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Biometric-Based Carbon Estimates And Environmental Controls Within An Age-Sequence Of Temperate Forests, Michelle V. Kula 2014 McMaster University

Biometric-Based Carbon Estimates And Environmental Controls Within An Age-Sequence Of Temperate Forests, Michelle V. Kula

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Understanding the response of forest carbon uptake and growth to interannual climate variability and forest management practices is important, given the large quantity of carbon stored in forests, and their significant role in the global carbon cycle. Since 2004, biometric and micrometeorological measurements were taken in an age-sequence (10-, 38- and 73-years-old as of 2012) of white pine (Pinus strobes L.) plantation forests in southern Ontario, Canada, providing an 8 year record of carbon sequestration, growth and climate. The 73-year old conifer site was thinned in early 2012, where 25% of trees were removed to improve light and water dynamics ...


The Maritime Climate Of The Chesapeake Bay Area: Analysis And Application In The Middle School Classroom, Carrie A. Dunham, Katlin M. Major, Kelsey N. Scheitlin 2014 Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne

The Maritime Climate Of The Chesapeake Bay Area: Analysis And Application In The Middle School Classroom, Carrie A. Dunham, Katlin M. Major, Kelsey N. Scheitlin

American Journal of Undergraduate Research

Maritime climates experience moderate temperatures due to the specific heat of the nearby water. The first objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between temperature (maximum, minimum, and range) and proximity to the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean. Results show that the annual Tmin (Tmax) means are smaller (greater) at the most continental locations, while the maritime locations experience cooler days and warmer nights. This results in a smaller DTR in maritime locations. The most notable seasonal differences in the variables occur during the transitional seasons of spring and fall when the lag time of the water temperature ...


Similar Resilience Attributes In Lakes With Different Management Practices, Didier L. Baho, Stina Drakare, Richard K. Johnson, Craig R. Allen, David G. Angeler 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Similar Resilience Attributes In Lakes With Different Management Practices, Didier L. Baho, Stina Drakare, Richard K. Johnson, Craig R. Allen, David G. Angeler

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

Liming has been used extensively in Scandinavia and elsewhere since the 1970s to counteract the negative effects of acidification. Communities in limed lakes usually return to acidified conditions once liming is discontinued, suggesting that liming is unlikely to shift acidified lakes to a state equivalent to pre-acidification conditions that requires no further management intervention. While this suggests a low resilience of limed lakes, attributes that confer resilience have not been assessed, limiting our understanding of the efficiency of costly management programs. In this study, we assessed community metrics (diversity, richness, evenness, biovolume), multivariate community structure and the relative resilience of ...


Simulation Of Meteorological Fields For Icing Applications At The Summit Of Mount Washington, Sandra L. Jones 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Simulation Of Meteorological Fields For Icing Applications At The Summit Of Mount Washington, Sandra L. Jones

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Hazards related to in-cloud icing on aircraft and ground structures are important considerations for structural design, risk mitigation and operations. A variety of robust ice accretion algorithms exist for application dependent purposes; however, these algorithms are often dependent on reliable meteorological input data to be of use. This study investigates the potential for predicting meteorological parameters relevant to in-cloud icing episodes at ground level using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Model performance with regards to explicit simulation of super-cooled cloud liquid water content, cloud droplet diameter, temperature, and wind speed is evaluated against measurements collected at the summit ...


The Constitutionality Of A Federal Emissions Trading Regime, Kai D. Sheffield 2014 Western University

The Constitutionality Of A Federal Emissions Trading Regime, Kai D. Sheffield

Western Journal of Legal Studies

It is impossible to know in advance what legal form, if any, Canada’s emissions trading regime will ultimately take. However, the current Conservative government’s explicit policy of replicating the United States’ greenhouse gas reduction goals and legislation offers some clues. Based on the government’s legislation and rulemaking thus far, the emissions trading regime that emerges in the short term may be an informal collection of emissions trading provisions contained in industry-specific regulations passed under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Such a regime may not be the most effective in staving off climate change, but it will impose ...


Temporal And Spatial Evolution Of Wave-Induced Ripple Geometry: Regular Versus Irregular Ripples, Timothy R. Nelson, George Voulgaris 2014 University of South Carolina

Temporal And Spatial Evolution Of Wave-Induced Ripple Geometry: Regular Versus Irregular Ripples, Timothy R. Nelson, George Voulgaris

George Voulgaris

Concurrent observations of inner shelf near bed hydrodynamics and acoustic imagery of the seabed are used to relate wave-induced ripple geometry (wavelength and orientation) to near bed directional wave velocities. The observations were collected on the continental shelf of the South Atlantic Bight at water depths of 9.5 and 30 m off the coasts of South Carolina (median size 177 mm) and Georgia (388 mm), respectively. 2-D spectral analysis techniques are performed on the imagery to automate detection of ripple wavelength, orientation, and irregularity. Our analysis shows that ripple irregularity is a time-dependent process dependent on magnitude, direction, and ...


Cosee Ocean Inquiry Group Report: Opportunities For Creating Lifelong Ocean Science Literacy, Paul Boyle, Vince Breslin, Lisa Craig Brisson, John Fraser, Alan J. Friedman, Katie Gardner, Sarah Schoedinger, Jerry Schubel, Steve Uzzo, Steven Yalowitz 2014 University of Massachusetts Boston

Cosee Ocean Inquiry Group Report: Opportunities For Creating Lifelong Ocean Science Literacy, Paul Boyle, Vince Breslin, Lisa Craig Brisson, John Fraser, Alan J. Friedman, Katie Gardner, Sarah Schoedinger, Jerry Schubel, Steve Uzzo, Steven Yalowitz

School for the Environment Publications

This Inquiry Group Report for the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence Ocean Communities in Education And Social Networks (COSEE OCEAN) provides a fresh look at how broader ocean science literacy can be developed, especially through less-recognized channels such as opportunistic learning, the private and “third” sectors, and the enormously varied activities under the heading of informal science education. The 10 authors of this report (see Contributors section) have been working together for two years to find and review a range of issues and resources for current and potential ocean science literacy providers, both professional and volunteer.

Several chapters provide ...


Mid-Latiude Rayleigh-Mie-Raman Lidar For Observations From 15 To 120 Km, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Joshua P. Herron, Matthew T. Emerick 2013 Utah State University

Mid-Latiude Rayleigh-Mie-Raman Lidar For Observations From 15 To 120 Km, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Joshua P. Herron, Matthew T. Emerick

Posters

Rayleigh lidar opened a portion of the atmosphere, from 30 to 90 km, to ground-based observations. Rayleigh-scatter observations were made at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Utah State University (USU) from 1993–2004 between 45 and 90 km. The lidar consisted of a 0.44-m diameter mirror, a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser opera'ng at 532-nm at 30- Hz at either 18- or 24-W, giving power- aperture products (PAPs) of 2.7- or 3.6- Wm2, respec'vely, and one detector channel. An example of what was accomplished with this system is shown as part of Fig. 1. The ...


Temperatures In The Mid-Latitude Mesosphere During Sudden Stratospheric Warmings As Determined From Rayleigh Lidar Data, Leda Sox 2013 Utah State University

Temperatures In The Mid-Latitude Mesosphere During Sudden Stratospheric Warmings As Determined From Rayleigh Lidar Data, Leda Sox

Leda Sox

No abstract provided.


Environmental Analysis Of Goes-R Proving Ground Convection Initiation Forecasting Algorithms, Jason M. Apke 2013 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Environmental Analysis Of Goes-R Proving Ground Convection Initiation Forecasting Algorithms, Jason M. Apke

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The enhanced temporal and spatial resolution of the GOES-R series will allow for the use of cloud top cooling based convection initiation (CI) forecasting algorithms. Two such algorithms have been created on the current generation of GOES satellites: theUniversityofWisconsincloud top cooling algorithm (UWCTC) and the University of Alabama-Huntsville’s satellite convection analysis and tracking algorithm (SATCAST). Preliminary analysis of algorithm products has led to speculation over pre-convective environmental effects on algorithm performance, which this study aims to examine. CI indications are used with objective segmentation tools to identify and cluster radar objects over theGreat Plainsbased on reflectivity quantitative and spatial ...


Keeney, Sean Carpenter (Sc 1259), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives 2013 Western Kentucky University

Keeney, Sean Carpenter (Sc 1259), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 1259. “My Experience of ‘Andrew,’” by Sean Keeney, Dade County, Florida, relating the effect on him and his family of Hurricane Andrew, which struck the area on 24 August 1992. Includes biographical data on Keeney.


Marine Diatom Assemblage Variation Across Pleistocene Glacial-Interglacial Transitions And Neogene Diatom Biostratigraphy Of Site C9001, Nw Pacific Ocean, Marcella K. Purkey 2013 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Marine Diatom Assemblage Variation Across Pleistocene Glacial-Interglacial Transitions And Neogene Diatom Biostratigraphy Of Site C9001, Nw Pacific Ocean, Marcella K. Purkey

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

In 2006, D/V-Chikyu cruise CK06-06 drilled Hole C9001C at Site C9001 in the Northwest Pacific Ocean, 80 km east of the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. An existing chronostratigraphic framework provides a continuous glacial-interglacial (GI) climate record from which a diatom record of paleoenvironmental changes was developed across several GI cycles. Species counts, diatom temperature values, calculated sea-surface temperatures (SST) and factor analysis were produced for each sample and calibrated to prior diatom studies in this region. These features were used to characterize and compare interglacial maxima of Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1, 5e, 9 and 11 and transitions from the ...


Using The Storm Water Management Model To Predict Urban Headwater Stream Hydrological Response To Climate And Land Cover Change, J. Y. Wu, Janette R. Thompson, Randy K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz, Timothy W. Stewart 2013 Iowa State University

Using The Storm Water Management Model To Predict Urban Headwater Stream Hydrological Response To Climate And Land Cover Change, J. Y. Wu, Janette R. Thompson, Randy K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz, Timothy W. Stewart

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications and Papers

Streams are natural features in urban landscapes that can provide ecosystem services for urban residents. However, urban streams are under increasing pressure caused by multiple anthropogenic impacts, including increases in human population and associated impervious surface area, and accelerated climate change. The ability to anticipate these changes and better understand their effects on streams is important for developing and implementing strategies to mitigate potentially negative effects. In this study, stream flow was monitored during April–November (2011 and 2012), and the data were used to apply the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) for five urban watersheds in central Iowa, USA ...


Statistical Characteristics Of Polar Mesospheric Gravity Waves Observed Over Alaska, Michael Negale, Kim Nielsen, Mike J. Taylor, Dominique Pautet, Margit Dyrland 2013 Utah State University

Statistical Characteristics Of Polar Mesospheric Gravity Waves Observed Over Alaska, Michael Negale, Kim Nielsen, Mike J. Taylor, Dominique Pautet, Margit Dyrland

Michael Negale

Short-period (<1 hr) gravity wave observations over the Arctic region are few and their impact on the Arctic mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) region via momentum deposition is of high interest, but has yet to be determined. The Mesospheric Airglow Imaging and Dynamics (MAID) project was initiated in January 2011 to investigate the presence and dynamics of these waves over the interior of Alaska. Observations were made from the Davis Building at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR) (65N) using an all-sky imager. This site provides an exceptional opportunity to establish a long-term climatology of short-period gravity waves in the Arctic. Here, we present summary measurements of prominent gravity waves focusing on their winter-time spatial and temporal characteristics. Measurements were made over two consecutive winters in 2011 and 2012 yielding 117 quasi-monochromatic wave events obtained from sequential OH (715-930 nm) images. Their characteristics are compared with recent gravity wave observations at Resolute Bay, Canada (75N), ALOMAR Station, Norway (69N), Svalbard (78N) in the Arctic, and with Rothera Station (76S) in Antarctic. The distributions of the wave parameters measured at PFRR were found to be similar to those of the other high-latitude sites, except for the direction of propagation. The wave headings observed at PFRR exhibited dominant preference for motion towards the east, while the other high-latitude observations reported westward motion. To investigate the preferred wave directionality, we look at the effects of critical level filtering using zonal and meridional winds obtained from NASA’s Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the Horizontal Wind Model 2007 (HWM07).


A Crowdsourced Hail Dataset: Potential, Biases, And Inaccuracies, Joseph Robert Pehoski 2013 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

A Crowdsourced Hail Dataset: Potential, Biases, And Inaccuracies, Joseph Robert Pehoski

Theses and Dissertations

Hail is a substantial severe weather hazard in the USA, with significant damage to property and

crops occurring annually. Traditional methods of forecasting hail size have limited accuracy, and despite

improvements in remote sensing of precipitation, the fall characteristics of hail make quantification of

hail imprecise. Research into hail is ongoing, but traditional hail datasets have known biases and low

spatiotemporal resolution. The increased usage of smartphones creates the opportunity to use a

crowdsourced dataset provided by the Precipitation Identification Near the Ground (PING) program, a

program developed by the National Severe Storms Laboratory. PING data is compared to approximate ...


Impacts Of Climate Changes On The Spatiotemporal Distribution Of Precipitation In The Western United States, Peng Jiang 2013 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Impacts Of Climate Changes On The Spatiotemporal Distribution Of Precipitation In The Western United States, Peng Jiang

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

Precipitation in the Intermountain West is characterized by its great variability in both spatial and temporal distributions. Moreover, the spatiotemporal distribution of the precipitation is changing due to the climate changes. In this dissertation, three studies are conducted to investigate the multi-scale temporal variability of precipitation, the performance of current climate models on this variability, the influence of large-scale ocean oscillations on heavy precipitation, and the impact of human induced global warming on storm properties.

The first study is to examine the performance of current climate models on the simulation of the multi-scale temporal variability determined from the observed station ...


Assessing Growth Response To Climate Controls In A Great Basin Artemisia Tridentata Plant Community, Lorenzo F. Apodaca 2013 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Assessing Growth Response To Climate Controls In A Great Basin Artemisia Tridentata Plant Community, Lorenzo F. Apodaca

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

An assessment of the growth response of key vegetative species to climatic variability is vital to identifying possible local impacts on ecosystems faced with imminent climate change. With current climate projections in Nevada predicting a shift to an even more arid climate with greater year-to-year variability, the imperative exists to identify the effects of specific climatic controls on plant growth and to research methods to assess large-scale vegetative changes, especially in more remote areas where readily available data sets may be lacking. This study utilized annual growth ring indices constructed from big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentatassp.tridentata) stems collected in Spring ...


Temperature Trends And Urban Heat Island Intensity Mapping Of The Las Vegas Valley, Adam Leland Black 2013 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Temperature Trends And Urban Heat Island Intensity Mapping Of The Las Vegas Valley, Adam Leland Black

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

Modified urban climate regions that are warmer than rural areas at night are referred to as Urban Heat Islands or UHI. Islands of warmer air over a city can be 12 degrees Celsius greater than the surrounding cooler air. The exponential growth in Las Vegas for the last two decades provides an opportunity to detect gradual temperature changes influenced by an increasing presence of urban materials. This thesis compares ground based thermometric observations and satellite based remote sensing temperature observations to identify temperature trends and UHI areas caused by urban development.

Analysis of temperature trends between 2000 and 2010 at ...


Nineteenth Century North American And Pacific Tidal Data: Lost Or Just Forgotten?, Stefan A. Talke, David A. Jay 2013 Portland State University

Nineteenth Century North American And Pacific Tidal Data: Lost Or Just Forgotten?, Stefan A. Talke, David A. Jay

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Tide data are the oldest and longest oceanographic records and comprise one of the few tools for understanding, quantifying, and separating century-scale human and climate impacts on the coastal zone. Our archival research indicates that continuous measurements of tides began in 1844 in the western Atlantic, 1853 in the Eastern Pacific, and 1858 in the Western Pacific. At least 50 multiyear tide series existed by the year 1900. With few exceptions, however, these 19th and early 20th century measurements have not been analyzed in more than a century and have been forgotten and neglected by the scientific community. This article ...


Deep-Water Near-Bottom Turbulence In Lake Michigan: An Underwater Investigation, David J. Cannon, Cary Troy 2013 Purdue University

Deep-Water Near-Bottom Turbulence In Lake Michigan: An Underwater Investigation, David J. Cannon, Cary Troy

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Motivated by a need to characterize near-bottom deep-water turbulence for an understanding of the filtration capabilities of invasive quagga mussels, an instrument tripod was deployed in Lake Michigan for six months in 60m of water to measure current velocities, with specific interest being paid to near-bottom (0.10 to 0.95 meters above bottom) velocities during the deployment. The deployment period (September 2012-April 2013) was characterized by very little stratification and a median temperature of about throughout the water column. A mean horizontal velocity of 3.6 cm/s with a standard deviation of 2 cm/s was also measured ...


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