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An Algorithm For Optimally Fitting A Wiener Model, Lucas P. Beverlin, Derrick K. Rollins Sr., Nisarg Vyas, David Andre 2011 Intel Corporation

An Algorithm For Optimally Fitting A Wiener Model, Lucas P. Beverlin, Derrick K. Rollins Sr., Nisarg Vyas, David Andre

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The purpose of this work is to present a new methodology for fitting Wiener networks to datasets with a large number of variables. Wiener networks have the ability to model a wide range of data types, and their structures can yield parameters with phenomenological meaning. There are several challenges to fitting such a model: model stiffness, the nonlinear nature of a Wiener network, possible overfitting, and the large number of parameters inherent with large input sets. This work describes a methodology to overcome these challenges by using several iterative algorithms under supervised learning and fitting subsets of the parameters at ...


Improving The Stability Of A Cao-Based Sorbent For Co 2 By Thermal Pretreatment, Dursun Can Ozcan, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock 2011 Iowa State University

Improving The Stability Of A Cao-Based Sorbent For Co 2 By Thermal Pretreatment, Dursun Can Ozcan, Brent H. Shanks, Thomas D. Wheelock

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Although the reversible absorption of CO 2 by CaO at high temperature has been proposed as a promising method for capturing and removing CO 2 from hot gas streams produced by the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes, the activity of the sorbent has invariably declined when applied over many cycles of CO 2 absorption and desorption. The objective of the present investigation was to extend the life cycle performance of the absorbent through improved thermal pretreatment as the absorbent was prepared from limestone, dolomite, calcium acetate, or plaster of Paris. The first three materials were converted to ...


Design Of A Protective Single-Dose Intranasal Nanoparticle-Based Vaccine Platform For Respiratory Infectious Diseases, Bret Daniel Ulery, Devender Kumar, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Dennis W. Metzger, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Balaji Narasimhan 2011 Iowa State University

Design Of A Protective Single-Dose Intranasal Nanoparticle-Based Vaccine Platform For Respiratory Infectious Diseases, Bret Daniel Ulery, Devender Kumar, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Dennis W. Metzger, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Despite the successes provided by vaccination, many challenges still exist with respect to controlling new and re-emerging infectious diseases. Innovative vaccine platforms composed of adaptable adjuvants able to appropriately modulate immune responses, induce long-lived immunity in a single dose, and deliver immunogens in a safe and stable manner via multiple routes of administration are needed. This work describes the development of a novel biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccine platform administered as a single intranasal dose that induced long-lived protective immunity against respiratory disease caused by Yesinia pestis, the causative agent of pneumonic plague. Relative to the responses induced by the recombinant ...


Mannose-Functionalized "Pathogen-Like" Polyanhydride Nanoparticles Target C-Type Lectin Receptors On Dendritic Cells, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde, Eun-ho Song, Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy, Yashdeep Phanse, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Nicola L.B. Pohl, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Bryan H. Bellaire, Balaji Narasimhan 2011 Iowa State University

Mannose-Functionalized "Pathogen-Like" Polyanhydride Nanoparticles Target C-Type Lectin Receptors On Dendritic Cells, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde, Eun-Ho Song, Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy, Yashdeep Phanse, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Nicola L.B. Pohl, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Bryan H. Bellaire, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Targeting pathogen recognition receptors on dendritic cells (DCs) offers the advantage of triggering specific signaling pathways to induce a tailored and robust immune response. In this work, we describe a novel approach to targeted antigen delivery by decorating the surface of polyanhydride nanoparticles with specific carbohydrates to provide "pathogen-like" properties that ensure nanoparticles engage C-type lectin receptors on DCs. The surface of polyanhydride nanoparticles was functionalized by covalent linkage of dimannose and lactose residues using an amine-carboxylic acid coupling reaction. Coculture of functionalized nanoparticles with bone marrow-derived DCs significantly increased cell surface expression of MHC II, the T cell costimulatory ...


Metabolic Flux Analysis Of Escherichia Coli Mg1655 Under Octanoic Acid (C8) Stress, Yanfen Fu 2011 Iowa State University

Metabolic Flux Analysis Of Escherichia Coli Mg1655 Under Octanoic Acid (C8) Stress, Yanfen Fu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Metabolic engineering has evolved to the point of fulfilling the dream of having industrial chemicals produced renewably. Carboxylic acids [e.g., short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as octanoic acid (C8)] are such chemical intermediates that can be produced by Escherichia coli engineered with thioesterases specific for short chain fatty acids. However, C8 is toxic to E. coli at concentration greater than 10 mM. To design a better host strain for the production of large amount of SCFAs, 13C metabolic flux analysis of E. coli was performed for both C8 stress and control condition (without C8). To investigate central carbon ...


Diffraction-Based Tracking Of Surface Plasmon Resonance Enhanced Transmission Through A Gold-Coated Grating, Wei-Hsun Yeh, Joseph W. Petefish, Andrew C. Hillier 2011 Iowa State University

Diffraction-Based Tracking Of Surface Plasmon Resonance Enhanced Transmission Through A Gold-Coated Grating, Wei-Hsun Yeh, Joseph W. Petefish, Andrew C. Hillier

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Surface plasmon resonance enhanced transmission through metal-coated nanostructures represents a highly sensitive yet simple method for quantitative measurement of surface processes and is particularly useful in the development of thin film and adsorption sensors. Diffraction-induced surface plasmon excitation can produce enhanced transmission at select regions of the visible spectrum, and wavelength shifts associated with these transmission peaks can be used to track adsorption processes and film formation. In this report, we describe a simple optical microscope-based method for monitoring the first-order diffracted peaks associated with enhanced transmission through a gold-coated diffraction grating. A Bertrand lens is used to focus the ...


Steam Reforming Of Bio-Oil Fractions: Effect Of Composition And Stability, Pedro J, Ortiz-toral, Justinus A. Satrio, Robert C. Brown, Brent H. Shanks 2011 Iowa State University

Steam Reforming Of Bio-Oil Fractions: Effect Of Composition And Stability, Pedro J, Ortiz-Toral, Justinus A. Satrio, Robert C. Brown, Brent H. Shanks

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The efficacy of steam reforming of the aqueous species in bio-oils produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass is examined. A fractionating condenser system was used to collect a set of fractions of fast pyrolysis liquids with different chemical characteristics. The water-soluble components from the different fractions were steam-reformed using a nickel-based commercial catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor system. When reforming at 500 °C, an overall positive effect in hydrogen yields was observed for the fractions with higher concentrations of lower molecular-weight oxygenates, such as acetic acid and acetol, while the heavier compounds, such as the carbohydrates, showed an ...


Modeling Of Complex Surface Interactions In Low And High Pressure Plasmas, Mingmei Wang 2011 Iowa State University

Modeling Of Complex Surface Interactions In Low And High Pressure Plasmas, Mingmei Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plasma etching (or dry etching) is widely used in the fabrication of integrated cir-cuits (IC). Anisotropic features are easily obtained by controlling reactive ion trajectories in plasma. Twisting and bowing are two main issues during high aspect ratio (HAR) fea-ture etching. Twisting is, instead of a feature etching vertically, the feature twists or turns to the side. Mixing damage by ion bombardment of underlying materials is also a critical problem in post-etch processing. One of the explanations for twisting is charge accumu-lation on feature surfaces during ion bombardment. An asymmetric local electric field (E-field) changes ion trajectories incident into the ...


Functional Materials From Hierarchically Ordered Polymer Nanocomposites, Brandon Josef Franck 2011 Iowa State University

Functional Materials From Hierarchically Ordered Polymer Nanocomposites, Brandon Josef Franck

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We report work done studying the segregation of polymer coated gold nanoparticles within block copolymer (BCP) composites. Poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (PI-b-PS) of Mn 172 kDa was loaded with various particle fractions of gold nanoparticle with various surface chemistries. Segregation of the particles within the BCP composite was examined via electron microscopy. "Single component" nanocomposites with BCP ligands of PI-b-PS and poly(isoprene-b-dimethylsiloxane) "grafted to" gold nanoparticles were introduced and a study of ordering was done via electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering.


Surface Functionalization Of Quantum Dots For Biotechnological Applications, Yanjie Zhang 2011 Iowa State University

Surface Functionalization Of Quantum Dots For Biotechnological Applications, Yanjie Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Quantum dots (QDs) are considered as fantastic substitutes for organic dyes or genetically coded proteins because of their outstanding optical properties including broad absorption spectra, size tunable emission spectra, large extinction coefficient and superior resistance to chemical and physical degradation. They are now widely used in many biological applications. However, QDs are generally synthesized using organometallic approach and only soluble in organic solvents. To transfer QDs into aqueous solution, we replaced their native ligands with a new group of water-soluble molecules based on simple yet flexible dithiocarbamate chemistry. This cap exchange method offers QDs not only solubility but also stability ...


Multiple Disturbance Modeling And Prediction Of Blood Glucose In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Kaylee Renee Kotz 2011 Iowa State University

Multiple Disturbance Modeling And Prediction Of Blood Glucose In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Kaylee Renee Kotz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Type 1 diabetics often experience extreme variations in glucose concentrations which can have adverse long– and short–term effects such as severe hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and organ degeneration. Studies have established that there is a need to maintain the glucose levels within a normal range (e.g. 80—150 mg/dL) to avoid complications caused by diabetes. However, initial attempts to regulate blood glucose levels using insulin infusion pumps, multiple injections or a combination of the two have had limited success as they lack the ability to decide the appropriate rate and/or dose of insulin based on the current metabolic ...


Combinatorial Design And Development Of Biomaterials For Use As Drug Delivery Devices And Immune Adjuvants, Latrisha Kay Petersen 2011 Iowa State University

Combinatorial Design And Development Of Biomaterials For Use As Drug Delivery Devices And Immune Adjuvants, Latrisha Kay Petersen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There are several challenges associated with current strategies for drug and vaccine delivery. These include the need for multiple-dose administrations, which can hinder patience compliance, the requirements for specific storage conditions due to the fragile structure of protein-based molecules, and the need for additional excipients to enhance protein stability or adjuvant the immune response. This work has focused on the development of a high throughput, combinatorial approach to optimize degradable polymeric biomaterials, specifically polyanhydrides, to overcome these challenges associated with drug and vaccine delivery. We have developed high throughput techniques to rapidly fabricate polymer film and nanoparticle libraries to carry ...


Multiscale Modeling For Complex Macromolecular Systems: Methodologies And Applications, Seung Ha Kim 2011 Iowa State University

Multiscale Modeling For Complex Macromolecular Systems: Methodologies And Applications, Seung Ha Kim

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this dissertation is to understand the binding mechanism between flexible macromolecules and guest species in solution using multiscale molecular modeling strategies, including: ab initio electronic structure theory, all-atom classical molecular dynamics simulations, coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, and statistical eld theory. A brief summary of the subsequent chapters in this thesis is provided. Chapters 2 - 7 and Appendix A are self-contained units complete with literature review and bibliography.


High Throughput Design Of Functionalized Nanoparticles For Targeted Vaccine Delivery, Ana Vianey Chavez-santoscoy 2011 Iowa State University

High Throughput Design Of Functionalized Nanoparticles For Targeted Vaccine Delivery, Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the design of functionalized nanoparticles, a novel approach to targeted antigen delivery by decorating the surface of polyanhydride nanoparticles with specific carbohydrates to provide "pathogen-like" properties.

Polyanhydride nanoparticles are promising vaccine platforms that have the potential to be used as controlled drug delivery devices as well as potent and effective immune adjuvants for the design of single dose vaccines. CLRs offer unique advantages for tailoring immune responses. Engagement of CLRs regulates antigen presenting cell activation and promotes delivery of antigens to specific intracellular compartments inside antigen presenting cells for efficient processing and presentation.

CLRs recognize conserved ...


Engineering Amphiphillic Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Targeted Drug And Vaccine Delivery, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-conde 2011 Iowa State University

Engineering Amphiphillic Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Targeted Drug And Vaccine Delivery, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this work, a transdisciplinary approach that combines concepts from biomaterials, nanotechnology, carbohydrate and protein chemistry, molecular biology, immunology and computational analysis has been applied to rationally design and engineer novel vaccine platforms that encompass passive and active targeting strategies.

First, the intrinsic properties of the polyanhydride systems utilized in these studies were tailored to achieve the stability of proteins with the potential to be used as antigens and/or therapeutic agents. Amphiphillic polyanhydride chemistries showed the most optimal properties to preserve structural integrity and functionality of different proteins. The surface chemistry of polyanhydride particles was also identified as an ...


Purification Of Flavan-3-Ol Biosynthesis For Co-Localization Onto Nanocarriers And A Multi-Enzyme Assay, Emily Kaitlin Davenport 2011 Iowa State University

Purification Of Flavan-3-Ol Biosynthesis For Co-Localization Onto Nanocarriers And A Multi-Enzyme Assay, Emily Kaitlin Davenport

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites that serve a variety of purposes, from assisting pollination in plants to providing anti-cancerous activity in humans. It is the wide range of functions that give these molecules the highly revered status they have today. Range in function can be linked with the range in structure, and with over 10,000 different flavonoids known, they make up one of the largest groups of natural products. One common sub-class of flavonoids is the flavan-3-ols, which are known for their health benefits and tendency to condense to form proanthocyanidins, or condensed tannins. Both of these classes of ...


Biocomposites Developed Using Water-Plasticized Wheat Gluten As Matrix And Jute Fibers As Reinforcement, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Biocomposites Developed Using Water-Plasticized Wheat Gluten As Matrix And Jute Fibers As Reinforcement, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Biocomposites developed from wheat gluten using water without any chemicals as plasticizer and jute fibers as reinforcement have much better flexural and tensile properties than similar polypropylene composites reinforced with jute fibers. Wheat gluten is an inexpensive and abundant co-product derived from renewable resources and is biodegradable but non-thermoplastic. Previous attempts at developing biocomposites from wheat gluten have used plasticizers such as glycerol or chemical modifications to make gluten thermoplastic. However, plasticizers have a considerably negative effect on the mechanical properties of the composites and chemical modifications make wheat gluten less biodegradable, expensive and/or environmentally unfriendly. In the research ...


Corn Seed Spacing Uniformity As Affected By Seed Tube Condition, Michael F. Kocher, John M. Coleman, John A. Smith, Stephen D. Kachman 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Corn Seed Spacing Uniformity As Affected By Seed Tube Condition, Michael F. Kocher, John M. Coleman, John A. Smith, Stephen D. Kachman

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Variation in corn seed spacing from a John Deere MaxEmergeTM Plus Vacumeter planter was evaluated on the University of Nebraska Planter Test Stand in a laboratory setting for two seed tube conditions (new or worn) with two examples of corn seed shape (round or flat). Seed spacing uniformity was measured using three seed spacing uniformity parameters: Coefficient of Precision (CP3), ISO Multiples index, and ISO Miss index.

Differences were detected in all three seed spacing uniformity parameters due to the seed tube condition. The new seed tubes had better seed spacing uniformity than the worn seed tubes, within each ...


Spatial Variability Of Field Machinery Use And Efficiency, Viacheslav I. Adamchuk, Robert Grisso, Michael F. Kocher 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Spatial Variability Of Field Machinery Use And Efficiency, Viacheslav I. Adamchuk, Robert Grisso, Michael F. Kocher

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

In site-specific crop management, It is a common practice to log the geographic coordinates of agricultural machinery measured using a global satellite navigation system (GNSS) such as the global positioning system (GPS). Yield, fertilizer application, and seed placement maps provide useful data for making agronomic decisions. However, the travel path itself reveals valuable information about machinery performance. Often, during field operations, odd field shapes, obstacles, or contour farming will require operators to increase the complexity of the machinery maneuvering. This usually reduces field efficiency. This chapter presents a methodology to parameterize the spatially variable characteristics of traffic patterns, and to ...


High Temperature Dilute Acid Pretreatment Of Coastal Bermuda Grass For Enzymatic Hydrolysis, Arthur P. Redding, Ziyu Wang, Deepak R. Keshwani, Jay J. Cheng 2011 North Carolina State University

High Temperature Dilute Acid Pretreatment Of Coastal Bermuda Grass For Enzymatic Hydrolysis, Arthur P. Redding, Ziyu Wang, Deepak R. Keshwani, Jay J. Cheng

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Dilute sulfuric acid was used to pretreat coastal Bermuda grass at high temperature prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. After both pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis processes, the highest yield of total sugars (combined xylose and glucose) was 97% of the theoretical value. The prehydrolyzate liquor was analyzed for inhibitory compounds (furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) in order to assess potential risk for inhibition during the following fermentation. Accounting for the formation of the inhibitory compounds, a pretreatment with 1.2% acid at 140 °C for 30 min with a total sugar yield of 94% of the theoretical value may be more favorable for fermentation ...


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