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Reconstructing Late Holocene Hydrographic Variability Of The Gulf Of Maine, Nina Millicent Whitney 2015 University of Maine - Main

Reconstructing Late Holocene Hydrographic Variability Of The Gulf Of Maine, Nina Millicent Whitney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

I present an annually resolved reconstruction of seawater temperatures in the

western North Atlantic from 1695-1915. This paleoclimate record was constructed

using oxygen isotopes measured in precisely dated Arctica islandica shells collected

off of Seguin Island in the western Gulf of Maine. The temperature reconstruction

was derived from this oxygen isotope time series using a modern d18Ow-salinity

mixing line developed for coastal waters in the Gulf of Maine from water samples

collected over the last decade. The d18Ow and salinity composition of these water

samples indicate that coastal surface waters consist of a ...


National Forum For Agriculture Climate Change Conference, Donna Kain 2015 Iowa State University

National Forum For Agriculture Climate Change Conference, Donna Kain

Iowa Ag Review

On March 1 and 2, 1999, the National Forum for Agriculture annual conference took place in the Scheman Building at Iowa State University. This year’s conference, “Climate Change and the Implications for Agriculture and Energy,” focused on the science of global climate change and related policy issues affecting agriculture, the U.S. economy, and the world. Speakers and participants included representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy; the European Parliament; the White House Climate Task Force; the U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; the Iowa Utilities Board; MidAmerican EnergyCo.; Alliant Energy; Optimum Quality Grains; and ...


Global Optimized Isothermal And Nonlinear Models Of Earth’S Standard Atmosphere, Nihad E. Daidzic, Ph.D., 2015 AAR Aerospace Consulting, LLC

Global Optimized Isothermal And Nonlinear Models Of Earth’S Standard Atmosphere, Nihad E. Daidzic, Ph.D.,

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Both, a global isothermal temperature model and a nonlinear quadratic temperature model of the ISA was developed and presented here. Constrained optimization techniques in conjunction with the least-square-root approximations were used to design best-fit isothermal models for ISA pressure and density changes up to 47 geopotential km for NLPAM, and 86 orthometric km for ISOAM respectively. The mass of the dry atmosphere and the relevant fractional-mass scale heights have been computed utilizing the very accurate eight-point Gauss-Legendre numerical quadrature for both ISOAM and NLPAM. Both, the ISOAM and the NLPAM represent viable alternatives to ISA in many practical applications and ...


Aviation Bird Hazard In Nexrad Dual Polarization Weather Radar Confirmed By Visual Observations, Bradley M. Muller, Frederick R. Mosher, Christopher G. Herbster, Anthony T. Brickhouse 2015 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Aviation Bird Hazard In Nexrad Dual Polarization Weather Radar Confirmed By Visual Observations, Bradley M. Muller, Frederick R. Mosher, Christopher G. Herbster, Anthony T. Brickhouse

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Birds represent a significant hazard to flying aircraft as illustrated by the “Miracle on the Hudson” encounter in 2009 between U.S. Airways Flight 1549 and a flock of Canada Geese, forcing the flight to ditch in the river. Birds are common in the skies over Florida during the spring migration season, and often appear in the National Weather Service’s (NWS) NEXRAD weather radar imagery as an easily recognizable signature known as a “roost ring.” This paper presents a NEXRAD roost ring case in central Florida in a rare instance where the signatures were confirmed by visual observations of ...


Retrieval Of Aerosol Microphysical Properties From Aeronet Photopolarimetric Measurements, Xiaoguang Xu 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Retrieval Of Aerosol Microphysical Properties From Aeronet Photopolarimetric Measurements, Xiaoguang Xu

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in earth climate by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly through altering the cloud formation, life- time, and radiative properties. However, accurate quantification of these effects is in no small part hindered by our limited knowledge about the particle size distribution (PSD) and refractive index, the aerosol microphysical properties essentially pertain to aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The research goal of this thesis is to obtain the aerosol microphysical properties of both fine and coarse modes from the polarimetric solar radiation measured by the SunPhotometer of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET ...


The Distribution Of Dissolved Barium Along The U.S. Geotraces North Atlantic Transect: Impact Of Biogeochemical Processes, Circulation And Phase Association, Karen Renee Grissom 2015 University of Southern Mississippi

The Distribution Of Dissolved Barium Along The U.S. Geotraces North Atlantic Transect: Impact Of Biogeochemical Processes, Circulation And Phase Association, Karen Renee Grissom

Master's Theses

During the last four decades, since the completion of the GEOSECS program, there has been a growing interest in the biogeochemical cycle of barium (Ba) due to its potential as a proxy for interpreting the geologic record. The typical barium distribution exhibits removal in the upper water column and regeneration at depth, consistent with its classification as a bio-intermediate element and similar to the nutrient-like profiles of silicic acid and alkalinity. To better constrain the uses of Ba, trace element clean samples were collected during the North Atlantic US GEOTRACES cruises.

The cycling of barium in the North Atlantic region ...


Time-Series Evaluation Of Suspect Rickettsiales-Like Bacteria Presence In Acropora Cervicornis Off Of Broward County From Years 2001–2012, Steven Di Lauro 2015 Nova Southeastern University

Time-Series Evaluation Of Suspect Rickettsiales-Like Bacteria Presence In Acropora Cervicornis Off Of Broward County From Years 2001–2012, Steven Di Lauro

Theses and Dissertations

Rickettsiales-like organisms (RLOs) are thought to be related to bacteria in the order Rickettsiales. They have been reported to occur in the staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis), and this study investigated trends of infection over time, and in relation to the health of infected corals. This study focuses on tissue samples taken mostly from visibly healthy A. cervicornis thickets in Broward County, Florida, and processed for histological examination. Samples were originally collected and analyzed to document reproduction during years 2001 through 2012, and tissue loss diseases (white-band disease [WBD] types I and II, and rapid tissue loss). The presence of ...


Radiocarbon Isotopic Classification Of Deep Tropical Forest Soils, Brooke Butler, Karis J. McFarlane, Jennifer Pett-Ridge, Katherine A. Heckman 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Radiocarbon Isotopic Classification Of Deep Tropical Forest Soils, Brooke Butler, Karis J. Mcfarlane, Jennifer Pett-Ridge, Katherine A. Heckman

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

Tropical forest soils have an important role in global carbon (C) stocks. Small changes in the cycling of C could drastically affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and active cycling of carbon in a forest community. Currently, little is understood of how tropical forest soils will respond to the increasing global temperatures. To examine the effects of warming/ drought on losses of older versus younger soil C pools, we implemented radiocarbon (14C) isotopic characterization of various soil plot samples and depths from the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. 14C was measured using Accelerated Mass Spectrometry (AMS) from catalytically condensed carbon ...


Improving Nocturnal Fire Detection With The Viirs Day-Night Band, Thomas N. Polivka 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Improving Nocturnal Fire Detection With The Viirs Day-Night Band, Thomas N. Polivka

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

As an important component in the Earth-atmosphere system, wildfires are a serious threat to life and property that—despite improving warning systems—have exacted greater costs in recent years. In addition, they impact global atmospheric chemistry by releasing potent trace gasses and aerosols. Using the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), this study investigates the adjustment of fire pixel selection criteria to include visible light signatures at night, creating the Firelight Detection Algorithm (FILDA). This allows for greatly improved detection of smaller and cooler fires from satellite observations. VIIRS scenes with coincident Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) overpasses ...


The Online System For Lidar Data Handling And Real Time Monitoring Of Lidar Operations At Alo-Usu, Luis Navarro Dominguez, Vincent B. Wickwar, Jose Gamboa, Marco Milla 2015 Utah State University

The Online System For Lidar Data Handling And Real Time Monitoring Of Lidar Operations At Alo-Usu, Luis Navarro Dominguez, Vincent B. Wickwar, Jose Gamboa, Marco Milla

Conference publications

t is no longer sufficient to use lidar, such as the Rayleigh lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Utah State University (USU), to observe the middle atmosphere and reduce the data to geophysical parameters. Extended operations, with inevitable equipment, data reduction, and analysis improvements, require us to keep careful track of all these changes and how they affect the scientific products. Furthermore, many of the funding agencies and the journals now require us to do, at least, some of this. We have built three interconnected data structures to organize and manage the different hardware and software set- ups ...


Variations In Mesospheric Neutral Densities From Rayleigh Lidar Observations At Utah State University, David L. Barton, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron, Leda Sox, Luis A. Navarro 2015 Utah State University

Variations In Mesospheric Neutral Densities From Rayleigh Lidar Observations At Utah State University, David L. Barton, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron, Leda Sox, Luis A. Navarro

Conference publications

A Rayleigh lidar was operated from 1993 to 2004, at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W) at the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU). Observations were carried out on over 900 nights, 729 of which had good data starting at 45 km and going upward toward 90 km. They were reduced for absolute temperatures and relative neutral number densities. The latter at 45 km can be put on an absolute basis by using atmospheric models that go up to at least 45 km. The models’ absolute ...


Temperature Deviations In The Midlatitude Mesosphere During Stratospheric Warmings As Measured With Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Chad Fish, Joshua P. Herron 2015 Utah State University

Temperature Deviations In The Midlatitude Mesosphere During Stratospheric Warmings As Measured With Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Chad Fish, Joshua P. Herron

Conference publications

While mesospheric temperature anomalies associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) have been observed extensively in the polar regions, observations of these anomalies at midlatitudes are sparse. The original Rayleigh-scatter lidar that operated at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W) in the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU) collected an extensive set of temperature data for 11 years in the 45–90 km altitude range. This work focuses on the extensive Rayleigh lidar observations made during six major SSW events that occurred between 1993 and 2004, providing ...


Early Temperatures Observed With The Extremely Sensitive Rayleigh Lidar At Utah State University, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Matthew T. Emerick, Joshua P. Herron, David L. Barton 2015 Utah State University

Early Temperatures Observed With The Extremely Sensitive Rayleigh Lidar At Utah State University, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Matthew T. Emerick, Joshua P. Herron, David L. Barton

Conference publications

Rayleigh-scatter lidar observations were made at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Utah State University (USU) from 1993–2004 from 45–90 km. The lidar operated at 532 nm with a power-aperture-product (PAP) of ~3.1 Wm2. The sensitivity of the lidar has since been increased by a factor of 66 to 205 Wm2, extending the maximum altitude into new territory, the lower thermosphere. Observations have been extended up to 115 km, almost to the 120 km goal. Early temperatures from four ~4-week periods starting in June 2014 are presented and discussed. They are compared to each other, to the ...


Bio-Fuel Alternatives In South African Airways (Saa) Operations - Is It An Effective Response To Vulnerability Over Carbon Taxes And Penalty?, Daniel Kwasi Adjekum 2015 University of North Dakota

Bio-Fuel Alternatives In South African Airways (Saa) Operations - Is It An Effective Response To Vulnerability Over Carbon Taxes And Penalty?, Daniel Kwasi Adjekum

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The paper did a comparative analysis of the carbon emission and European Union Emission Trading Surcharges (EU ETS) of South African Airways (SAA) current fleet that used aviation jet A1 fuel and the same fleet if it had used a 25% bio-fuel ‘drop in’ for the European routes within the first quarter of the 2014 flying year (FY 14). Operational data in terms of the flight scheduled, aircraft type, total time enroute, route stage length, passenger estimates were obtained through SAA’s flight operations website. An independent t–test was conducted to compare means of the emissions. The mean carbon ...


Connectivity Of Reef Fishes Between Mangroves And Coral Reefs In Broward County, Florida, Jennifer Savaro 2015 Nova Southeastern University

Connectivity Of Reef Fishes Between Mangroves And Coral Reefs In Broward County, Florida, Jennifer Savaro

Theses and Dissertations

Many marine fishes use the mangrove ecosystem for foraging, protection, spawning, and as a nursery habitat. To develop a better understanding of energy flow between the coastal mangrove and coral reef ecosystems, the ontogentic migration and trophic connectivity of reef fishes were examined through the use of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and oxygen (O) stable isotope ratios. Juvenile and adult gray snapper Lutjanus griseus, lane snapper L. synagris, bluestriped grunt Haemulon sciurus, French grunt H. flavolineatum, sailor’s choice H. parra, yellowfin mojarra Gerres cinereus, and great barracuda Sphyraena barracuda were collected from both mangrove and coral reef sites located ...


Staghorn Coral, Acropora Cervicornis, Restoration In South Florida: Growth And Survivorship Of Outplanted Nursery Corals, Meaghan Johnson 2015 Nova Southeastern University

Staghorn Coral, Acropora Cervicornis, Restoration In South Florida: Growth And Survivorship Of Outplanted Nursery Corals, Meaghan Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis provides a detailed analysis of the growth and survivorship of outplanted Acropora cervicornis corals from underwater nurseries within three regions of the Florida Reef Tract. Substantial loss of stony coral cover on Florida’s coral reefs, including the branching staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, has occurred for decades due to disturbances such as disease, temperature induced bleaching, hurricanes, sedimentation, and pollution. This rapid population decline contributed to A. cervicornis being listed as a threatened species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in May 2006. To aid in the recovery of the species, coral fragments were grown in underwater ...


Obliczenia Rozprzestrzeniania Się Pyłu Drobnego W Powietrzu Atmosferycznym Z Wykorzystaniem Dyfuzyjnych Modeli Gaussa, Robert Oleniacz, Mateusz Rzeszutek 2015 AGH University o Science and Technology

Obliczenia Rozprzestrzeniania Się Pyłu Drobnego W Powietrzu Atmosferycznym Z Wykorzystaniem Dyfuzyjnych Modeli Gaussa, Robert Oleniacz, Mateusz Rzeszutek

Robert Oleniacz

The chapter presents a comparison of results of modelling concentrations of fine dust (suspended dust PM10) in the air with the use of two diffusion models: the Gaussian plume model (used commonly in Poland), and the Gaussian puff model CALPUFF (used significantly less frequently). It indicates discrepancies in obtained results of calculations for point emitters taking into consideration three dimensional options (with the following heights: 20, 40 and 60 m and diameters of respectively: 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 m). For particular variants, errors were visualised, resulting from use of the simple Gaussian plume model in place of ...


Hail And Fungicide Use On Corn, Adam Sisson, Daren S. Mueller, Alison E. Robertson 2015 Iowa State University

Hail And Fungicide Use On Corn, Adam Sisson, Daren S. Mueller, Alison E. Robertson

Integrated Crop Management News

Hail annually destroys approximately 1.4 percent of corn (Climate of Iowa 2006). Years like 2009 stand out vividly to many people as major hailstorms cut across parts of Iowa, damaging more than 1 million acres of corn in a single season. Many farmers and agronomists have been interested in the effects of fungicide application on corn after a hail event (Figure 1). In response, a multi-year study looking at mid-season "hail events" with fungicides applied after simulated hail events was completed. Here is a videoof the project.


Development Of An Integrated Online Balloon Flight System, Ethan E. Harstad 2015 Stratospheric Ballooning Association

Development Of An Integrated Online Balloon Flight System, Ethan E. Harstad

2015 Academic High Altitude Conference

Aerodyne Labs has been working with the Stratospheric Ballooning Association to develop an all inclusive high altitude ballooning software suite. This software suite is intended to allow every step of conducting a balloon flight to be conducted on a single website. Flight predictions can be performed many days in advance and used to automatically generate notices for both the FAA and public. Once the balloon has been launched, telemetry can be streamed to the website to allow real-time position and telemetry updates, including a dedicated view for FAA controllers. Data that is not streamed from the payload can be uploaded ...


Integrating K12 Outreach With Undergraduate & Graduate Student Research Through Balloonsat: High Altitude Balloons, J Tillman Kennon, Bryant Fong 2015 Arkansas State University - Main Campus

Integrating K12 Outreach With Undergraduate & Graduate Student Research Through Balloonsat: High Altitude Balloons, J Tillman Kennon, Bryant Fong

2015 Academic High Altitude Conference

The Arkansas BalloonSAT team has successfully launched and recovered 37 BalloonSAT’s dating back to the first flight on December 16, 2006. Numerous instruments measuring such things as atmospheric temperature, humidity, radiation, and light intensity have recorded data from different locations over the State of Arkansas. The initial focus of this project was outreach with the k-12 schools, and still involves outreach; however atmospheric research has become a significant component for this endeavor. This ongoing collaborative projection has involved a number of faculty and students from different academic backgrounds, including physics, chemistry, biology, and astronomy among different ASGC schools who ...


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