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A Generalized Method For Predictive Simulation-Based Lower Limb Prosthesis Design, Mark Price 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Generalized Method For Predictive Simulation-Based Lower Limb Prosthesis Design, Mark Price

Doctoral Dissertations

Lower limb prostheses are designed to replace the functions and form of the missing biological anatomy. These functions are hypothesized to improve user outcome measures which are negatively affected by receiving an amputation – such as metabolic cost of transport, preferred walking speed, and perceived discomfort during walking. However, the effect of these design functions on the targeted outcome measures is highly variable, suggesting that these relationships are not fully understood. Biomechanics simulation and modeling tools are increasingly capable of analyzing the effects of a design on the resulting user gait. In this work, prothesis-aided gait is optimized in simulation to ...


Musculoskeletal Modeling Of The Pelvis And Lumbar Spine During Running, Ruth Higgins, Maryam Moeini, Hunter Bennett, Stacie Ringleb 2021 Old Dominion University

Musculoskeletal Modeling Of The Pelvis And Lumbar Spine During Running, Ruth Higgins, Maryam Moeini, Hunter Bennett, Stacie Ringleb

College of Engineering & Technology (Batten) Posters

Musculoskeletal modeling provides an alternative to in-vivo characteristics that are difficult to directly measure for movements such as running, especially for trunk muscles and joints. The full-body-lumbar-spine (FBLS) model by Raabe and Chaudhari, 2016 is an OpenSim model created for simulations of jogging. The lifting full-body (LFB) model by Beaucage-Gauvreau et al., 2018 is an adaptation of the FBLS created for estimating spinal loads during lifting. PURPOSE: Determine validity of the FBLS and LFB models in simulating pelvis and lumbar spine kinematics during running. METHODS: Inverse Kinematics were executed using experimental data for the FBLS and LFB models. To obtain ...


Automatic Generation And Novel Validation Of Patient-Specific, Anatomically Inclusive Scoliosis Models For Biomechanics-Informed Surgical Planning, Austin Tapp, Michel Audette, James Bennett 2021 Old Dominion University

Automatic Generation And Novel Validation Of Patient-Specific, Anatomically Inclusive Scoliosis Models For Biomechanics-Informed Surgical Planning, Austin Tapp, Michel Audette, James Bennett

College of Engineering & Technology (Batten) Posters

Scoliosis is an abnormal spinal curvature of greater than 10 degrees. Severe scoliotic deformities are addressed with highly invasive procedures: anterior or posterior spinal fusion approaches. This invasiveness is due, in part, to the constraints of current surgical planning, which utilizes computed tomography (CT) scans unable to discern spinal ligaments that are dissected to make the spine sufficiently compliant for correction. If localization of ligaments and soft tissues were achieved pre-operatively, corrective procedures could become safer and more efficient by using finite element (FE) biomechanical simulations to determine decreased incidences of ligament releases. This research aims to achieve ligament localization ...


In Vitro Analyses Of The Contributions Of The Hip Capsule To Joint Biomechanics, Emma Donnelly 2021 The University of Western Ontario

In Vitro Analyses Of The Contributions Of The Hip Capsule To Joint Biomechanics, Emma Donnelly

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Optimal management of the hip capsule during arthroscopic surgery has not been established. The impact of incisions made to the capsule during minimally invasive procedures on joint biomechanics, and whether repair provides any benefit, continue to be debated. The effectiveness of capsular repair to restore native kinematics may be insufficient. Therefore, a better understanding of joint behavior during various capsule conditions is needed. A new robotic system was used to analyze the effect of progressive capsulotomy incision and repairs on the behavior of a normal hip within range of motion (ROM) limits with respect to the intact joint. Complete repairs ...


Pandemic Healthcare: Face Shield Modification, Nathan Giunto, Sefra Manos, Brandon Ross, Catherine Seno, Catherine Howell 2021 The University of Akron

Pandemic Healthcare: Face Shield Modification, Nathan Giunto, Sefra Manos, Brandon Ross, Catherine Seno, Catherine Howell

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Current face shields used in home and institutional healthcare settings create hardships for their wearers, which makes normal work routines more difficult. Recent mandates require healthcare workers to wear both surgical masks as well as plastic face shields when tending to patients. Unfortunately, the majority of face shields have been designed for hospital settings, which does not address the specific requirements for in-home therapist use. Some of the issues include their restrictive size, tendency to fog, susceptibility to glare, and sterilization and re-use issues. Our team proposes to design a face shield for homecare occupational therapists that addresses their unique ...


Feasibility Study To Measure The Impact Of A Specialized Core Exercise On Metabolic Efficiency And Stability During Walking For Above Knee Amputees, Shaye M. Tiell, Sabrina R. Segretario, Serena M. Myers, Emily G. Tully 2021 The University of Akron

Feasibility Study To Measure The Impact Of A Specialized Core Exercise On Metabolic Efficiency And Stability During Walking For Above Knee Amputees, Shaye M. Tiell, Sabrina R. Segretario, Serena M. Myers, Emily G. Tully

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of improving the gait of above-knee (AK) amputees by performing daily core exercises aimed to provide an efficient and stable walking pattern. The goal of the exercise is to strengthen core muscles and form temporary neural connections in the brain aimed at improving metabolic efficiency and stability. We will be implementing the Wright Balance Core 360 Exercise Technique for completion by our subjects. Motion capture technology will be utilized in conjunction with a metabolic oxygen consumption analyzer to collect stability and metabolic efficiency data while amputees walk on a treadmill ...


Development Of Novel Inks And Approaches For Printing Tissues And Organs, Shen Ji 2020 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Development Of Novel Inks And Approaches For Printing Tissues And Organs, Shen Ji

Dissertations

Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field that investigates and develops new methods to repair, regenerate and replace damaged tissues and organs, or to develop biomaterial platforms as in vitro models. Tissue engineering approaches require the fabrication of scaffolds using biomaterials or fabrication of living tissues using cells. As the demands of customized, implantable tissue/organs are increasing and becoming more urgent, conventional scaffold fabrication approaches are difficult to meet the requirements, especially for complex large-scale tissue fabrication. In this regard, three-dimensional (3D) printing attracted more interest over the past decades due to its unrivaled ability to fabricate highly customized tissues ...


The Effects Of Solution Condition On Virus Filtration Performance, Fnu Namila 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Solution Condition On Virus Filtration Performance, Fnu Namila

Theses and Dissertations

Virus filtration is an integral part of the downstream purification of mammalian cell culture-derived biotherapeutics to assure the viral safety of the products. Virus filtration membranes remove viruses based on a size-exclusion mechanism. Commercial parvovirus filers possess unique membrane structure and are designed to remove smaller non-enveloped parvoviruses with size 18-26 nm. However, some filters face issues, such as pre-mature fouling, the decline of filtrate flux, and reduction in virus retention. This doctoral dissertation focused on identifying the factors that influence the filtrate flux and the virus retention capability of commercial virus filters. The effects of solution pH and ionic ...


Ventilation And Recirculation Airway Design For An Autonomous, Climate Controlled, Hydroponic Demonstration Unit, Nicholas Cross 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Ventilation And Recirculation Airway Design For An Autonomous, Climate Controlled, Hydroponic Demonstration Unit, Nicholas Cross

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

For this Honors Thesis project, I designed and fabricated a ventilation and recirculation airway sub-system prototype for a hydroponic demonstration unit to be used as an educational demonstration for prospective students, illustrating the capabilities of biological engineers. This thesis focuses on the design of an autonomous air system that toggles between ventilation and recirculation modes based upon sensor output. In the literature review I discuss how ventilation can be used to achieve a targeted climate, the benefits of hands-on projects for education, and the optimum parameters for growing herbs in a hydroponic system.

In the design and fabrication process, every ...


The Effect Of Joint Alignment After A Wrist Injury On Joint Mechanics And Osteoarthritis Development, Puneet Kaur Ranota 2020 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Joint Alignment After A Wrist Injury On Joint Mechanics And Osteoarthritis Development, Puneet Kaur Ranota

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Wrist injuries are common and can lead to the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. For example, one major complication after a wrist fracture, is when the fractured bone heals in a mal-aligned position, called malunion. It has been assumed that a malunion after wrist fractures alters joint congruency and mechanics leading to the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and poor functional outcomes. It is unclear whether anatomical restoration is a key component for the management of wrist injuries and to limit the progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. However, the mechanistic pathways between joint structure (and mal-alignment) and patient outcomes, such as the development ...


Biomechanical And Biophysical Properties Of Breast Cancer Cells Under Varying Glycemic Regimens, Diganta Dutta, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Jose Ortega-Rodas, Vasundhara Balraj, Indrani Ghosh Dastider, Surabhi Chandra 2020 Old Dominion University

Biomechanical And Biophysical Properties Of Breast Cancer Cells Under Varying Glycemic Regimens, Diganta Dutta, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Jose Ortega-Rodas, Vasundhara Balraj, Indrani Ghosh Dastider, Surabhi Chandra

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Diabetes accelerates cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, particularly for cancers of the pancreas, liver, breast, colon, and skin. While pathways linking the 2 disease conditions have been explored extensively, there is a lack of information on whether there could be cytoarchitectural changes induced by glucose which predispose cancer cells to aggressive phenotypes. It was thus hypothesized that exposure to diabetes/high glucose alters the biomechanical and biophysical properties of cancer cells more than the normal cells, which aids in advancing the cancer. For this study, atomic force microscopy indentation was used through microscale probing of multiple human breast cancer cells ...


Computational Modeling Of The Human Brain For Mtbi Prediction And Diagnosis, Yanir Levy 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Computational Modeling Of The Human Brain For Mtbi Prediction And Diagnosis, Yanir Levy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sports related concussions and mild traumatic brain injuries have seen an increase in frequency over the past decade. The creation of highly biofidelic computational head models is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of these mild brain injuries and preventing them. Hence, the purpose of this research is to combine state-of-the-art computational models, brain imaging modalities and traditional head injury assessment protocols to simulate and predict the brains responses during traumatic head impacts. A novel, atlas-based, parcellated axon fiber embedded head model was developed which allows for in-depth analysis of the brain’s structural connectome tracts for injury diagnosis ...


Do Different Pathologies Affect The Relationship Between The Stiffness Of The Plantar Fascia And The Function Of The Mtp Joint?, Madeline Ryan Pauley 2020 Old Dominion University

Do Different Pathologies Affect The Relationship Between The Stiffness Of The Plantar Fascia And The Function Of The Mtp Joint?, Madeline Ryan Pauley

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Compared to healthy individuals, individuals with plantar fasciitis and diabetes experience material and structural property changes to soft tissues in the feet. The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship between material properties, power absorption, and energy storage characteristics to metatarsal power between healthy, plantar fasciitis symptomatic and asymptomatic, and diabetic participants. Investigating material change differences as well as energy storage and transfer trends in different pathology groups can lead to a better overall understanding of power transfer at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP). Participants were recruited for kinematic gait analysis and lower extremity shear wave elastography analysis and ...


Optimization Of Indentation For The Material Characterization Of Soft Pva-Cryogels, Md. Mansur ul Mulk 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Optimization Of Indentation For The Material Characterization Of Soft Pva-Cryogels, Md. Mansur Ul Mulk

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Over the past few years a variety of clinical procedures aiming at tissue repair and other relevant therapies have been under active investigation [12,32]. Success of procedures aimed at soft tissue repair depend on the combined response of biochemical and biomechanical properties of the organs neighbouring the tissue [53]. Using human or animal cadaveric tissue for this purpose is very challenging due to issues pertaining to biodegradability and infection or biohazard risk factors [135,205].As such, tissue mimicking materials (e.g. Polyvinyl Alcohol Cryo-gel (PVA-C)) have been investigated to satisfy the need for the said clinical applications. Advantages ...


Transport Of Artificial Virus-Like Nanocarriers (Avn) Through Intestinal Monolayer Via Microfold Cells, Tianjian Tong, Yijun Qi, Luke Bussiere, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Cathy L. Miller, Chenxu Yu, Qun Wang 2020 Iowa State University

Transport Of Artificial Virus-Like Nanocarriers (Avn) Through Intestinal Monolayer Via Microfold Cells, Tianjian Tong, Yijun Qi, Luke Bussiere, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Cathy L. Miller, Chenxu Yu, Qun Wang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Compared with subcutaneous or intramuscular routes for vaccination, vaccine delivery via gastrointestinal mucosa has tremendous potential as it is easy to administer and pain free. Robust immune responses can be triggered successfully once vaccine carried antigen reaches the mucosal associated lymphoid sites (e.g., Peyer’s patches). However, the absence of an efficient delivery method has always been an issue for successful oral vaccine development. In our study, inspired by mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) transport into gut mucosal lymphoid tissue via Microfold cells (M cells), artificial virus-like nanocarriers (AVN), consisting of gold nanocages functionalized with the 1 protein from mammalian reovirus ...


A Comprehensive Analysis Of Balance, Symmetry, And Center Of Mass In The Gait Cycle Of Transfemoral Amputees, Kayla T. Etienne 2020 Florida International University

A Comprehensive Analysis Of Balance, Symmetry, And Center Of Mass In The Gait Cycle Of Transfemoral Amputees, Kayla T. Etienne

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this thesis is to create a framework that assists in the transfemoral prosthesis fitting process by calculating balance and symmetry to quantify patient comfort with an understanding of bipedal locomotion and human anatomy. Three different software applications were used to compare (1) the body position during gait cycle, (2) the natural and amputee anatomies, (3) the natural and prosthetic legs, and (4) the equilibrium and torque movements of the hip, knee, and ankle joints. Models were created in Maya for analysis in Solidworks and MEL code evaluation with MatLab. The MatLab code tested combinations of joint degrees ...


Utilizing Neural Networks And Wearables To Quantify Hip Joint Angles And Moments During Walking And Stair Ascent, Megan V. McCabe 2020 Dartmouth College

Utilizing Neural Networks And Wearables To Quantify Hip Joint Angles And Moments During Walking And Stair Ascent, Megan V. Mccabe

ENGS 88 Honors Thesis (AB Students)

Wearable sensors were leveraged to develop two methods for computing hip joint angles and moments during walking and stair ascent that are more portable than the gold standard. The Insole-Standard (I-S) approach replaced force plates with force-measuring insoles and achieved results that match the curvature of results from similar studies. Peaks in I-S kinetic results are high due to error induced by applying the ground reaction force to the talus. The Wearable-ANN (W-A) approach combines wearables with artificial neural networks to compute the same results. Compared against the I-S, the W-A approach performs well (average rRMSE = 18%, R2 0 ...


Design Of Prototype Prosthesis For A Canine With A Right Front Limb Deformity As An Alternate Approach To Stabilize Gait And Withstand Gait Forces, Tayler R. Kastlunger 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Design Of Prototype Prosthesis For A Canine With A Right Front Limb Deformity As An Alternate Approach To Stabilize Gait And Withstand Gait Forces, Tayler R. Kastlunger

Master's Theses

Congenital and developmental limb deformities in canines are rare and can occur as a genetic disorder or be caused by extrinsic factors. Without surgery to correct the deformity, conservative management can be implemented to manage exercise and restrict high-intensity activity of the canine. However, any alteration to the normal gait and locomotive biomechanics of a canine can have significant long-term effects on the musculoskeletal health and quality of life of the canine. To improve quality of life and provide an alternative and more cost-effective approach to surgery, a custom prosthetic was designed and developed for a canine born with a ...


Design Of A 3d Printed Bioreactor For Bone Cancer Research, Brooklyn K. VanDerWolde, Katelyn Hillson 2020 South Dakota State University

Design Of A 3d Printed Bioreactor For Bone Cancer Research, Brooklyn K. Vanderwolde, Katelyn Hillson

The Journal of Undergraduate Research

Bone cancer is an aggressive disease and has peak occurrence during physiological stimulation of growth and aging. Astronauts who undergo long-term space missions also acquire an increased risk of bone tissue degeneration and cancer. Few in-vitro models currently exist capable of reproducing the complex microenvironment of bone tissue to support multicellular activity in a three-dimensional structure. This limits the ability to understand disease progression and develop suitable treatment strategies. Therefore, developing a bone tissue model and an associated bioreactor is critical to understand the risks associated with cancer progression and improve treatment and preventions related to those risks. The goal ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Muscle Force Production Strategies And Anterior Cruciate Ligament Forces (Strain) On Gait Patterns During Running, Amanda Astrologo 2020 University of Connecticut

Evaluating The Effects Of Muscle Force Production Strategies And Anterior Cruciate Ligament Forces (Strain) On Gait Patterns During Running, Amanda Astrologo

Honors Scholar Theses

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are among the most common injuries experienced by athletes in the United States. Even after reconstruction surgery individuals have been known to develop complications much later in life, including long-term or permanent alterations to their gait, which may lead to early-onset knee osteoarthritis. This thesis work sought to define these alterations as they pertain specifically to running. Using results and parameters from previous studies, the goal of this study is to compare muscle force production strategies, as they relate to ACL force and strain, of injured and non-injured individuals. These values, muscle forces and ACL ...


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