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Assessing The Vegetation Condition Impacts Of The 2011 Drought Across The U.S. Southern Great Plains Using The Vegetation Drought Response Index (Vegdri), Tsegaye Tadesse, Brian D. Wardlow, Jesslyn F. Brown, Mark D. Svoboda, Michael J. Hayes, Brian Fuchs, Denise Gutzmer 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Assessing The Vegetation Condition Impacts Of The 2011 Drought Across The U.S. Southern Great Plains Using The Vegetation Drought Response Index (Vegdri), Tsegaye Tadesse, Brian D. Wardlow, Jesslyn F. Brown, Mark D. Svoboda, Michael J. Hayes, Brian Fuchs, Denise Gutzmer

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

The vegetation drought response index (VegDRI), which combines traditional climate- and satellite-based approaches for assessing vegetation conditions, offers new insights into assessing the impacts of drought from local to regional scales. In 2011, the U.S. southern Great Plains, which includes Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, was plagued by moderate to extreme drought that was intensified by an extended period of recordbreaking heat. The 2011 drought presented an ideal case study to evaluate the performance of VegDRI in characterizing developing drought conditions. Assessment of the spatiotemporal drought patterns represented in the VegDRI maps showed that the severity and patterns of ...


Continuous Color Model As A Tool To Improve Speleothem Age Model Development, Celia Campa-Bousoño, Ángel García-Pérez, Ana Moreno, Miguel Iglesias, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Heather Stoll 2021 University of Oviedo, Spain

Continuous Color Model As A Tool To Improve Speleothem Age Model Development, Celia Campa-Bousoño, Ángel García-Pérez, Ana Moreno, Miguel Iglesias, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Heather Stoll

International Journal of Speleology

Because they can archive a variety of geochemical proxies and be precisely and accurately dated with the U-Th decay series chronometer, stalagmites are widely used for paleoclimate reconstructions. However, limitations in the use of this chronometer arise because U-Th dating is analytically time consuming, expensive, and requires a relatively large sample size. These limitations restrict the number of absolute dates usually obtained, which can result in significant uncertainties in the age model and inhibit the ability to archive high resolution records of environmental variability, particularly in those stalagmites where there are variations in growth rate not constrained by U-Th dates ...


A Case Study Using 2019 Pre-Monsoon Snow And Stream Chemistry In The Khumbu Region, Nepal, Heather M. Clifford, Mariusz Potocki, Inka Koch, Tenzing Sherpa, Mike Handley, Elena Korotkikh, Douglas Introne, Susan Kaspari, Kimberley Miner, Tom Matthews, Baker Perry, Heather Guy, Ananta Gajurel, Praveen Kumar Singh, Sandra Elvin, Aurora C. Elmore, Alex Tait, Paul A. Mayewski 2021 University of Maine

A Case Study Using 2019 Pre-Monsoon Snow And Stream Chemistry In The Khumbu Region, Nepal, Heather M. Clifford, Mariusz Potocki, Inka Koch, Tenzing Sherpa, Mike Handley, Elena Korotkikh, Douglas Introne, Susan Kaspari, Kimberley Miner, Tom Matthews, Baker Perry, Heather Guy, Ananta Gajurel, Praveen Kumar Singh, Sandra Elvin, Aurora C. Elmore, Alex Tait, Paul A. Mayewski

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

This case study provides a framework for future monitoring and evidence for human source pollution in the Khumbu region, Nepal. We analyzed the chemical composition (major ions, major/trace elements, black carbon, and stable water isotopes) of pre-monsoon stream water (4300–5250 m) and snow (5200–6665 m) samples collected from Mt. Everest, Mt. Lobuche, and the Imja Valley during the 2019 pre-monsoon season, in addition to a shallow ice core recovered from the Khumbu Glacier (5300 m). In agreement with previous work, pre-monsoon aerosol deposition is dominated by dust originating from western sources and less frequently by transport from ...


Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Drought Projections For Nebraska, Adam Liska 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Drought Projections For Nebraska, Adam Liska

Adam Liska Papers

This lecture will focus on three issues. The first is a presentation of data from the first greenhouse gas emissions inventory for the State of Nebraska, which will be published in the coming weeks. In 2016, emissions from beef cattle made up 23% of net state emissions, and coal for electricity made up 23.7% of net state emissions. The second issue to be addressed are the impacts of the 2012 drought on agriculture in Nebraska and the region. The drought of 2012 indicates that future droughts in the 21st century in the region can be a dominant influence ...


Virginia Beach Flood Protection Program Bond Referendum Analysis, Robert McNab, Juita-Elena (Wie) Yusuf, Afi Anuar, Jessica Whitehead 2021 Old Dominion University

Virginia Beach Flood Protection Program Bond Referendum Analysis, Robert Mcnab, Juita-Elena (Wie) Yusuf, Afi Anuar, Jessica Whitehead

Presentations, Lectures, Posters, Reports

[First paragraph of the Executive Summary]

On November 2, 2021, voters in the City of Virginia Beach will vote on a referendum that determines whether or not the City Council should increase real estate taxes to fund a Flood Protection Program. The proposal accelerates the construction of six flood mitigation projects already in the Virginia Beach Capital Improvement Plan by 3 years, and funds design and construction of 15 additional projects that would also be completed by 2031. This report, jointly produced by Old Dominion University’s Institute for Coastal Adaptation and Resilience (ICAR) and the Dragas Center for Economic ...


Wildflower Pollen Quality In Roadside Habitats, With Particular Emphasis On Hedera Helix, Aoife McMullin, Paul Hamilton 2021 Institute of Technology, Sligo

Wildflower Pollen Quality In Roadside Habitats, With Particular Emphasis On Hedera Helix, Aoife Mcmullin, Paul Hamilton

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

The quality of air is of more significance today than ever before. Human population growth and pollutants emitted through fossil fuel consumption put pressures on air quality. It is widely acknowledged that atmospheric pollutants negatively impact human health; the same is also true for the health of wildlife and plants exposed to these pollutants (Brunekreef & Holgate, 2002; EEA, 2019; Schiavoni, et al., 2017). Pollen and seed formation of flowering plants have been affected when grown in areas of poor air quality (Azzazy, 2016; Sénéchal, et al., 2015). The purpose of this research was to assess pollen of Hedera helix (ivy), a native ...


Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Do Pressure Waves Travel Through Barometric Caves?, Annika K. Gomell, Daniel C. Austin, Marc J. Ohms, Andreas Pflitsch 2021 Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Germany

Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Do Pressure Waves Travel Through Barometric Caves?, Annika K. Gomell, Daniel C. Austin, Marc J. Ohms, Andreas Pflitsch

International Journal of Speleology

In barometric caves, air pressure gradients between the outside atmosphere and the cave induce strong bidirectional compensating currents, which control almost all elements of speleoclimatology, including air temperature, humidity, and CO2 dynamics. Therefore, this study set out to investigate air pressure propagation through Wind Cave and Jewel Cave – two major barometric cave systems in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. Based on high-resolution air pressure data from both the surface and several measurement sites inside the caves, four systematic changes of pressure waves during their journey through the caves and their related speleoclimatological processes were identified and discussed ...


Structure And Photocatalytic Influence Of N-Doping Ato Nano-Tubes On Antibacterial Activity Toward Escherichia Coli, Shing-Hoa Wang, Shiu-Mei Liu, Kan-Hung Hu, Chien-Chon Chen, Tai-Yuan Lin, Shuei-Wan Juang, Chia-Yuen Yen, Shu-Ting Lu, Chia-Heng Liu 2021 Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan

Structure And Photocatalytic Influence Of N-Doping Ato Nano-Tubes On Antibacterial Activity Toward Escherichia Coli, Shing-Hoa Wang, Shiu-Mei Liu, Kan-Hung Hu, Chien-Chon Chen, Tai-Yuan Lin, Shuei-Wan Juang, Chia-Yuen Yen, Shu-Ting Lu, Chia-Heng Liu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

The photocatalytic antibacterial properties of anodic titanium oxide (ATO) nanotubes in the anatase structure derived from annealing at 450°C or 550°C or N-doping treatment were tested on Escherichia coli under UV-A, visible light illumi-nation, and dark conditions. Under UV-A illumination and dark conditions, in most cases, E. coli cultures containing ATO nanotubes of different treatments showed either no or slight differences in their growth from the cultures without ATO nanotubes. However, under visible light illumination, the growth of E. coli was inhibited in cultures containing ATO nanotubes. Among the three forms of ATO nanotubes, N-doped ATO nanotubes had ...


Effectiveness Against White Sharks Of The Rpela Personal Shark Deterrent Device Designed For Surfers, Craig Blount, Dan Pygas, Marcus P. Lincoln Smith, Daryl P. McPhee, Colby Bignell, Ocean Ramsey 2021 Cardno (NSW/ACT) Pty Ltd, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia

Effectiveness Against White Sharks Of The Rpela Personal Shark Deterrent Device Designed For Surfers, Craig Blount, Dan Pygas, Marcus P. Lincoln Smith, Daryl P. Mcphee, Colby Bignell, Ocean Ramsey

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Many shark bites to humans, including fatalities, have involved surfers. Various personal shark deterrents are commercially available to surfers, including Rpela v2, which is a battery-powered device fitted to a surfboard. It produces an electric field around the surfer aimed at deterring sharks from approaching or biting by disrupting their electro-reception organs. The device was tested on white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) at Salisbury Island, Western Australia. In total, 46 trials were done with the Rpela v2 either active or not active to determine the device’s effect on sharks’ response to a floating board with fish bait attached (to tempt ...


Inter-Annual Changes Of Water Temperature In The Southern South China Sea's Continental Shelf: The Influence Of Enso On Malaysian Waters, Afifi Johari, Mohd Fadzil Akhir, Muhammad Naim Satar, Zuraini Zainol, Guo Jingsong 2021 Institute of Oceanography and Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia

Inter-Annual Changes Of Water Temperature In The Southern South China Sea's Continental Shelf: The Influence Of Enso On Malaysian Waters, Afifi Johari, Mohd Fadzil Akhir, Muhammad Naim Satar, Zuraini Zainol, Guo Jingsong

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

An extensive amount of data from the World Ocean Database (WOD) that covers the southern South China Sea (SSCS) were analysed to study the long-term trends and variations of the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. The WOD data were selected from 1951 to 2010, which included the area within 0–10 °N and 100–117 °E. El-Nino and La-Nina anomaly results showed that the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTa) trend of SSCS was higher during offset-El-Nino years and lower during offset-La-Nina years. Besides, the inter-annual vertical water temperature profile revealed that the deepening of the warmer water temperature occurred in ...


The Eumedonine Genera Eumedonus H. Milne Edwards, 1834, And Gonatonotus White, 1847 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Pilumnidae) In Taiwan, Peter K. L Ng, Chia-Wei Lin 2021 Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore

The Eumedonine Genera Eumedonus H. Milne Edwards, 1834, And Gonatonotus White, 1847 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Pilumnidae) In Taiwan, Peter K. L Ng, Chia-Wei Lin

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Two species of eumedonine crabs, Eumedonus zebra Alcock, 1895, and Gonatonotus nasutus Chia & Ng, 2000, are recorded from Taiwan, the former for the first time. Both are also new genera records for the island. Notes on variation are noted and their taxonomy briefly treated. The number of eumedonine species, all of which are obligate symbionts on echinoderms, known from the island is now seven genera and seven species.


An Analysis Of Consumer Evaluations Of The “Tagonoura Shirasu” Certification Under The Japan Geographical Indication Protection System, Yu-Heng Lu, Takahiro Sajiki 2021 Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2, Pei-Ning Rd., Keelung, Taiwa

An Analysis Of Consumer Evaluations Of The “Tagonoura Shirasu” Certification Under The Japan Geographical Indication Protection System, Yu-Heng Lu, Takahiro Sajiki

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Over time, the Geographical Indication (GI) protection system has been independently adopted in more than 100 countries worldwide. In Japan, the GI protection system has been operating since 2015 in response to a growing interest in local brands. Therefore, based on a questionnaire survey, we econometrically analyze the consumer evaluation of Shizuoka Prefecture’s Shirasu “Tagonoura Shirasu,” which is registered under the GI protection system. Shirasu is a collective term for long and narrow larvae such as anchovy (Engraulis japonicus), sardine (Sardinops melanostictus), or red-eye round herring (Etrumeus sadina). Based on the contingent valuation method, we clarified that consumers' additional ...


A Two-Stage Approach To Integrate Vessel Geo-Tracking Data And Logbooks For Monitoring Fishing Activity Of Coastal Fisheries In Waters Off Northwestern Taiwan, Yi-Jou Lee, Nan-Jay Su, Cheng-Hsin Liao, Wei-Chuan Chiang, Chun-Huei Li 2021 Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan

A Two-Stage Approach To Integrate Vessel Geo-Tracking Data And Logbooks For Monitoring Fishing Activity Of Coastal Fisheries In Waters Off Northwestern Taiwan, Yi-Jou Lee, Nan-Jay Su, Cheng-Hsin Liao, Wei-Chuan Chiang, Chun-Huei Li

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Catch and fishing effort data are fundamental information to stock assessment and fisheries management, but difficult to obtain without the support of administration and sound fishery data collection system. This study integrated various sources of data from a simplified vessel geo-tracking system and logbooks from interviews with captains of coastal gillnet fisheries. We developed a two-step approach based on hierarchical cluster analysis to characterize the operation patterns and infer the fishing activities of the fishery. Results showed that the fishing effort in terms of operation duration could be estimated precisely for various vessel sizes, with catch composition and harvest information ...


Effect Of Chlorine Dioxide On The Removal Of Sulfadimethoxine And Sulfamethoxazole In Freshwater And Seawater, Zhen-Hao Liao, Dai-Chee Ng, Yu-Sheng Wu, Fan hua Nan 2021 Department of Aquaculture, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan

Effect Of Chlorine Dioxide On The Removal Of Sulfadimethoxine And Sulfamethoxazole In Freshwater And Seawater, Zhen-Hao Liao, Dai-Chee Ng, Yu-Sheng Wu, Fan Hua Nan

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

This study aimed to understand the fate of sulfonamides (SAs) under dark condition in a laboratory-scale aquatic system, and evaluate the removal of SAs by using Chlorine dioxide. Based on the mass spectrometry quantification, our results have shown that two sulfonamides were transformed at very slow rate in the dark. The 180 day degradation efficiencies (%) of sulfadimethoxine (SDM) in freshwater and seawater were 6.37 ± 2.56 and 4.38 ± 3.43, respectively, while those of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in freshwater and seawater were 7.81 ± 2.15 and 6.60 ± 2.69, respectively. In the treatment of Chlorine dioxide for ...


Long-Term Observations Of Interannual And Decadal Variation Of Sea Surface Temperature In The Taiwan Strait, Ming-An Lee, Wei-Po Huang, Yi-Lo Shen, Jinn-Shing Weng, Bambang Semedi, Yi-Chen Wang, Jui-Wen Chan 2021 Center of Excellence for Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Long-Term Observations Of Interannual And Decadal Variation Of Sea Surface Temperature In The Taiwan Strait, Ming-An Lee, Wei-Po Huang, Yi-Lo Shen, Jinn-Shing Weng, Bambang Semedi, Yi-Chen Wang, Jui-Wen Chan

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Long-term observations of interannual and decadal variation of sea surface temperature (SST) in the Taiwan Strait (TS) were studied for the period 1870–2018; the climatology data were obtained from the Met Office Hadley Centre, UK. In the study period, the highest annual mean and lowest SST observed were 25.3°C in 1998 and 22.4°C in 1919, respectively. Six distinct regimes were identified. The first regime of fairly stable or slightly cooling SST lasted through the 1920s. The two regime shifts of 1919 to 1945 and 1976–1977 to 1998 led to the two fast warming trends ...


Experimental Investigation And Modeling Of The Response Surface Methodology For The Optimization Of A Multiloop Heat Pipe, Dar-Sun Liou 2021 Department of Navigation, Taipei University of Marine Technology, New Taipei City, Taiwan

Experimental Investigation And Modeling Of The Response Surface Methodology For The Optimization Of A Multiloop Heat Pipe, Dar-Sun Liou

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Considering thermohydrodynamic instabilities in the design of cooling systems has become a trend, which has led to the evolution of thermal management. However, such instabilities, which cause flow perturbations, are difficult to explain by using physical theories. The aim of this study was to use a parameter-based modeling technique, namely the response surface methodology (RSM), to characterize the dynamics of multiloop heat pipes (MLHPs) under various heat loads. The RSM, which is based on statistics, was used to determine the relationship between the design parameters and thermal responses of MLHPs, which are represented using polynomials. Th aim of our RSM ...


Supply Chain Inventory Model With Markov Chain Demand, Zhi-Ping Lin, Su-Ping Ho 2021 Department of industrial engineering and management, National Taipei University and Technology

Supply Chain Inventory Model With Markov Chain Demand, Zhi-Ping Lin, Su-Ping Ho

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

This study aims to develop a new one-vendor multiple-buyers integrated inventory model. We believe that our proposed model can forecast the demand of all buyers in the coming future by using data that have already existed and to minimize the total cost-for both buyers and vendors. In recent days, the Markov chain approach has played one of the critical methods of demand forecasting in the Supply Chain Management (SCM) field. The proposed model of this study is to analysis the demand of all buyers in one specific season that was impacted by the demand in the same season from last ...


Fire Resistance Of Steel Connectors Of Precast Lightweight Concrete Walls, Jen-Hao Chi, Maochieh Chi, Yue-Lin Huang 2021 epartment of Fire Science, WuFeng University, Chiayi County, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Fire Resistance Of Steel Connectors Of Precast Lightweight Concrete Walls, Jen-Hao Chi, Maochieh Chi, Yue-Lin Huang

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

In this study the fire test was performed to investigate the mechanic behaviors and failure patterns of precast normal weight concrete (NWC) and lightweight concrete (LWC) walls with three types of commonly used steel connectors, namely dry (61), wet (81), and bearing (56E) connectors. For the LWC wall specimens, on lateral application of tension, the cracking load values of the dry, wet, and bearing-type connectors were 95.1%, 86.3%, and 83.0%, respectively, of the original loads, and their ultimate load values were 81.6%, 90.7%, and 85.0%, respectively, of the original. In the shearing test after ...


Differential Evolution Algorithm For Ship Path Planning In Open Waters, Yu-Tao Kang, Wei-Jiong Chen, Jin-Hui Wang 2021 College of Ocean Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, China

Differential Evolution Algorithm For Ship Path Planning In Open Waters, Yu-Tao Kang, Wei-Jiong Chen, Jin-Hui Wang

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

A general approach to the derivation of simple yet accurate formulas for identifying bandpass nonlinear channels in or-thogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems is proposed in this paper. The OFDM is an widely adopted tech-nique for wideband communication applications. An OFDM signal could be highly vulnerable to nonlinearities in a com-munication link. This makes proper estimation of the nonlin-ear channel essential for an OFDM system. A nonlinear bandpass communication channel is commonly described by a complex Voletrra series, in which the task of nonlinear channel identification is to determine the Volterra kernels. This task can become very difficult when the order ...


Integrated Simulation Of Virtual Prototypes And Control Algorithms Of Unmanned Surface Vehicles Based On A Robot Operating System, Hye-Won Lee, Joo-Hyun Woo, Myung-Il Roh, Seung-Ho Ham, Luman Zhao, Sol Ha, Nak-Wan Kim, Chan-Woo Yu 2021 Research Institute of Marine Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Integrated Simulation Of Virtual Prototypes And Control Algorithms Of Unmanned Surface Vehicles Based On A Robot Operating System, Hye-Won Lee, Joo-Hyun Woo, Myung-Il Roh, Seung-Ho Ham, Luman Zhao, Sol Ha, Nak-Wan Kim, Chan-Woo Yu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) require autonomous software with a high level of liberalization and automation to complete various missions. Therefore, experimental verification and validation of this software at the initial design stage are essential. However, such experiments are impossible before the actual hardware is developed, and the creation of an external environment for the mission requires substantial cost and time. In this study, virtual prototypes of the mission environment and hardware for the USV are developed. Then, a simulation environment for testing the control algorithms in the autonomous software is constructed. Data communication with the USV hardware is necessary for ...


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