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A Two-Layer Model Of The North Atlantic Thermocline, P. P. Niiler, Edward R. Simco, R. Larue 2017 Nova Southeastern University

A Two-Layer Model Of The North Atlantic Thermocline, P. P. Niiler, Edward R. Simco, R. Larue

Edward Simco

A two-layer model of mid-oceanic thermocline is developed, and a comparison of the depth and temperature of the thermocline in this model is made with a root-mean-square description of the hydrographic structure of the North Atlantic. It is shown that the Sverdrup balance is maintained within the rms errors, and the entire estimated heat flux from the atmosphere is used to produce the observed density changes along the path of persistent flow.


Impacts Of Climate Change On Hydrology, Water Quality And Crop Productivity In The Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Philip W. Gassman, Raymond W. Arritt, Daryl E. Herzmann, Todd D. Campbell, Adriana Valcu, Manoj K. Jha, Catherine L. Kling, Raghavan Srinivasan, Michael White, Jeffrey G. Arnold 2017 Iowa State University

Impacts Of Climate Change On Hydrology, Water Quality And Crop Productivity In The Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Philip W. Gassman, Raymond W. Arritt, Daryl E. Herzmann, Todd D. Campbell, Adriana Valcu, Manoj K. Jha, Catherine L. Kling, Raghavan Srinivasan, Michael White, Jeffrey G. Arnold

Catherine Kling

Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture is the main source of nitrogen and phosphorus in the stream systems of the Corn Belt region in the Midwestern US. The eastern part of this region is comprised of the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (OTRB), which is considered a key contributing area for water pollution and the Northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. A point of crucial importance in this basin is therefore how intensive corn-based cropping systems for food and fuel production can be sustainable and coexist with a healthy water environment, not only under existing climate but also under climate change conditions in ...


Data From: Optical Depth And Size Characteristics Of Small Coastal Florida Cumuli From Surface-Based Lidar And Radiometer Measurements, Rodrigo Delgadillo 2017 University of Miami

Data From: Optical Depth And Size Characteristics Of Small Coastal Florida Cumuli From Surface-Based Lidar And Radiometer Measurements, Rodrigo Delgadillo

Supplementary Data and Tools

Data in this collection is from micro-pulse lidar (MPL) and near field of view (NFOV) radiometer from 20 Dec 2014 to 1 March 2015. The instruments are co-located and zenith-aligned. Measurements were recorded at the CAROb site (http://carob.rsmas.miami.edu/) located in the University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science. The data in this collection is categorized as MPL and zenith radiometer data.


P07. Characterizing The Purple Crow Lidar To Investigate Potential Sources Of Wet Bias, Jeffrey VanKerkhove, Robert J. Sica, Robin Wing, Steve Argall 2017 University of Western Ontario

P07. Characterizing The Purple Crow Lidar To Investigate Potential Sources Of Wet Bias, Jeffrey Vankerkhove, Robert J. Sica, Robin Wing, Steve Argall

Western Research Forum

The Purple Crow Lidar is a large aperture lidar, capable of retrieving water vapor profiles into the stratosphere. Water vapor in the upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region is of particular importance in understanding Earth's radiative budget and atmospheric dynamics, making accurate UTLS measurements crucial. A comparison campaign with the NASA/GSFC ALVICE mobile lidar in the spring of 2012 showed PCL water vapor measurements were consistently larger than those of ALVICE in the lower stratosphere, prompting an investigation to characterize the system. The investigation looks into how changes to the data processing approach, as well as applying additional instrumental ...


P16. Ralmo Rotational Raman Temperature Retrieval: First Steps Towards The Application Of Optimal Estimation Method (Oem), Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele 2017 Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada

P16. Ralmo Rotational Raman Temperature Retrieval: First Steps Towards The Application Of Optimal Estimation Method (Oem), Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele

Western Research Forum

Background:

Temperature is an important atmospheric parameter that plays an extensive role in the fields of atmospheric dynamics, climatology, meteorology, and chemistry. Light detection and ranging (lidar), is a remote sensing technology that can be used for atmospheric temperature profiling. A lidar transmits short laser pulses into the atmosphere and the light scattered by the particles in the atmosphere is collected and measured using a telescope. The atmospheric temperatures can be retrieved by analysing the Pure Rotational Raman (PRR) scatter measurements from the nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the atmosphere.

Methods:

In this study use the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM ...


Picture Of The Month: An Unusual Aerial Photograph Of An Eddy Circulation In Marine Stratocumulus Clouds, Bradley M. Muller, Christopher G. Herbster, Frederick R. Mosher 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Picture Of The Month: An Unusual Aerial Photograph Of An Eddy Circulation In Marine Stratocumulus Clouds, Bradley M. Muller, Christopher G. Herbster, Frederick R. Mosher

Frederick R. Mosher

An aerial photograph of a cyclonic, von Kármán–like vortex in the marine stratocumulus clouds off the California coast, taken by a commercial pilot near Grover Beach, is presented. It is believed that this is the first photograph of such an eddy, taken from an airplane, to appear in publication.

The eddy occurred with a strong inversion above a shallow marine boundary layer, in the lee of high, inversion-penetrating terrain. Tower and surface wind measurements plotted on satellite imagery demonstrate that the Grover Beach eddy was not just a cloud-level feature, but extended through the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL ...


The Identification And Verification Of Hazardous Convective Cells Over Oceans Using Visible And Infrared Satellite Observations, Michael F. Donovan, Earle R. Williams, Cathy Kessinger, Gary Blackburn, Paul H. Herzegh, Richard L. Bankert, Steve Miller, Frederick R. Mosher 2017 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Identification And Verification Of Hazardous Convective Cells Over Oceans Using Visible And Infrared Satellite Observations, Michael F. Donovan, Earle R. Williams, Cathy Kessinger, Gary Blackburn, Paul H. Herzegh, Richard L. Bankert, Steve Miller, Frederick R. Mosher

Frederick R. Mosher

Three algorithms based on geostationary visible and infrared (IR) observations are used to identify convective cells that do (or may) present a hazard to aviation over the oceans. The performance of these algorithms in detecting potentially hazardous cells is determined through verification with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite observations of lightning and radar reflectivity, which provide internal information about the convective cells. The probability of detection of hazardous cells using the satellite algorithms can exceed 90% when lightning is used as a criterion for hazard, but the false-alarm ratio with all three algorithms is consistently large (40%), thereby exaggerating ...


Over-Ocean Validation Of The Global Convective Diagnostic, David W. Martin, Richard A. Kohrs, Frederick R. Mosher, Carlo Maria Medaglia, Claudia Adamo 2017 University of Wisconsin - Madison

Over-Ocean Validation Of The Global Convective Diagnostic, David W. Martin, Richard A. Kohrs, Frederick R. Mosher, Carlo Maria Medaglia, Claudia Adamo

Frederick R. Mosher

The global convective diagnostic (GCD) is a bispectral (infrared and water vapor), day–night scheme for operationally mapping deep convection by means of geostationary satellite images. This article describes a test of GCD performance over tropical and subtropical waters near North America. The test consists of six cases, each involving a convective cloud complex. A seventh case treats convection over land. For each case, a map of deep convection was constructed from image pairs from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-12 (GOES-12). Case by case and for all maritime cases together, the GCD map was compared with a convective parameter derived from ...


Key Differences Between Lakes And Reservoirs Modify Climate Signals: A Case For A New Conceptual Model, Nicole M. Hayes, Bridget R. Deemer, Jessica R. Corman, N. Roxanna Razavi, Kristin E. Strock 2017 Dickinson College

Key Differences Between Lakes And Reservoirs Modify Climate Signals: A Case For A New Conceptual Model, Nicole M. Hayes, Bridget R. Deemer, Jessica R. Corman, N. Roxanna Razavi, Kristin E. Strock

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Lakes and reservoirs are recognized as important sentinels of climate change, integrating catchment and atmospheric climate change drivers. Climate change conceptual models generally consider lakes and reservoirs together despite the possibility that these systems respond differently to climate-related drivers. Here, we synthesize differences between lake and reservoir characteristics that are likely important for predicting waterbody response to climate change. To better articulate these differences, we revised the energy mass flux framework, a conceptual model for the effects of climate change on lentic ecosystems, to explicitly consider the differential responses of lake versus reservoir ecosystems. The model predicts that catchment and ...


Fisheries & Stream Quality Update For The Kankakee River Basin, Stephen Pescitelli 2017 Illinois Department of Natural Resources

Fisheries & Stream Quality Update For The Kankakee River Basin, Stephen Pescitelli

Kankakee River Watershed Conference

Author keywords: stream quality, index of biotic integrity, walleye stocking

Scholarship domain: community application


2016 Data Collected For Resistivity, Magnetic Susceptibility And Sediment Characterization Of The York River Estuary, Va In Support Of The Empirical Investigation Of The Factors Influencing Marine Applications Of Emi (Year 2 Of Serdp Project Mr-2409), Grace M. Massey, Carl T. Friedrichs 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

2016 Data Collected For Resistivity, Magnetic Susceptibility And Sediment Characterization Of The York River Estuary, Va In Support Of The Empirical Investigation Of The Factors Influencing Marine Applications Of Emi (Year 2 Of Serdp Project Mr-2409), Grace M. Massey, Carl T. Friedrichs

Data

The objective of this component of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) Project MR-2409 was to conduct field measurements to aid in the determination of the electromagnetic induction (EMI) response to the water column and underlying sediments in the York River estuary, which includes water column and sediment properties similar to many underwater environments of interest to unexploded ordinance detection. Data and samples from a standard suite of hydrographic and sedimentological measurements, as well as electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility, were collected and analyzed for each location. These cruises provided opportunities to obtain information that is being used ...


Will The World Be Better With The Exploitation Of Ocean Energy?, Latifa Martini 2017 Islamic University of Indonesia

Will The World Be Better With The Exploitation Of Ocean Energy?, Latifa Martini

MARENER 2017

No abstract provided.


Evaluating Elevated Convection With The Downdraft Convective Inhibition, P. S. Market, Scott M. Rochette, J. Shewchuk, R. Difani, Joshua S. Kastman, C. B. Henson, N. I. Fox 2017 University of Missouri

Evaluating Elevated Convection With The Downdraft Convective Inhibition, P. S. Market, Scott M. Rochette, J. Shewchuk, R. Difani, Joshua S. Kastman, C. B. Henson, N. I. Fox

Earth Sciences Faculty Publications

A method for evaluating the penetration of a stable layer by an elevated convective downdraft is discussed. Some controversy exists on the community’s ability to define truly elevated convection from surface-based convection. By comparing the downdraft convective inhibition (DCIN) to the downdraft convective available potential energy (DCAPE), we determine that downdraft penetration potential is progressively enabled as the DCIN is progressively smaller than the DCAPE; inversely as DCIN increases over DCAPE, so does the likelihood of purely elevated convection. Serial vertical soundings and accompanying analyses are provided to support this finding.


Rate And Apparent Quantum Yield Of Photodissolution, Meg Estapa, Lawrence M. Mayer, Emmanuel Boss 2017 Skidmore College

Rate And Apparent Quantum Yield Of Photodissolution, Meg Estapa, Lawrence M. Mayer, Emmanuel Boss

Meg Estapa

We quantified rates of photochemical dissolution (photodissolution) of organic carbon in coastal Louisiana suspended sediments, conducting experiments under well-defined conditions of irradiance and temperature. Optical properties of the suspended sediments were characterized and used in a radiative transfer model to compute irradiances within turbid suspensions. Photodissolution rate increased with temperature (T), with activation energy of 32 ± 7 kJ mol−1, which implicates indirect (non-photochemical) steps in the net reaction. In most samples, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration increased approximately linearly with time over the first 4 h of irradiation under broadband simulated sunlight, after higher rates in the initial hour ...


Role Of Iron And Organic Carbon In Mass-Specific Light Absorption By Particulate Matter From Louisiana Coastal Waters, Meg Estapa, Emmanuel E. Boss, Mayer M. Lawrence, Roesler S. Collin 2017 Skidmore College

Role Of Iron And Organic Carbon In Mass-Specific Light Absorption By Particulate Matter From Louisiana Coastal Waters, Meg Estapa, Emmanuel E. Boss, Mayer M. Lawrence, Roesler S. Collin

Meg Estapa

We investigated the influences of organic content and mineralogical composition on light absorption by mostly mineral suspended particles in aquatic and coastal marine systems. Mass-specific absorption spectra of suspended particles and surface sediments from coastal Louisiana and the lower Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers were measured with a centered sample-mount integrating sphere and analyzed in conjunction with organic carbon (OC), hydrochloric acid– (HCl-) extractable iron, and dithionite-extractable iron contents. Compositions and absorption properties were comparable to published values for similar particles. Dithionite-extractable iron was strongly correlated with absorption at ultraviolet (UV) and blue wavelengths, while OC and HCl-extractable iron were weakly ...


Decoupling Of Net Community Production And Export Production At Submesoscale Fronts In The Sargasso Sea, Meg Estapa, D. A. Siegel, K O. Buesseler, R. H. R. Stanley, M. W. Lomas, N. B. Nelson 2017 Skidmore College

Decoupling Of Net Community Production And Export Production At Submesoscale Fronts In The Sargasso Sea, Meg Estapa, D. A. Siegel, K O. Buesseler, R. H. R. Stanley, M. W. Lomas, N. B. Nelson

Meg Estapa

Determinations of the net community production (NCP) in the upper ocean and the particle export production (EP) should balance over long time and large spatial scales. However, recent modeling studies suggest that a horizontal decoupling of flux-regulating processes on submesoscales (≤10 km) could lead to imbalances between individual determinations of NCP and EP. Here we sampled mixed-layer biogeochemical parameters and proxies for NCP and EP during 10, high-spatial resolution (~2 km) surface transects across strong physical gradients in the Sargasso Sea. We observed strong biogeochemical and carbon flux variability in nearly all transects. Spatial coherence among measured biogeochemical parameters within ...


Autonomous, High-Resolution Observations Of Particle Flux In The Oligotrophic Ocean, Meg Estapa, K. Buesseler, E. Boss, G. Gerbi 2017 Skidmore College

Autonomous, High-Resolution Observations Of Particle Flux In The Oligotrophic Ocean, Meg Estapa, K. Buesseler, E. Boss, G. Gerbi

Meg Estapa

Observational gaps limit our understanding of particle flux attenuation through the upper mesopelagic because available measurements (sediment traps and radiochemical tracers) have limited temporal resolution, are labor-intensive, and require ship support. Here, we conceptually evaluate an autonomous, optical proxy-based method for high-resolution observations of particle flux. We present four continuous records of particle flux collected with autonomous profiling floats in the western Sargasso Sea and the subtropical North Pacific, as well as one shorter record of depth-resolved particle flux near the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) and Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) sites. These observations illustrate strong variability in particle flux ...


Carbon Flux From Bio-Optical Profiling Floats: Calibrating Transmissometers For Use As Optical Sediment Traps, Meg Estapa, Colleen Durkin, Ken Buesseler, Rod Johnson, Melanie Feena 2017 Skidmore College

Carbon Flux From Bio-Optical Profiling Floats: Calibrating Transmissometers For Use As Optical Sediment Traps, Meg Estapa, Colleen Durkin, Ken Buesseler, Rod Johnson, Melanie Feena

Meg Estapa

Our mechanistic understanding of the processes controlling the ocean's biological pump is limited, in part, by our lack of observational data at appropriate timescales. The “optical sediment trap” (OST) technique utilizes a transmissometer on a quasi-Lagrangian platform to collect sedimenting particles. This method could help fill the observational gap by providing autonomous measurements of particulate carbon (PC) flux in the upper mesopelagic ocean at high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we used a combination of field measurements and laboratory experiments to test hydrodynamic and zooplankton-swimmer effects on the OST method, and we quantitatively calibrated this method against PC flux measured directly ...


Observations Of Carbon Export By Small Sinking Particles In The Upper Mesopelagic, Colleen A. Durkin, Meg Estapa, Ken O. Buesseler 2017 Skidmore College

Observations Of Carbon Export By Small Sinking Particles In The Upper Mesopelagic, Colleen A. Durkin, Meg Estapa, Ken O. Buesseler

Meg Estapa

Carbon and nutrients are transported out of the surface ocean and sequestered at depth by sinking particles. Sinking particle sizes span many orders of magnitude and the relative influence of small particles on carbon export compared to large particles has not been resolved. To determine the influence of particle size on carbon export, the flux of both small (11–64 μm) and large (> 64 μm) particles in the upper mesopelagic was examined during 5 cruises of the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) in the Sargasso Sea using neutrally buoyant sediment traps mounted with tubes containing polyacrylamide gel layers and tubes ...


Changes In Cormorant Populations In The Strait Of Georgia, British Columbia, 1955-2015, Harry R. Carter, Trudy A. Chatwin, Mark C. Drever 2017 Carter Biological Consulting

Changes In Cormorant Populations In The Strait Of Georgia, British Columbia, 1955-2015, Harry R. Carter, Trudy A. Chatwin, Mark C. Drever

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Between 1987 and 2000, nesting populations of Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus; PECO) and Double-crested Cormorant (P. auritus; DCCO) declined in the Strait of Georgia, BC. This northern section of the Salish Sea is a rapidly urbanizing area, and piscivorous birds are important indicators of ecosystem health. To update population status, we conducted a complete survey of 35 PECO and 23 DCCO colonies in July 2014 and opportunistic surveys of some colonies between 2001 through 2015. The PECO population decreased from ~2100-2400 nests in 1959-1987 to ~1100 nests by about 2000, and then rose slightly to ~1600 nests by 2015. The ...


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