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Modeling Lung Tissue Motions And Deformations: Applications In Tumor Ablative Procedures, Ali Sadeghi Naini 2011 The University of Western Ontario

Modeling Lung Tissue Motions And Deformations: Applications In Tumor Ablative Procedures, Ali Sadeghi Naini

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Various types of motion and deformation that the lung undergoes during minimally invasive tumor ablative procedures have been investigated and modeled in this dissertation. The lung frequently undergoes continuous large respiratory deformation, which can greatly affect the pre-planned outcome of the operation, hence deformation compensation becomes necessary. The first type of major deformation involved in a target lung throughout a tumor ablative procedure is the one encountered in procedures where the lung is totally deflated before starting the operation. A consequence of this deflation is that pre-operative images (acquired while the lung was partially inflated) become inaccurate for targeting the ...


Nutrient Runoff Following Manure Application, Chance Thayer 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Nutrient Runoff Following Manure Application, Chance Thayer

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

A field study was completed to measure the effects of varying flow rate on nutrient transport following the application of varying amounts of beef cattle manure to plots containing either no-residue or a wheat residue cover. Beef cattle manure was applied and incorporated into the soil in May 2010 to meet zero, one, two, four or eight year corn phosphorus requirements. Simulated rainfall events were applied in June and July 2010. The presence of a crop residue cover significantly increased the transport of dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, NO3-N, NH4-N, and total nitrogen in runoff but decreased ...


Analysis Of Site-Specific Adjustment Applied To On-The-Go Soil Sensing Data For Agronomic Use, Allison K. Jonjak 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Analysis Of Site-Specific Adjustment Applied To On-The-Go Soil Sensing Data For Agronomic Use, Allison K. Jonjak

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Successful variable-rate applications of agricultural inputs such as lime rely on the quality of input data. Systematic grid soil sampling is the most common method used for creating variable rate prescription maps. The insufficient number of point measurements usually obtained using this method has been primarily responsible for the typical inaccuracies seen in lime prescription maps. To increase sampling density, on-the-go sensing technology was developed for the mapping of soil pH and other relevant attributes. In this study, five fields in eastern Nebraska were mapped using both on-thego sensing technology and systematic grid sampling. Ten calibration points per field were ...


Combating Antibiotic Resistance Through Development Of A Novel Antimicrobial Delivery Vehicle, Alex Hatch 2011 Utah State University

Combating Antibiotic Resistance Through Development Of A Novel Antimicrobial Delivery Vehicle, Alex Hatch

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

A thermoreversible gel for antimicrobial agent delivery would provide a novel platform suitable for medical applications from persistent infections arising from localized biofilms. Thermoreversible gels could be used to coat medical implants, to inject for subdermal treatments, or to implement in topical applications. FDA approved Pluronics® form thermoreversible gels and certain Pluronics® display inherent varying degrees of antimicrobial activity. Pluronics® have been shown to affect efflux pumps, and reduce ATP levels within the bacterial cell. In combination with antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals, Pluronics® have been used to sequester drugs and act as a delivery vehicle. With advances in nanomedicine, nanoparticles ...


Characterization Of Potential Health Promoting Lipids In The Co-Products Of De-Flossed Milkweed, Vicki Schlegel, Richard Zbasnik, Tammy Gries, Bo Hyun Lee, Timothy Carr, Ji-Young Lee, Curtis Weller, Susan Cuppett 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of Potential Health Promoting Lipids In The Co-Products Of De-Flossed Milkweed, Vicki Schlegel, Richard Zbasnik, Tammy Gries, Bo Hyun Lee, Timothy Carr, Ji-Young Lee, Curtis Weller, Susan Cuppett

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

The floss and oil of the common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) seeds are currently used to produce comforters/pillows and skin care products, respectively. As an outcome of these products, copious quantities co-products (pressed seed meal and pod biomass) are disposed of each year despite the presence of potential health benefiting lipids. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of developing the lipid fraction from of these co-products for the fast growing dietary human health market. Although certain types of lipids were affected by the extraction solvent used (hexane and diethyl ether) as were overall amounts, analysis ...


The Effect Of Maternal Diet On Fetal Development, Catherine Wilcox 2011 Syracuse University

The Effect Of Maternal Diet On Fetal Development, Catherine Wilcox

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Using mice as a model system, this study aimed to compare the effect of a high fat diet (HFD), high sugar diet (HSD) and a control diet (CD) on fetal growth and development at the time of birth (post-natal day 0 or PND 0), post-natal day 7 (PND 7) and post-natal day 14 (PND 14). Published literature has documented the effects of a negative in-utero environment on fetal development, but currently there is limited research regarding the continued effects on development after birth. Mouse pups were harvested and then imaged in 3-D using a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system. Total ...


Life Cycle Assessment Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Ethanol And Biopolymers, Adam J. Liska, Xiao Xue Fang 2011 University of Nebraska‐Lincoln

Life Cycle Assessment Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Ethanol And Biopolymers, Adam J. Liska, Xiao Xue Fang

Adam Liska Papers

Conclusions

• Regulatory LCA is not likely to be used for non‐fuel chemicals alone in the near future

• Significant GHG emission credits for corn‐ethanol can be obtained by using only roughly 6‐9% of initial starch for production of biopolymers based on previous LCA theory

• Pay close attention to values in calculating credits per kg—these have to stand up in litigation to ensure the credit

• Credits are proportional to the mass of polymer produced

• Many theoretical issues are uncertain and credits will only be determined in conjunction with EPA

• Indirect emissions are uncertain and are a dominant factor ...


Kinetic Characterization Of A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Xyloglucanase/Endoglucanase From Ruminococcus Flavefaciens Fd-1, Christopher D. Warner, Rica M. Go, Carolina García-Salinas, Clark Ford, Peter J. Reilly 2011 Iowa State University

Kinetic Characterization Of A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Xyloglucanase/Endoglucanase From Ruminococcus Flavefaciens Fd-1, Christopher D. Warner, Rica M. Go, Carolina García-Salinas, Clark Ford, Peter J. Reilly

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Two forms of Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 endoglucanase B, a member of glycoside hydrolase family 44, one with only a catalytic domain and the other with a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate binding domain (CBM), were produced. Both forms hydrolyzed cellotetraose, cellopentaose, cellohexaose, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), birchwood and larchwood xylan, xyloglucan, lichenan, and Avicel but not cellobiose, cellotriose, mannan, or pullulan. Addition of the CBM increased catalytic efficiencies on both CMC and birchwood xylan but not on xyloglucan, and it decreased rates of cellopentaose and cellohexaose hydrolysis. Catalytic efficiencies were much higher on xyloglucan than on other polysaccharides. Hydrolysis rates increased with ...


Microbiosensors Based On Dna Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube And Pt Black Nanocomposites, Jin Shi, Tae-Gon Cha, Jonathan C. Claussen, Alfred R. Diggs, Jong Hyun Choi, D. Marshall Porterfield 2011 Purdue University

Microbiosensors Based On Dna Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube And Pt Black Nanocomposites, Jin Shi, Tae-Gon Cha, Jonathan C. Claussen, Alfred R. Diggs, Jong Hyun Choi, D. Marshall Porterfield

Jonathan C. Claussen

Glucose and ATP biosensors have important applications in diagnostics and research. Biosensors based on conventional materials suffer from low sensitivity and low spatial resolution. Our previous work has shown that combining single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with Pt nanoparticles can significantly enhance the performance of electrochemical biosensors. The immobilization of SWCNTs on biosensors remains challenging due to the aqueous insolubility originating from van der Waals forces. In this study, we used single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to modify SWCNTs to increase solubility in water. This allowed us to explore new schemes of combining ssDNA-SWCNT and Pt black in aqueous media systems. The result ...


Modeling And Quantitative Analysis Of White Matter Fiber Tracts In Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Xuwei Liang 2011 University of Kentucky

Modeling And Quantitative Analysis Of White Matter Fiber Tracts In Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Xuwei Liang

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to record incoherent motion of water molecules and has been used to detect micro structural white matter alterations in clinical studies to explore certain brain disorders. A variety of DTI based techniques for detecting brain disorders and facilitating clinical group analysis have been developed in the past few years. However, there are two crucial issues that have great impacts on the performance of those algorithms. One is that brain neural pathways appear in complicated 3D structures which are inappropriate and inaccurate to be approximated by simple 2D structures ...


Influence Of Tissue Absorption And Scattering On Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Blood Flow Measurements, Daniel Irwin 2011 University of Kentucky

Influence Of Tissue Absorption And Scattering On Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Blood Flow Measurements, Daniel Irwin

University of Kentucky Master's Theses

This investigation evaluates the influences of optical property assumptions on nearinfrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow index measurements. Independent variation is induced in optical properties, absorption coefficient (μa) and reduced scattering coefficient (μs’), of liquid phantoms with concurrent measurements of flow indices. A hybrid instrument is incorporated consisting of a dual-wavelength (785 and 830 nm) DCS flow device to obtain flow indices and a frequency-domain tissue-oximeter for optical properties. Flow indices are calculated with measured μa and μs’ or assumed constant μa and μs’. Inaccurate μs’ assumptions produced much larger flow index errors ...


Steam Reforming Of Water-Soluble Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil: Studies On Bio-Oil Composition Effect, Carbon Deposition, And Catalyst Modifications, Pedro J. Ortiz-toral 2011 Iowa State University

Steam Reforming Of Water-Soluble Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil: Studies On Bio-Oil Composition Effect, Carbon Deposition, And Catalyst Modifications, Pedro J. Ortiz-Toral

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bio-oils from fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass can be phase separated into a heavy water insoluble portion and a light water-soluble portion. The water-rich portion contains mainly carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. This highly oxygenated water-rich portion was evaluated for production of the renewable hydrogen required for the upgrading reactions. There are certain challenges introduced due to the complexity of these mixtures. Catalyst deactivation by coking and the formation of carbon deposits are major limitations although the specific causes were previously unidentified. A bio-oil fractionating system can separate heavier components from the light-end components. This light-end fraction has ...


Use Of Colloidal Crystal Templating To Fabricate Ordered Pit Arrays On Aluminum And Aluminum Alloy 3003, Newira Widharta 2011 Iowa State University

Use Of Colloidal Crystal Templating To Fabricate Ordered Pit Arrays On Aluminum And Aluminum Alloy 3003, Newira Widharta

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In a number of industrial processes, metal surfaces are etched to develop topographic patterns consisting of microscopic cavities. Al alloy plates for lithographic printing are etched to create a microscopically roughened surface that optimizes retention of ink and release agent. Fabrication of ordered arrays of micro-porous pits utilizing colloidal crystal templating method in aluminum and aluminum alloy 3003 was developed in this thesis. We choose such a technique, previously developed for aluminum electrolytic capacitors, and adapt it to aluminum alloy 3003 substrates used in the solid-ink lithography. Using electrochemistry and imaging techniques (SEM), we showed that ordered pit arrays with ...


Confocal Imaging Of Laminar And Turbulent Mixing In A Microscale Multi-Inlet Vortex Nanoprecipitation Reactor, Yanxiang Shi, Rodney O. Fox, Michael G. Olsen 2011 Iowa State University

Confocal Imaging Of Laminar And Turbulent Mixing In A Microscale Multi-Inlet Vortex Nanoprecipitation Reactor, Yanxiang Shi, Rodney O. Fox, Michael G. Olsen

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Mass production of functional nanoparticles may be realized through flash nanoprecipiation in microscale reactors such as the multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR). A comprehensive understanding of mixing in the MIVR is required for process control and reactor design. Mixing in the MIVR is studied using a technique coupling laser induced fluorescence with confocal laser scanning microscopy. It is shown to provide meaningful qualitative and statistical data of the scalar field for analysis and comparison with numerical simulations. Data were collected for four flow rates, showing that mixing is incomplete even at the highest flow rate.


Self-Assembled Pentablock Copolymers For Selective And Sustained Gene Delivery, Bingqi Zhang 2011 Iowa State University

Self-Assembled Pentablock Copolymers For Selective And Sustained Gene Delivery, Bingqi Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The poly(diethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDEAEM) - Pluronic F127 - PDEAEM pentablock copolymer (PB) gene delivery vector system has been found to possess an inherent selectivity in transfecting cancer cells over non-cancer cells in vitro, without attaching any targeting ligands. In order to understand the mechanism of this selective transfection, three possible intracellular barriers to transfection were investigated in both cancer and non-cancer cells. We concluded that escape from the endocytic pathway served as the primary intracellular barrier for PB-mediated transfection. Most likely, PB vectors were entrapped and rendered non-functional in acidic lysosomes of non-cancer cells, but survived in less acidic lysosomes of ...


A Multi-Gaussian Quadrature Method Of Moments For Simulating High Stokes Number Turbulent Two-Phase Flows, Aymeric Vie, Christophe Chalons, Rodney O. Fox, Frederique Laurent, Marc Massot 2011 IFP Energies Nouvelles

A Multi-Gaussian Quadrature Method Of Moments For Simulating High Stokes Number Turbulent Two-Phase Flows, Aymeric Vie, Christophe Chalons, Rodney O. Fox, Frederique Laurent, Marc Massot

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

With the great increase in computational resources, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of industrial configurations is now an efficient and tractable tool. Numerous applications involve a liquid or solid disperse phase carried by a gaseous flow field (eg, fuel injection in automotive or aeronautical engines, fluidized beds, and alumina particles in rocket boosters). To simulate this kind of flow, one may resort to a Number Density Function (NDF), which satisfies a kinetic equation.


Hybrid Thermochemical Processing: Fermentation Of Pyrolysis-Derived Bio-Oil, Laura R. Jarboe, Zhiyou Wen, Dong Won Choi, Robert C. Brown 2011 Iowa State University

Hybrid Thermochemical Processing: Fermentation Of Pyrolysis-Derived Bio-Oil, Laura R. Jarboe, Zhiyou Wen, Dong Won Choi, Robert C. Brown

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Thermochemical processing of biomass by fast pyrolysis provides a nonenzymatic route for depolymerization of biomass into sugars that can be used for the biological production of fuels and chemicals. Fermentative utilization of this bio-oil faces two formidable challenges. First is the fact that most bio-oil-associated sugars are present in the anhydrous form. Metabolic engineering has enabled utilization of the main anhydrosugar, levoglucosan, in workhorse biocatalysts. The second challenge is the fact that bio-oil is rich in microbial inhibitors. Collection of bio-oil in distinct fractions, detoxification of bio-oil prior to fermentation, and increased robustness of the biocatalyst have all proven effective ...


Engineering Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli For Levoglucosan Utilization, Donovan S. Layton, Avanthi Ajjarapu, Dong Won Choi, Laura R. Jarboe 2011 Iowa State University

Engineering Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli For Levoglucosan Utilization, Donovan S. Layton, Avanthi Ajjarapu, Dong Won Choi, Laura R. Jarboe

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Levoglucosan is a major product of biomass pyrolysis. While this pyrolyzed biomass, also known as bio-oil, contains sugars that are an attractive fermentation substrate, commonly-used biocatalysts, such as Escherichia coli, lack the ability to metabolize this anhydrosugar. It has previously been shown that recombinant expression of the levoglucosan kinase enzyme enables use of levoglucosan as carbon and energy source. Here, ethanologenic E. coli KO11 was engineered for levoglucosan utilization by recombinant expression of levoglucosan kinase from Lipomyces starkeyi. Our engineering strategy uses a codon-optimized gene that has been chromosomally integrated within the pyruvate to ethanol (PET) operon and does not ...


Identifying Factors Controlling Protein Release From Combinatorial Biomaterial Libraries Via Hybrid Data Mining Methods, Xue Li, Latrisha K. Petersen, Scott Broderick, Balaji Narasimhan, Krishna Rajan 2011 Iowa State University

Identifying Factors Controlling Protein Release From Combinatorial Biomaterial Libraries Via Hybrid Data Mining Methods, Xue Li, Latrisha K. Petersen, Scott Broderick, Balaji Narasimhan, Krishna Rajan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Polyanhydrides are a class of degradable biomaterials that have shown much promise for applications in drug and vaccine delivery. Their properties can be tailored for controlled drug release, drug/protein stability, and immune regulation (adjuvant effect). Identifying the relationship between the molecular structures of the polymers and the drug release kinetics profiles would help understand the release mechanism and aid in the accurate prediction of drug release and the rational design of polymer-based drug carrier systems. The molecular structure descriptors that had the most impact on the release kinetics were identified using a prediction/optimization data mining approach. Using this ...


Rational Design Of Pathogen-Mimicking Amphiphilic Materials As Nanoadjuvants, Bret Daniel Ulery, Latrisha K. Petersen, Yashdeep Phanse, Chang Sun Kong, Scott Broderick, Devender Kumar, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde, Krishna Rajan, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Bryan H. Bellaire, Dennis W. Metzger, Balaji Narasimhan 2011 Iowa State University

Rational Design Of Pathogen-Mimicking Amphiphilic Materials As Nanoadjuvants, Bret Daniel Ulery, Latrisha K. Petersen, Yashdeep Phanse, Chang Sun Kong, Scott Broderick, Devender Kumar, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde, Krishna Rajan, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Bryan H. Bellaire, Dennis W. Metzger, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

An opportunity exists today for cross-cutting research utilizing advances in materials science, immunology, microbial pathogenesis, and computational analysis to effectively design the next generation of adjuvants and vaccines. This study integrates these advances into a bottom-up approach for the molecular design of nanoadjuvants capable of mimicking the immune response induced by a natural infection but without the toxic side effects. Biodegradable amphiphilic polyanhydrides possess the unique ability to mimic pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns with respect to persisting within and activating immune cells, respectively. The molecular properties responsible for the pathogen-mimicking abilities of these materials have been identified. The ...


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