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Additive Negative Effects Of Anthropogenic Sedimentation And Warming On The Survival Of Coral Recruits, Francesca Fourney, Joana Figueiredo 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Additive Negative Effects Of Anthropogenic Sedimentation And Warming On The Survival Of Coral Recruits, Francesca Fourney, Joana Figueiredo

Oceanography Faculty Articles

Corals worldwide are facing population declines due to global climate change and local anthropogenic impacts. Global climate change effects are hard to tackle but recent studies show that some coral species can better handle climate change stress when provided with additional energy resources. The local stressor that most undermines energy acquisition is sedimentation because it impedes coral heterotrophic feeding and their ability to photosynthesize. To investigate if reducing local sedimentation will enable corals to better endure ocean warming, we quantitatively assessed the combined effects of increased temperature and sedimentation (concentration and turbidity) on the survival of coral recruits of the ...


Urban Multi-Scale Environmental Predictor - An Extensive Tool For Climate Services In Urban Areas, Fredrik Lindberg, Sue Grimmond, Andrew Gabey, Bei Huang, Christoph W. Kent, Ting Sun, Natalie E. Theeuwes, Leena Järvi, Helen Ward, Izzy Capel-Timms, YY Chang, Per Jonsson, Niklas Krave, Dongwei Liu, D Meyer, K Frans G. Olofson, Jian-Guo Tan, Dag Wästberg, Lingbo Xue, Zhe Zhang 2017 Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Urban Multi-Scale Environmental Predictor - An Extensive Tool For Climate Services In Urban Areas, Fredrik Lindberg, Sue Grimmond, Andrew Gabey, Bei Huang, Christoph W. Kent, Ting Sun, Natalie E. Theeuwes, Leena Järvi, Helen Ward, Izzy Capel-Timms, Yy Chang, Per Jonsson, Niklas Krave, Dongwei Liu, D Meyer, K Frans G. Olofson, Jian-Guo Tan, Dag Wästberg, Lingbo Xue, Zhe Zhang

Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial (FOSS4G) Conference Proceedings

The city based climate service tool UMEP (Urban Multi-scale Environmental Predictor) is a coupled modelling system that combines models essential for urban climate processes and is developed as an extensive QGIS plugin. An application is presented to illustrate its potential, specifically of the identification of heat waves and cold waves in cities. The tool has broad utility for applications related to outdoor thermal comfort, urban energy consumption, climate change mitigation etc. It includes tools to: enable users to input atmospheric and surface data from multiple sources, prepare meteorological data for use in urban areas, undertake simulations and consider scenarios, and ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Climate And Forest Conditions In Forest Classee De La Mondah (Gabon) Using Remote Sensing Data, Mariano MBOUMBA 2017 Tokyo University of Information Sciences

Exploring The Relationship Between Climate And Forest Conditions In Forest Classee De La Mondah (Gabon) Using Remote Sensing Data, Mariano Mboumba

Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial (FOSS4G) Conference Proceedings

This study aims to examine the relationship between temperature and precipitation as climatic factors and the vegetation characteristics in Forêt Classée de la Mondah (Gabon). A pixel based spatial analysis procedure with QGIS was used to extract vegetation characteristics from MODIS on Terra, NDVI band, data from February 2000 to December 2015, while temperature and precipitation were monitored from January 1980 to December 2015 to highlight climate fluctuations in the study area. Two regression analyses were conducted : one between temperature and NDVI and the other one between precipitation and NDVI. Results showed that temperature and precipitation did not vary significantly ...


Collaborative Research: Synergistic Merging Of Traditional Aeronomy With Targeted High-Frequency (Hf) Heating Diagnostics, Herbert C. Carlson 2017 Utah State University

Collaborative Research: Synergistic Merging Of Traditional Aeronomy With Targeted High-Frequency (Hf) Heating Diagnostics, Herbert C. Carlson

Funded Research and Data

No abstract provided.


Technical Note: A Minimally-Invasive Experimental System For Pco2 Manipulation In Plankton Cultures Using Passive Gas Exchange (Atmospheric Carbon Control Simulator), Brooke Love, M. Brady Olson, Tristen Wuori 2017 Western Washington University, USA

Technical Note: A Minimally-Invasive Experimental System For Pco2 Manipulation In Plankton Cultures Using Passive Gas Exchange (Atmospheric Carbon Control Simulator), Brooke Love, M. Brady Olson, Tristen Wuori

Brooke Love

As research into the biotic effects of ocean acidification has increased, the methods for simulating these environmental changes in the laboratory have multiplied. Here we describe the atmospheric carbon control simulator (ACCS) for the maintenance of plankton under controlled pCO2 conditions, designed for species sensitive to the physical disturbance introduced by the bubbling of cultures and for studies involving trophic interaction. The system consists of gas mixing and equilibration components coupled with large volume atmospheric simulation chambers. These chambers allow gas exchange to counteract the changes in carbonate chemistry induced by the metabolic activity of the organisms. The system is ...


Consistency Of Projected Drought Over The Sahel With Changes In The Monsoon Circulation And Extremes In A Regional Climate Model Projections, M. B. Sylla, A. T. Gaye, G. S. Jenkins, Jeremy S. Pal, F. Giorgi 2017 Cheikh Anta Diop University

Consistency Of Projected Drought Over The Sahel With Changes In The Monsoon Circulation And Extremes In A Regional Climate Model Projections, M. B. Sylla, A. T. Gaye, G. S. Jenkins, Jeremy S. Pal, F. Giorgi

Jeremy Pal

As a step toward an increased understanding of climate change over West Africa, in this paper we analyze the relationship between rainfall changes and monsoon dynamics in high-resolution regional climate model experiments performed using the Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). Multidecadal simulations are carried out for present-day and future climate conditions under increased greenhouse gas forcing driven by the global climate model European Center/Hamburg 5 (ECHAM5). Compared to the present day, the future scenario simulation produces drier conditions over the Sahel and wetter conditions over orographic areas. The Sahel drying is accompanied by a weaker monsoon flow, a southward migration ...


Regional Climate Modeling For The Developing World: The Ictp Regcm3 And Regcnet, Jeremy S. Pal, Filippo Giorgi, Xunqiang Bi, Nellie Elguindi, Fabien Solmon, Xuejie Gao, Sara A. Rauscher, Raquel Francisco, Ashraf Zakey, Jonathan Winter, Moetasim Ashfaq, Faisal S. Syed, Jason L. Bell, Noah S. Diffenbaugh, Jagadish Karmacharya, Abourahamane Konaré, Daniel Martinez, Rosmeri P. Da Rocha, Lisa C. Sloan, Allison L. Steiner 2017 Loyola Marymount University

Regional Climate Modeling For The Developing World: The Ictp Regcm3 And Regcnet, Jeremy S. Pal, Filippo Giorgi, Xunqiang Bi, Nellie Elguindi, Fabien Solmon, Xuejie Gao, Sara A. Rauscher, Raquel Francisco, Ashraf Zakey, Jonathan Winter, Moetasim Ashfaq, Faisal S. Syed, Jason L. Bell, Noah S. Diffenbaugh, Jagadish Karmacharya, Abourahamane Konaré, Daniel Martinez, Rosmeri P. Da Rocha, Lisa C. Sloan, Allison L. Steiner

Jeremy Pal

Regional climate models are important research tools available to scientists around the world, including in economically developing nations (EDNs). The Earth Systems Physics (ESP) group of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) maintains and distributes a state-of-the-science regional climate model called the ICTP Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3), which is currently being used by a large research community for a diverse range of climate-related studies. The RegCM3 is the central, but not only, tool of the ICTP-maintained Regional Climate Research Network (RegCNET) aimed at creating south–south and north–south scientific interactions on the topic of ...


Numerical Simulations Of The Biogeochemical Impact Of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition On Surface Waters Of The Western North Atlantic, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Numerical Simulations Of The Biogeochemical Impact Of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition On Surface Waters Of The Western North Atlantic, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs

Data

The impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the chlorophyll and nitrogen dynamics of surface waters in the western North Atlantic (25-45N, 65-80W) were examined with a biogeochemical ocean model forced with a regional atmospheric chemistry model. The model simulations cover the period 2004 to 2008 and are fully described in the following reference: St-Laurent, P., et al., Impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on surface waters of the western North Atlantic mitigated by multiple feedbacks, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, vol.122, doi:10.1002/2017jc013072.


Machine Learning Algorithms For Automated Satellite Snow And Sea Ice Detection, George Bonev 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Machine Learning Algorithms For Automated Satellite Snow And Sea Ice Detection, George Bonev

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The continuous mapping of snow and ice cover, particularly in the arctic and poles, are critical to understanding the earth and atmospheric science. Much of the world's sea ice and snow covers the most inhospitable places, making measurements from satellite-based remote sensors essential. Despite the wealth of data from these instruments many challenges remain. For instance, remote sensing instruments reside on-board different satellites and observe the earth at different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum with different spatial footprints. Integrating and fusing this information to make estimates of the surface is a subject of active research.

In response to these ...


Machine Learning Approach To Retrieving Physical Variables From Remotely Sensed Data, Fazlul Shahriar 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Machine Learning Approach To Retrieving Physical Variables From Remotely Sensed Data, Fazlul Shahriar

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Scientists from all over the world make use of remotely sensed data from hundreds of satellites to better understand the Earth. However, physical measurements from an instrument is sometimes missing either because the instrument hasn't been launched yet or the design of the instrument omitted a particular spectral band. Measurements received from the instrument may also be corrupt due to malfunction in the detectors on the instrument. Fortunately, there are machine learning techniques to estimate the missing or corrupt data. Using these techniques we can make use of the available data to its full potential.

We present work on ...


Volcanic Eruptions At East Pacific Rise Near 9°50'N, James P. Cowen, Brooke Love, Brian Glazier, Daniel J. Fornari, Timothy M. Shank, S. Adam Soule, Alexander Treusch, Kyle R. Pomranig, R. Chadwick Holmes, Maya Tolstoy 2017 Western Washington University, USA

Volcanic Eruptions At East Pacific Rise Near 9°50'N, James P. Cowen, Brooke Love, Brian Glazier, Daniel J. Fornari, Timothy M. Shank, S. Adam Soule, Alexander Treusch, Kyle R. Pomranig, R. Chadwick Holmes, Maya Tolstoy

Brooke Love

Evidence for recent volcanic eruptions along the fast spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) crest near 9°50'N spanning about 4 to 5 months of activity was discovered in April and May 2006 as a result of studies related to the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Ridge2000 (R2K) program. In April, during routine recovery and redeployment of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) at the EPR R2K Integrated Study Site (ISS) near 9°50'N, eight of 12 OBS could not be recovered [Tolstoy et al, 2006]. Anomalous turbidity and temperature structure in the water column along the ridge axis confirmed ...


Sea Level Rise May Increase Extinction Risk Of A Saltmarsh Ontogenetic Habitat Specialist, David S. Johnson, Bethany L. Williams 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Sea Level Rise May Increase Extinction Risk Of A Saltmarsh Ontogenetic Habitat Specialist, David S. Johnson, Bethany L. Williams

VIMS Articles

Specialist species are more vulnerable to environmental change than generalist species. For species with ontogenetic niche shifts, specialization may occur at a particular life stage making those stages more susceptible to environmental change. In the salt marshes in the northeast U.S., accelerated sea level rise is shifting vegetation patterns from flood-intolerant species such as Spartina patens to the flood-tolerant Spartina alterniflora. We tested the potential impact of this change on the coffee bean snail, Melampus bidentatus, a numerically dominant benthic invertebrate with an ontogenetic niche shift. From a survey of eight marshes throughout the northeast U.S., small snails ...


Data From: Observing System Simulation Experiments For An Array Of Autonomous Biogeochemical Profiling Floats In The Southern Ocean, Igor Kamenkovich, Angelique Haza, Alison R. Gray, Carolina O. Dufour, Zulema Garraffo 2017 RSMAS, University of Miami

Data From: Observing System Simulation Experiments For An Array Of Autonomous Biogeochemical Profiling Floats In The Southern Ocean, Igor Kamenkovich, Angelique Haza, Alison R. Gray, Carolina O. Dufour, Zulema Garraffo

Supplementary Data and Tools

Data in this collection is from Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) that were carried in support of the SOCCOM program. Synthetic profiles were extracted from model-simulated dissolved oxygen and inorganic carbon. Full maps were then reconstructed from these sparse datasets, using objective mapping. For description of the model and reconstruction method please see Kamenkovich, I., A. Haza, A. Gray, C. Dufour, and Z. Garraffo: "Observing System Simulation Experiments for an array of autonomous biogeochemical profiling floats in the Southern Ocean", Journal of Geophysical Research, DOI: 10.1002/2017JC012819


Oyster Aquaculture Site Selection Using Landsat 8-Derived Sea Surface Temperature, Turbidity, And Chlorophyll A., Jordan Snyder 2017 University of Maine, Orono

Oyster Aquaculture Site Selection Using Landsat 8-Derived Sea Surface Temperature, Turbidity, And Chlorophyll A., Jordan Snyder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Remote sensing data is useful for selection of aquaculture sites because it can provide water-quality products mapped with no cost to users. However, the spatial resolution of most ocean color satellites is too coarse to provide usable data within many estuaries. The more recently launched Landsat 8 satellite has both the spatial resolution and the necessary signal to noise ratio to provide temperature, as well as ocean color derived products along complex coastlines. The state of Maine (USA) has an abundance of estuarine indentations (~3,500 miles of tidal shoreline within 220 miles of coast), and an expanding aquaculture industry ...


Effects Of Graphical Weather Information Versus Textual Weather Information On Situation Awareness In Meteorology, Stefan Melendez M.S.A., Andrew Dattel Ph.D., Christopher Herbster Ph.D., Debbie Schaum M.A., Andrey Babin 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Effects Of Graphical Weather Information Versus Textual Weather Information On Situation Awareness In Meteorology, Stefan Melendez M.S.A., Andrew Dattel Ph.D., Christopher Herbster Ph.D., Debbie Schaum M.A., Andrey Babin

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Prior to a flight, pilots gather meteorological information in order to assess the weather conditions pertaining to their flight and to make decisions based on it. This information can come in various formats, such as text and graphical weather information. Research has shown that people have varying learning preferences and that most people prefer visual learning to verbal learning (i.e., graphical over text). It is hypothesized that this difference in learning preference can affect the way pilots interpret and apply the information they obtain prior to their flight. The researcher hypothesizes that graphical weather information has a greater, more ...


Using P-Band Signals Of Opportunity Radio Waves For Root Zone Soil Moisture Remote Sensing, Phillip H. Lipinski, Benjamin R. Nold, James L. Garrison 2017 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Using P-Band Signals Of Opportunity Radio Waves For Root Zone Soil Moisture Remote Sensing, Phillip H. Lipinski, Benjamin R. Nold, James L. Garrison

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Retrieval of Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) is important for understanding the carbon cycle for use in climate change research as well as meteorology, hydrology, and precision agriculture studies. A current method of remote sensing, GNSS-R uses GPS signals to measure soil moisture content and vegetation biomass, but it is limited to 3-5 cm of soil penetration depth. Signals of Opportunity (SoOp) has emerged as an extension of GNSS-R remote sensing using communication signals. P-band communication signals (370 MHz) will be studied as an improved method of remote sensing of RZSM. P-band offers numerous advantages over GNSS-R, including stronger signal ...


Ocean Wind Speed Measurement Using Wideband Gnss-R Signals, Brandon J. Kozel, Han Zhang, James L. Garrison, Benjamin Nold 2017 Purdue University

Ocean Wind Speed Measurement Using Wideband Gnss-R Signals, Brandon J. Kozel, Han Zhang, James L. Garrison, Benjamin Nold

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The use of Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) for remote sensing of ocean wind speeds has been explored for nearly two decades and has become an important passive remote sensing technique for verification of hurricane formation models. To obtain wind speed measurements, reflected GNSS signals are first cross-correlated with locally generated copies to construct delay-doppler maps (DDMs). Through statistical models, DDMs can provide information about the mean-square slope (MSS) of the ocean surface, which is related to wind speed. Previous studies have focused on legacy signals such as GPS L1. However, it is expected that the MSS relationship with ocean ...


Large Marine Protected Areas Represent Biodiversity Now And Under Climate Change, T. E. Davies, S. M. Maxwell, K. Kaschner, C. Garilao, N. C. Ban 2017 Old Dominion University

Large Marine Protected Areas Represent Biodiversity Now And Under Climate Change, T. E. Davies, S. M. Maxwell, K. Kaschner, C. Garilao, N. C. Ban

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Large marine protected areas (>30,000 km2) have a high profile in marine conservation, yet their contribution to conservation is contested. Assessing the overlap of large marine protected areas with 14,172 species, we found large marine protected areas cover 4.4% of the ocean and at least some portion of the range of 83.3% of the species assessed. Of all species within large marine protected areas, 26.9% had at least 10% of their range represented, and this was projected to increase to 40.1% in 2100. Cumulative impacts were significantly higher within large marine protected areas ...


Environmentally-Driven Variation In The Population Dynamics Of Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia Patronus), Grant D. Adams 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Environmentally-Driven Variation In The Population Dynamics Of Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia Patronus), Grant D. Adams

Master's Theses

Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) is an abundant forage fish distributed throughout the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). Gulf Menhaden support the second largest fishery, by weight, in the United States and represent a key linkage between upper and lower trophic levels. Variation in the population dynamics can, therefore, pose consequences for the ecology and economy in the NGOM. Here we aim to understand variation in the individual and population dynamics of Gulf Menhaden throughout ontogeny and how such variation relates to environmental processes. We utilized a suite of fishery-dependent and –independent, remote sensing, modeled, and in situ data to explicitly ...


Dna Analysis Of Surfactant-Associated Bacteria In A Natural Sea Slick In The Gulf Of Mexico Observed By Terrasar-X, Kathryn Howe 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Dna Analysis Of Surfactant-Associated Bacteria In A Natural Sea Slick In The Gulf Of Mexico Observed By Terrasar-X, Kathryn Howe

Theses and Dissertations

Under low wind speed conditions, surfactants accumulate at the air-sea interface, dampen short-gravity capillary (Bragg) waves, and form natural sea slicks that are detectable visually and in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. Marine organisms, such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, seaweed, and bacteria, produce and degrade surfactants during various life processes. This study coordinates in situ sampling with TerraSAR-X satellite overpasses in order to help guide microbiological analysis of the sea surface microlayer (SML) and associated subsurface water (SSW). Samples were collected in the Gulf of Mexico during a research cruise (LASER) in February 2016 to determine abundance of surfactant associated bacteria ...


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