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Anaerobic Fermentation Of Hemicellulose Present In Green Liquor And Hot Water Extracts To Carboxylic Acids, Rakhi Reddy Baddam 2010 The University of Maine

Anaerobic Fermentation Of Hemicellulose Present In Green Liquor And Hot Water Extracts To Carboxylic Acids, Rakhi Reddy Baddam

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Wood is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In the paper industry the cellulose fraction is the major resource used in paper production, whereas the hemicellulose and the lignin are usually burned for heat recovery. Recently, wood-derived hemicellulose extracts have received much attention for the production of valuable bioproduct fuels and chemicals. Mixed-culture microbial ecosystems are capable of converting biomass materials, such as wood extracts, into mixtures of carboxylic acids (C1-C7), which can in turn be purified and sold as products, or converted into other organic chemicals through chemical means. The relative concentrations of the acids produced in the fermentations ...


Uncertainty In Indirect Land Use Change Emissions In The Life Cycle Of Biofuels: Implications For Legislation, Adam Liska 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Uncertainty In Indirect Land Use Change Emissions In The Life Cycle Of Biofuels: Implications For Legislation, Adam Liska

Adam Liska Papers

Current EPA life cycle analysis (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from corn-ethanol will be the foundation for regulations for advanced biofuels. It appears regulatory policies that include emissions from indirect land use change (and other indirect emissions) in the biofuel life cycle are moving faster than the underlying science; there is no comparable scientific study that approaches the complexity in methods currently used by the EPA. There is substantial uncertainty in quantifying direct and indirect emissions from fuels, as evidenced by conflicting results from state and federal regulators and from within the scientific community. If indirect emissions from land ...


Isolated Cellulose Synthase Promoter Regions, Chandrashekhar P. Joshi 2010 Michigan Technological University

Isolated Cellulose Synthase Promoter Regions, Chandrashekhar P. Joshi

Michigan Tech Patents

The invention relates to methods of inducing expression of coding sequences including cellulose synthase coding sequences in transgenic plants using promoters of cellulose synthase genes from Populus plant species and transgenic plants produced by the methods.


Controlling Nonviral Gene Delivery Through The Cell-Biomaterial Interface, Beth A. Duensing 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Controlling Nonviral Gene Delivery Through The Cell-Biomaterial Interface, Beth A. Duensing

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Controlling Nonviral Gene Delivery through the Cell-Biomaterial Interface
Beth Ann Duensing, M.S. University of Nebraska, 2010
Adviser: Angela Pannier

Cell-biomaterial interactions and the corresponding cellular behaviors are poorly understood. Therefore, in this study, the ability of biomaterial surface properties to control nonviral gene delivery was investigated through surface chemistry and protein adsorption and subsequently correlated to cellular behaviors controlled by cell-biomaterial interactions. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols on gold were used as model biomaterials to investigate the effect of surface properties on nonviral gene transfer to cells adhered to these surfaces. SAMs presenting terminal CH3, OH, COO-, and ...


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Biofuels: Variability, Uncertainty, And Steps Toward Accurate Regulation, Adam J. Liska, Bruce E. Dale 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln,

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Biofuels: Variability, Uncertainty, And Steps Toward Accurate Regulation, Adam J. Liska, Bruce E. Dale

Adam Liska Papers

a)Variability in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from corn-ethanol:
biorefineries
cropping systems
co-product feeding to livestock


b) EPA regulation of life cycle GHG emissions from biofuels & use of life cycle analysis (LCA):
uncertainties & inaccuracies
indirect effects


c) Building accurate knowledge infrastructure, theory, and research teams for accurate LCA methods for biofuels


Effect Of Magnetron Frequency On Heating Pattern In Domestic Oven, Sohan Birla, Krishnamoorthy Pitchai, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, David D. Jones 2010 University of Nebraska- Lincoln

Effect Of Magnetron Frequency On Heating Pattern In Domestic Oven, Sohan Birla, Krishnamoorthy Pitchai, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, David D. Jones

Conference Presentations and White Papers: Biological Systems Engineering

In this study a computer model was developed to simulate microwave heating of a model food with a range of magnetron frequencies. The range was decided upon performing the frequency spectrum analysis of microwave leakage from the microwave oven. Simulation results showed that the magnetron input as sinusoidal frequency from 2.44 GHz to 2.48 GHz generates different heating profiles. The simulated heating profiles were compared with experimental heating profiles obtained by using an IR camera. None of simulations with individual frequency exactly matches with experimental temperature profile. The closet match between simulated and observed temperature profiles was found ...


Heating Performance Assessment Of Domestic Microwave Ovens, Krishnamoorthy Pitchai, Sohan Birla, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, David D. Jones 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Heating Performance Assessment Of Domestic Microwave Ovens, Krishnamoorthy Pitchai, Sohan Birla, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, David D. Jones

Conference Presentations and White Papers: Biological Systems Engineering

Due to inherent nature of standing wave patterns of microwaves inside a cavity and dielectric properties of different components in a food, microwave heating leaves non-uniform distribution of energy inside the food volumetrically. Achieving heating uniformity plays critical role in improving the safety of microwave heated products. In this paper, we present a method for assessing heating uniformity within domestic microwave ovens. A custom designed container
was used to assess heating uniformity of a range of microwave ovens using IR camera. The study suggested that the best place to place food in a microwave oven is not at center but ...


Reversible Addition - Fragmentation Chain Transfer In Microemulsions: Effect Of Chain Transfer Agent Aqueous Solubility, Jennifer M. O'Donnell, Eric W. Kaler 2010 University of Delaware

Reversible Addition - Fragmentation Chain Transfer In Microemulsions: Effect Of Chain Transfer Agent Aqueous Solubility, Jennifer M. O'Donnell, Eric W. Kaler

Jennifer M. Heinen

Microemulsion polymerizations are attractive for investigating compartmentalization effects in heterogeneous reversible addition - fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerizations because the propagating radicals are segregated into surfactant stabilized polymer particles, which drastically reduces the effects of biradical termination, Also, microemulsion polymerizations do not involve the large monomer droplets that are present in emulsion and miniemulsion polymerizations. RAFT microemulsion polymerizations of butyl aery late with a high water solubility chain transfer agent, methyl-2-(O-ethylxanthyl)propionate (MOEP), and a low water solubility chain transfer agent, methyl-2-(O-dodecylxanthyl)propionate (MODP), were investigated to determine the effect of chain transfer agent compartmentalization on the control of ...


Testing Fuel Efficiency Of Tractors With Both Continuously Variable And Standard Geared Transmissions, Christopher N. Howard 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Testing Fuel Efficiency Of Tractors With Both Continuously Variable And Standard Geared Transmissions, Christopher N. Howard

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

A John Deere 8295R IVT tractor with a continuously variable transmission (CVT) and a John Deere 8295R PowerShift (PST) tractor (Waterloo, Iowa) with a standard geared transmission (GT) were tested for fuel consumption at three different travel speeds with six different load levels applied per speed. The JD 8295R PST tractor was tested both at full throttle (FT) and shifted up two gears and throttled back (SUTB) to achieve the same travel speed as at full throttle conditions. The three speeds tested corresponded to the maximum speeds achieved in 6th, 8th and 10th gear for the JD 8295R PST tractor ...


Molecular Design Of Nanoparticle-Based Delivery Vehicles For Pneumonic Plague, Bret Daniel Ulery 2010 Iowa State University

Molecular Design Of Nanoparticle-Based Delivery Vehicles For Pneumonic Plague, Bret Daniel Ulery

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The work described in this dissertation focuses on the design of polyanhydride nanoparticles that function as both adjuvants and long-term antigen delivery vehicles in order to improve vaccination, specifically for biodefense-related applications. Chapter 1 is an introduction into the threat of bioterrorism, polymer-based controlled delivery systems and challenges associated with vaccine design.

Chapter 2 is a detailed literature review of topics related to the research conducted in this dissertation. Areas covered include basic immunology, vaccine design, degradable polymer-based adjuvant engineering, plague (Yersinia pestis) biology, and vaccines that confer protection against plague.

Chapter 3 overviews the research objectives and the specific ...


Novel, High Throughput Method To Study In Vitro Protein Release From Polymer Nanospheres, L. K. Petersen, C. K. Sackett, Balaji Narasimhan 2010 Iowa State University

Novel, High Throughput Method To Study In Vitro Protein Release From Polymer Nanospheres, L. K. Petersen, C. K. Sackett, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Controlled delivery of therapeutic protein drugs using biodegradable polymer carriers is a desired characteristic that enables effective, application-specific therapy and treatment. Previous studies have focused on protein delivery from polymers using conventional "one-sample-at-a- time" techniques, which are time-consuming and costly. In addition, many therapeutic proteins are in limited supply and are expensive, so it is desirable to reduce sample size for design and development of delivery devices. We have developed a rapid, high throughput technique based on a highly sensitive fluorescence-based assay to detect and quantify protein released from polyanhydrides while utilizing relatively small amounts of protein (∼40 μg). These ...


Metabolic Engineering For Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals: Contributions Of Synthetic Biology, Laura R. Jarboe, Xueli Zhang, Xuan Wang, Jonathan C. Moore, K. T. Shanmugam, Lonnie O. Ingram 2010 Iowa State University

Metabolic Engineering For Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals: Contributions Of Synthetic Biology, Laura R. Jarboe, Xueli Zhang, Xuan Wang, Jonathan C. Moore, K. T. Shanmugam, Lonnie O. Ingram

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemicalbased production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use ...


Development Of A Sorbent For Carbon Dioxide, Dursun Can Ozcan 2010 Iowa State University

Development Of A Sorbent For Carbon Dioxide, Dursun Can Ozcan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The reversible absorption of CO2 by CaO at high temperature is a promising method for capturing and removing CO2 from a hot gas stream. The main challenge facing the use of this method is the deterioration of CO2 absorption capacity when the method is applied over a large number of CO2 absorption/desorption cycles. Although various techniques have been proposed for improving the cyclic stability and performance of calcium based sorbents, a cost effective method is still needed for industrial applications. Therefore, two promising methods for improving the cyclic stability were selected for further investigation. One method is to optimize ...


Tertiary Structure And Characterization Of A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanase From Clostridium Acetobutylicum, Christopher D. Warner, Julie A. Hoy, Taran C. Shilling, Michael J. Linnen, Nathaniel D. Ginder, Clark Ford, Richard B. Honzatko, Peter J. Reilly 2010 Iowa State University

Tertiary Structure And Characterization Of A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanase From Clostridium Acetobutylicum, Christopher D. Warner, Julie A. Hoy, Taran C. Shilling, Michael J. Linnen, Nathaniel D. Ginder, Clark Ford, Richard B. Honzatko, Peter J. Reilly

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 44 (GH44) protein from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli.The previously uncharacterized protein was expressed with a C-terminal His tag and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction to a 2.2-Å resolution revealed a triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel-like structure with additional Greek key and β-sandwich folds, similar to other GH44 crystal structures. The enzyme hydrolyzes cellotetraose and larger cellooligosaccharides, yielding an unbalanced product distribution, including some glucose. It attacks carboxymethylcellulose and xylan at approximately the same rates. Its activity on carboxymethylcellulose is ...


Utilizing Protein-Lean Coproducts From Corn Containing Recombinant Pharmaceutical Proteins For Ethanol Production, Ilankovan Paraman, Lorena Beatriz Moeller, M. Paul Scott, Kan Wang, Charles E. Glatz, Lawrence A. Johnson 2010 Iowa State University

Utilizing Protein-Lean Coproducts From Corn Containing Recombinant Pharmaceutical Proteins For Ethanol Production, Ilankovan Paraman, Lorena Beatriz Moeller, M. Paul Scott, Kan Wang, Charles E. Glatz, Lawrence A. Johnson

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Protein-lean fractions of corn (maize) containing recombinant (r) pharmaceutical proteins were evaluated as a potential feedstock to produce fuel ethanol. The levels of residual r-proteins in the coproduct, distillers dry grains with solubles (DDGS), were determined. Transgenic corn lines containing recombinant green fluorescence protein (r-GFP) and a recombinant subunit vaccine of Escherichia coli enterotoxin (r-LTB), primarily expressed in endosperm, and another two corn lines containing recombinant human collagen (r-CIα1) andr-GFP, primarily expressed in germ, were used as model systems. The kernels were either ground and used for fermentation or dry fractionated to recover germ-rich ...


Kinetic Modeling Of Nanoprecipitation Using Cfd Coupled With A Population Balance, Janine C. Cheng, Rodney O. Fox 2010 Iowa State University

Kinetic Modeling Of Nanoprecipitation Using Cfd Coupled With A Population Balance, Janine C. Cheng, Rodney O. Fox

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A model study has been conducted for Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP)sa novel approach to produce functional nanoparticles. A population balance equation with the FNP kinetics has been integrated into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of a custom-designed microscale multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR) to yield conditions comparable to the real experimental settings. In coping with the complicated aggregation model in the CFD code, a new numerical approach, the conditional quadrature method of moments (CQMOM), has been proposed, which is capable of solving the multivariate system efficiently and accurately. It is shown that the FNP process is highly influenced by mixing ...


An Extended Data Mining Method For Identifying Differentially Expressed Assay-Specific Signatures In Functional Genomic Studies, Derrick K. Rollins Sr., Ai-ling Teh 2010 Iowa State University

An Extended Data Mining Method For Identifying Differentially Expressed Assay-Specific Signatures In Functional Genomic Studies, Derrick K. Rollins Sr., Ai-Ling Teh

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Background: Microarray data sets provide relative expression levels for thousands of genes for a small number, in comparison, of different experimental conditions called assays. Data mining techniques are used to extract specific information of genes as they relate to the assays. The multivariate statistical technique of principal component analysis (PCA) has proven useful in providing effective data mining methods. This article extends the PCA approach of Rollins et al. to the development of ranking genes of microarray data sets that express most differently between two biologically different grouping of assays. This method is evaluated on real and simulated data and ...


Myosin Ii Activity Regulates Vinculin Recruitment To Focal Adhesions Through Fak-Mediated Paxillin Phosphorylation, Ana M. Pasapera, Ian C. Schneider, Erin Rericha, David D. Schlaepfer, Clare M. Waterman 2010 National Institutes of Health

Myosin Ii Activity Regulates Vinculin Recruitment To Focal Adhesions Through Fak-Mediated Paxillin Phosphorylation, Ana M. Pasapera, Ian C. Schneider, Erin Rericha, David D. Schlaepfer, Clare M. Waterman

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Focal adhesions (FAs) are mechanosensitive adhesion and signaling complexes that grow and change composition in response to myosin II-mediated cytoskeletal tension in a process known as FA maturation. To understand tension-mediated FA maturation, we sought to identify proteins that are recruited to FAs in a myosin II-dependent manner and to examine the mechanism for their myosin II-sensitive FA association. We find that FA recruitment of both the cytoskeletal adapter protein vinculin and the tyrosine kinase FA kinase (FAK) are myosin II and extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness dependent. Myosin II activity promotes FAK/Src-mediated phosphorylation of paxillin on tyrosines 31 and ...


Application Of A Combined Catalyst And Sorbent For Steam Reforming Of Methane, Karl O. Albrecht, Justinus A. Satrio, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock 2010 Iowa State University

Application Of A Combined Catalyst And Sorbent For Steam Reforming Of Methane, Karl O. Albrecht, Justinus A. Satrio, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The performance of a combined catalyst and sorbent material designed for reforming hydrocarbons was evaluated by reacting methane with steam at different temperatures and pressures in a reactor packed with the material. The combined material was in the form of small spherical pellets comprised of a sorbent core of lime encased in a porous shell made largely of sintered alumina that supported a nickel catalyst. On the basis of previous research, two shell formulations were included in the study. One shell formulation contained a small quantity of CaO for strengthening of the shells, whereas the other contained a similar quantity ...


Sulfated Zirconia Modified Sba-15 Catalysts For Cellobiose Hydrolysis, Volkan Degirmenci, Deniz Uner, Basak Cinlar, Brent H. Shanks, Aysen Yilmaz, Rutget A. van Santen, Emiel J. M. Hensen 2010 Middle East Technical University

Sulfated Zirconia Modified Sba-15 Catalysts For Cellobiose Hydrolysis, Volkan Degirmenci, Deniz Uner, Basak Cinlar, Brent H. Shanks, Aysen Yilmaz, Rutget A. Van Santen, Emiel J. M. Hensen

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Zirconia modified SBA-15 becomes a very active catalyst for the selective hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose after sulfation. Spectroscopic investigations indicate the presence of Brønsted acid sites with similar properties to those present in conventional sulfated zirconia. Indications are found that the sulfate groups attached to zirconia interact with silanol groups of SBA-15. The catalytic activity in cellobiose hydrolysis correlates well with results for temperature-programmed decomposition of i-propylamine for a range of sulfated ZrO2/SBA-15 catalysts. A glucose yield of 60% during cellobiose hydrolysis at a reaction time of 90 min at 160° C is obtained.


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