPC transfection by electroporation with plasmids encoding the reporter protein GFP or an anti-beta-amyloid antibody fragment (Fab) leads to secretion of each protein. We also demonstrate the secreted anti-beta-amyloid Fab protein functions in beta-amyloid aggregate solubilization.


A Comparison Of Neural Activity For Peripersonal And Extrapersonal Viewing In Real And Virtual Environments, Olivia Eustice 2020 University of Mississippi

A Comparison Of Neural Activity For Peripersonal And Extrapersonal Viewing In Real And Virtual Environments, Olivia Eustice

Honors Theses

This study involved a series of tests comparing the similarities and differences in neural activity at a subject’s peripheral and extrapersonal space in the real environment and virtual reality. We hypothesized that there would be similar brain activity at each of these environments depending on the focal distance of an object from the participant. Peripheral space is the visual space that is a reachable distance from a person. It has an overall neural pattern in the dorsal stream of the brain. Extrapersonal space is the visual space that does not directly surround a person and cannot be directly acted ...


Probing Nanoelectroporation And Resealing Of The Cell Membrane By The Entry Of Ca2+ And Ba2+ Ions, Wenfei Bo, Mantas Silkunas, Uma Mangalanathan, Vitalij Novickij, Maura Casciola, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov 2020 Old Dominion University

Probing Nanoelectroporation And Resealing Of The Cell Membrane By The Entry Of Ca2+ And Ba2+ Ions, Wenfei Bo, Mantas Silkunas, Uma Mangalanathan, Vitalij Novickij, Maura Casciola, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

The principal bioeffect of the nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a lasting cell membrane permeabilization, which is often attributed to the formation of nanometer-sized pores. Such pores may be too small for detection by the uptake of fluorescent dyes. We tested if Ca2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ba2+ ions can be used as nanoporation markers. Time-lapse imaging was performed in CHO, BPAE, and HEK cells loaded with Fluo-4, Calbryte, or Fluo-8 dyes. Ca2+ and Ba2+ did not change fluorescence in intact cells, whereas their entry after nsPEF increased fluorescence within <1 ms. The threshold for one 300-ns pulse was at 1.5–2 kV/cm, much lower than >7 kV/cm for ...


Mechanical Analysis Of In Vitro Tbi Models, Dana Hamed 2020 University of Connecticut

Mechanical Analysis Of In Vitro Tbi Models, Dana Hamed

Honors Scholar Theses

This work details the damage done to cells when mechanically hit. The goal was to mechanically analyze in vitro traumatic brain injury (TBI) models. Parts were designed in SolidWorks to create the machine that is used to induce this damage on the cells. A force applicator that uses a 3D-printed micro-hammer to apply force on the brain cells that are being tested was created. Mechanical trauma experimentation was performed with the force applicator, while a high-speed camera recorded the damage, in order to analyze TBI models. Displacement along the scaffold can be tracked from multiple video frames. With these results ...


Thermal Analysis Of Infrared Irradiation-Assisted Nanosecond-Pulsed Tumor Ablation, James Hornef, Chelsea M. Edelblute, Karl H. Schoenbach, Richard Heller, Siqi Guo, Chunqi Jiang 2020 Old Dominion University

Thermal Analysis Of Infrared Irradiation-Assisted Nanosecond-Pulsed Tumor Ablation, James Hornef, Chelsea M. Edelblute, Karl H. Schoenbach, Richard Heller, Siqi Guo, Chunqi Jiang

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (nsPEF) have the potential to treat a variety of cancer types including melanoma, pancreatic and lung squamous cancers. Recent studies show that nsPEF-based cancer therapy may be improved further with the assistance of moderate heating of the target. A feedbacklooped heating system, utilizing a 980-nm fiber optic laser, was integrated into nsPEF electrodes for tumor ablation. The laser beam profile was determined to be Gaussian using a knife-edge technique. Thermal properties of the biological target were evaluated based on the treatment area, penetration depth and thermal distribution due to laser irradiation with or without nsPEF. Synergistic ...


Electrotransfer Of Il-15/Il-15rα Complex For The Treatment Of Established Melanoma, Shawna A. Shirley, Cathryn G. Lundberg, Richard Heller 2020 Old Dominion University

Electrotransfer Of Il-15/Il-15rα Complex For The Treatment Of Established Melanoma, Shawna A. Shirley, Cathryn G. Lundberg, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Gene electrotransfer (GET) is a safe, reliable, and effective method of delivering plasmid DNA (pDNA) to solid tumors. GET has been previously used to deliver interleukin-15 (IL-15) to mouse melanoma, resulting in long-term tumor regression and the survival of a percentage of treated animals after challenge. To enhance this effect, we evaluated modulating the expression levels of IL-15 and co-expressing its receptor, IL-15Rα. GET was used to deliver plasmids encoding IL-15 and IL-15Rα to established B16.F10 tumors on days 0, 4, and 7. Two delivery protocols that yielded different expression profiles were utilized. Mice that were tumor-free for 50 ...


Effects Of Weak Electric Fields On Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity, Gregory Kronberg 2020 CUNY City College

Effects Of Weak Electric Fields On Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity, Gregory Kronberg

Dissertations and Theses

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique where a weak direct electrical current is applied to the scalp with the goal of stimulating the brain. There is tremendous interest in the use of tDCS for treating brain disorders and improving brain function. However, the effects of tDCS have been highly variable across studies, leading to a debate over its efficacy. A major challenge is therefore to design tDCS protocols that yield predictable effects, which will require a better understanding of its basic mechanisms of action. One commonly discussed mechanism is that tDCS may alter synaptic plasticity, but the biophysics ...


Finding A Viable Neural Network Architecture For Use With Upper Limb Prosthetics, Maxwell Lavin 2019 Kennesaw State University

Finding A Viable Neural Network Architecture For Use With Upper Limb Prosthetics, Maxwell Lavin

Master of Science in Computer Science Theses

This paper attempts to answer the question of if it’s possible to produce a simple, quick, and accurate neural network for the use in upper-limb prosthetics. Through the implementation of convolutional and artificial neural networks and feature extraction on electromyographic data different possible architectures are examined with regards to processing time, complexity, and accuracy. It is found that the most accurate architecture is a multi-entry categorical cross entropy convolutional neural network with 100% accuracy. The issue is that it is also the slowest method requiring 9 minutes to run. The next best method found was a single-entry binary cross ...


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