Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biological Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,224 Full-Text Articles 2,141 Authors 801,477 Downloads 66 Institutions

All Articles in Biological Engineering

Faceted Search

1,224 full-text articles. Page 34 of 35.

Multiscale Modeling Of Tio2 Nanoparticle Production In Flame Reactors: Effect Of Chemical Mechanism, Maulik Mehta, Yonduck Sung, Venkatramanan Raman, Rodney O. Fox 2010 Iowa State University

Multiscale Modeling Of Tio2 Nanoparticle Production In Flame Reactors: Effect Of Chemical Mechanism, Maulik Mehta, Yonduck Sung, Venkatramanan Raman, Rodney O. Fox

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

For titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles manufactured in flame reactors, the precursor is injected into a pre-existing flame, exposing it to a high-temperature gas phase, leading to nucleation and particle growth. Predictive modeling of this chemical process requires simultaneous development of detailed chemical mechanisms describing gas-phase combustion and particle evolution, as well as advanced computational tools for describing the turbulent flow field and its interactions with the chemical processes. Here, a multiscale computational tool for flame-based TiO2 nanoparticle synthesis is developed and a flamelet model representing detailed chemistry for particle nucleation is proposed. The effect of different chemical mechanisms ...


Combined Electrochemical Surface Plasmon Resonance For Angle Spread Imaging Of Multielement Electrode Arrays, Andrew C. Hillier, Chang Hoon Choi 2010 Iowa State University

Combined Electrochemical Surface Plasmon Resonance For Angle Spread Imaging Of Multielement Electrode Arrays, Andrew C. Hillier, Chang Hoon Choi

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A surface plasmon resonance imaging system combined with a multielement electrode array is described. An optical system with shaping optics is used to direct a wedge of light onto a gold-coated sample. The reflected light is detected in the form of an angle-spread image of the surface, with one direction denoting a variable incident angle and the other showing a span of locations along one lateral direction of the sample surface. At the proper incident angle, the angle-spread image shows the complete surface plasmon resonance curve over a span of locations on the surface. This imaging system is combined with ...


Testing Fuel Efficiency Of A Tractor With A Continuously Variable Transmission, Bart A. Coffman, Michael F. Kocher, Viacheslav I. Adamchuk, Roger M. Hoy, Erin E. Blankenship 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Testing Fuel Efficiency Of A Tractor With A Continuously Variable Transmission, Bart A. Coffman, Michael F. Kocher, Viacheslav I. Adamchuk, Roger M. Hoy, Erin E. Blankenship

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

A John Deere 8530 IVT tractor (Waterloo, Iowa) with a continuously variable transmission (CVT) that could be operated in automatic (CVT) or manual (fixed gear ratio) mode was tested for fuel consumption at a setpoint travel speed of 9 km·h‐1 with 17 different drawbar loads. Linear regression analysis results showed that with the throttle set to maximum in both transmission modes, operating the tractor with the transmission in the automatic mode was more fuel efficient than operating with the transmission in the manual mode when the drawbar power was approximately 78%, or less, of maximum power. When load ...


Ultrasound-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration Of Strawberries: Effect Of Pretreatment Time And Ultrasonic Frequency, Juan Garcia-Noguera, Francisca I. P. Oliveira, Maria Izabel Gallão, Curtis L. Weller, Sueli Rodrigues, Fabiano A. N. Fernandes 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Ultrasound-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration Of Strawberries: Effect Of Pretreatment Time And Ultrasonic Frequency, Juan Garcia-Noguera, Francisca I. P. Oliveira, Maria Izabel Gallão, Curtis L. Weller, Sueli Rodrigues, Fabiano A. N. Fernandes

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Pretreatment of fruits prior to drying has shown success in reducing drying time and costs. In this work, ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration has been implemented as a method to increase water diffusivity and reduce drying time in strawberries. Strawberry halves were immersed in distilled water and in two different concentrations of sucrose solutions while pretreatment time and ultrasonic frequency levels were varied to determine their effect on drying time, water loss, and soluble solids gain. A microscopic analysis was carried out to evaluate the formation of microchannels and other changes to the fruit tissue structure. Greater sucrose concentration used in ultrasound- ...


Robust Dynamic Balance Of Ap-1 Transcription Factors In A Neuronal Gene Regulatory Network., Gregory M Miller, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, James S Schwaber, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli 2010 Thomas Jefferson University

Robust Dynamic Balance Of Ap-1 Transcription Factors In A Neuronal Gene Regulatory Network., Gregory M Miller, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, James S Schwaber, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: The octapeptide Angiotensin II is a key hormone that acts via its receptor AT1R in the brainstem to modulate the blood pressure control circuits and thus plays a central role in the cardiac and respiratory homeostasis. This modulation occurs via activation of a complex network of signaling proteins and transcription factors, leading to changes in levels of key genes and proteins. AT1R initiated activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), which regulates blood pressure, has been the subject of extensive molecular analysis. But the adaptive network interactions in the NTS response to AT1R, plausibly related to the development of ...


Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment And Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Coastal Bermuda Grass, Ziyu Wang, Deepak R. Keshwani, Arthur P. Redding, Jay J. Cheng 2010 North Carolina State University

Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment And Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Coastal Bermuda Grass, Ziyu Wang, Deepak R. Keshwani, Arthur P. Redding, Jay J. Cheng

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Coastal Bermuda grass was pretreated with NaOH at concentrations from 0.5% to 3% (w/v) for a residence time from 15 to 90 min at 121 °C. The pretreatments were evaluated based on total lignin removal and production of total reducing sugars, glucose and xylose from enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass. Up to 86% lignin removal was observed. The optimal NaOH pretreatment conditions at 121 °C for total reducing sugars production as well as glucose and xylose yields are 15 min and 0.75% NaOH. Under these optimal pretreatment conditions, total reducing sugars yield was about 71% of ...


Testing Of Rtk-Level Satellite-Based Tractor Auto-Guidance Using A Visual Sensor System, Dwight Easterly, Viacheslav I. Adamchuk, Roger M. Hoy, Michael F. Kocher 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Testing Of Rtk-Level Satellite-Based Tractor Auto-Guidance Using A Visual Sensor System, Dwight Easterly, Viacheslav I. Adamchuk, Roger M. Hoy, Michael F. Kocher

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

The use of satellite-based positioning has advanced considerably in the world of agriculture, providing a range of technical solutions that include the automated steering of tractors and self-propelled machinery. With the development of auto-guidance systems comes the need to evaluate their performance. Given that current precision and accuracy claims are relatively small in magnitude, it is imperative there be a testing system capable of detecting errors with ten times greater accuracy-- possibly as little as a few millimeters. A visual sensor was adopted to achieve this level of measurement resolution. The sensor was used to determine the cross-track error estimates ...


Using A Vision Sensor System For Performance Testing Of Satellite-Based Tractor Auto-Guidance, Dwight Easterly, Viacheslav I. Adamchuk, Michael F. Kocher, Roger M. Hoy 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Using A Vision Sensor System For Performance Testing Of Satellite-Based Tractor Auto-Guidance, Dwight Easterly, Viacheslav I. Adamchuk, Michael F. Kocher, Roger M. Hoy

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

A vision sensing system for the measurement of auto-guidance pass-to-pass and long-term errors was implemented to test the steering performance of tractors equipped with auto-guidance systems. The developed test system consisted of an optical machine vision sensor rigidly mounted on the rear of the tested tractor. The center of the drawbar hitch pin point was used as the reference from which to measure the deviation of the tractor’s actual travel path from its desired path. The system was built and calibrated to a measurement accuracy of better than 2 mm. To evaluate the sensor, two auto-guidance systems equipped with ...


Modeling Changes In Biomass Composition During Microwave-Based Alkali Pretreatment Of Switchgrass, Deepak R. Keshwani, Jay J. Cheng 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Modeling Changes In Biomass Composition During Microwave-Based Alkali Pretreatment Of Switchgrass, Deepak R. Keshwani, Jay J. Cheng

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

This study used two different approaches to model changes in biomass composition during microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass: kinetic modeling using a time-dependent rate coefficient, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system. In both modeling approaches, the dielectric loss tangent of the alkali reagent and pretreatment time were used as predictors for changes in amounts of lignin, cellulose, and xylan during the pretreatment. Training and testing data sets for development and validation of the models were obtained from pretreatment experiments conducted using 1–3% w/v NaOH (sodium hydroxide) and pretreatment times ranging from 5 to 20 min. The kinetic modeling approach ...


Dual-Stage Sugar Substitution In Strawberries With A Stevia-Based Sweetener, Juan Garcia-Noguera, Curtis L. Weller, Francisca I. P. Oliveira, Sueli Rodrigues, Fabiano A. N. Fernandes 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dual-Stage Sugar Substitution In Strawberries With A Stevia-Based Sweetener, Juan Garcia-Noguera, Curtis L. Weller, Francisca I. P. Oliveira, Sueli Rodrigues, Fabiano A. N. Fernandes

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

The present study introduces and analyzes a new process denominated dual-stage sugar substitution (D3S). This process aims to induce sugar substitution in strawberries. In a first stage, high-calorie sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose) are partially removed from the fruit samples and in a second stage, low-calorie sugar (stevioside and rebaudioside) is incorporated to the fruit to maintain its sweetness. The process was evaluated by studying the use of ultrasound application in one or both stages of the D3S process. Best performance of the process was obtained by subjecting the fruit samples to ultrasound in the sugar removal stage followed by ...


Cytocompatible Cross-Linking Of Electrospun Zein Fibers For The Development Of Water-Stable Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Quiran Jiang, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang 2010 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Cytocompatible Cross-Linking Of Electrospun Zein Fibers For The Development Of Water-Stable Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Quiran Jiang, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

This paper reports a new method of cross-linking electrospun zein fibers using citric acid as a non-toxic cross-linker to enhance the water stability and cytocompatibility of zein fibers for tissue engineering and other medical applications. The electrospun structure has many advantages over other types of structures and protein-based biomaterials possess unique properties preferred for tissue engineering and other medical applications. However, ultrafine fiber matrices developed from proteins have poor mechanical properties and morphological stability in the aqueous environments required for medical applications. Efforts have been made to improve the water stability of electrospun protein scaffolds using cross-linking and other approaches ...


Microwave-Based Alkali Pretreatment Of Switchgrass And Coastal Bermudagrass For Bioethanol Production, Deepak R. Keshwani, Jay J. Cheng 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Microwave-Based Alkali Pretreatment Of Switchgrass And Coastal Bermudagrass For Bioethanol Production, Deepak R. Keshwani, Jay J. Cheng

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass are promising lignocellulosic feedstocks for bioethanol production. However, pretreatment of lignocelluloses is required to improve production of fermentable sugars from enzymatic hydrolysis. Microwave- based alkali pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass was investigated in this study. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute alkali reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 W for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 min. Simons’ stain method was used to quantify changes in biomass porosity as a result of the pretreatment. Pretreatments were evaluated based on yields of total reducing sugars, glucose, and ...


Preferential Flow Effects On Subsurface Contaminant Transport In Alluvial Floodplains, Derek M. Heeren, Ron B. Miller, Garey A. Fox, Daniel E. Storm, Todd Halihan, Chad J. Penn 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Preferential Flow Effects On Subsurface Contaminant Transport In Alluvial Floodplains, Derek M. Heeren, Ron B. Miller, Garey A. Fox, Daniel E. Storm, Todd Halihan, Chad J. Penn

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

For sorbing contaminants, transport from upland areas to surface water systems is typically considered to be due to surface runoff, with negligible input from subsurface transport assumed. However, certain conditions can lead to an environment where subsurface transport to streams may be significant. The Ozark region, including parts of Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Missouri, is one such environment, characterized by cherty, gravelly soils and gravel bed streams. Previous research identified a preferential flow path (PFP) at an Ozark floodplain along the Barren Fork Creek in northeastern Oklahoma and demonstrated that even a sorbing contaminant, i.e., phosphorus, can be transported in ...


Net Radiation Dynamics: Performance Of 20 Daily Net Radiation Models As Related To Model Structure And Intricacy In Two Climates, Suat Irmak, Denis Mutiibwa, José O. Payero 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Net Radiation Dynamics: Performance Of 20 Daily Net Radiation Models As Related To Model Structure And Intricacy In Two Climates, Suat Irmak, Denis Mutiibwa, José O. Payero

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

We compared daily net radiation (Rn) estimates from 19 methods with the ASCE‐EWRI Rn estimates in two climates: Clay Center, Nebraska (sub‐humid) and Davis, California (semi‐arid) for the calendar year. The performances of all 20 methods, including the ASCE‐EWRI Rn method, were then evaluated against Rn data measured over a non‐stressed maize canopy during two growing seasons in 2005 and 2006 at Clay Center. Methods differ in terms of inputs, structure, and equation intricacy. Most methods differ in estimating the cloudiness factor, emissivity (α), and calculating net longwave radiation (Rnl ...


Development Of A Sorbent For Carbon Dioxide, Dursun Can Ozcan 2010 Iowa State University

Development Of A Sorbent For Carbon Dioxide, Dursun Can Ozcan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The reversible absorption of CO2 by CaO at high temperature is a promising method for capturing and removing CO2 from a hot gas stream. The main challenge facing the use of this method is the deterioration of CO2 absorption capacity when the method is applied over a large number of CO2 absorption/desorption cycles. Although various techniques have been proposed for improving the cyclic stability and performance of calcium based sorbents, a cost effective method is still needed for industrial applications. Therefore, two promising methods for improving the cyclic stability were selected for further investigation. One method is to optimize ...


Membrane-Based Separations For Solid/Liquid Clarification And Protein Purification, Matthew Thomas Aspelund 2010 Iowa State University

Membrane-Based Separations For Solid/Liquid Clarification And Protein Purification, Matthew Thomas Aspelund

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Recombinant protein technology has become increasingly important in recent years. Recombinant proteins can be found in everything from pharmaceuticals to detergents. The increasing demand and the high cost associated with the production and purification of recombinant proteins highlights the need to develop efficient and inexpensive methods for the solid/liquid clarification and purification of these proteins. Membrane technologies, which offer the advantage of high throughput and ever-improving selectivity, have the potential to meet the increased demands placed on the downstream processing of recombinant proteins. The overall objective of this work was to develop methods for the solid/liquid clarification and ...


Catalytic Strategies Of Glycoside Hydrolases, Luis Petersen 2010 Iowa State University

Catalytic Strategies Of Glycoside Hydrolases, Luis Petersen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond between two carbohydrate residues or a carbohydrate unit linked to a non-carbohydrate aglycon unit. Despite years of research dedicated to GHs, there are still several mechanistic details, relevant for individual GH enzymes, that remain to be investigated. In this work, a computational analysis of the detailed mechanism of several GHs is presented. QM/MM metadynamics simulations of two glycoside hydrolases, GH8 endoglucanase and GH43 β-xylosidase, give insight into the enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell wall, and the detailed reaction mechanism of both enzymes. In addition, an ...


Acid Catalyzed Carbohydrate Degradation And Dehydration, Basak Cinlar 2010 Iowa State University

Acid Catalyzed Carbohydrate Degradation And Dehydration, Basak Cinlar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Facile commercial production of versatile polyfunctional compounds from biomass constitutes a great challenge for establishing a sustainable chemical industry. One such example is the production of furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural via dehydration of pentoses and hexoses. Identified as primary building blocks in polymer industry, their massive production is highly desired, yet suffers from several problems, such as feedstock availability, low product yields due to excessive side reactions and lack of an industrially feasible heterogeneous catalyst.

Organic acid functional groups incorporated onto mesoporous silica offer well defined catalytic sites beside their unique textural properties and therefore could be considered as promising ...


Protein And Oil Recoveries From Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Soybeans And Sunflower Seed, Kerry Alan Campbell 2010 Iowa State University

Protein And Oil Recoveries From Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Soybeans And Sunflower Seed, Kerry Alan Campbell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Aqueous extraction processing (AEP) of soybeans has the potential to achieve oil extraction yields comparable to hexane extraction without the environmental or safety concerns associated with hexane. The economic viability of this novel process depends upon maximizing the yield of free oil as well the development of a cost effective, high yielding method of recovering protein values in the aqueous by-product.

In order to direct strategies for yield improvement, mechanisms of AEP were studied by microscopic observation of extracted residual solids coupled with yield measurements and mathematical modeling. The nature of the oil-confining matrix varied depending on physical treatment of ...


Alternative Routes For Purification Of Collagen Type I Α1 From A Whole Corn Extract, Christopher Michael Setina 2010 Iowa State University

Alternative Routes For Purification Of Collagen Type I Α1 From A Whole Corn Extract, Christopher Michael Setina

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Transgenic corn is capable of producing and storing Type I α1 human collagen (r-CIα1) containing a sequence that assists assembly (foldon) and the mature cleaved form (without foldon). Extracts of ground corn grain spiked with Pichia-sourced collagen (rP-CIα1), with and without foldon, were precipitated with NaCl to purify collagen from host cell proteins. The low acid solubility of host cell proteins (HCP's) along with the acid stability of collagen favored extraction at pH 2. NaCl concentrations >0.75 M provided complete precipitation of rP-CIα1 without foldon and >70% purity. A fractional cut to remove HCP's with 0 ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress