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Creating Singapore’S Longest Monthly Rainfall Record From 1839 To The Present, Elaine GAO, Bertrand TIMBAL, Fiona WILLIAMSON 2019 Singapore Management University

Creating Singapore’S Longest Monthly Rainfall Record From 1839 To The Present, Elaine Gao, Bertrand Timbal, Fiona Williamson

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Currently,the identification of decadal variability is limited by the lack of long-termmeteorological datasets; Singapore’s reliable contemporary network of automaticmeteorological stations (AWS) provides only about 30 years of rainfall data for thewhole island. In this study, rainfall data, sourced fromhistorical archives and recording monthly rainfall pre-dating the start ofofficial MacRitchie observations, are compiled from various locations acrossthe island. By making use of the contemporary AWS network, we evaluate thespatial relationship of rainfall between the historical sites and the currentMacRitchie site. This enables us to reconstruct historical rainfall atMacRitchie using the archive data, thereby building a single-location extendedrainfall record (though ...


Associated Dataset: Modeling The Seasonal Cycle Of Iron And Carbon Fluxes In The Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica, Pierre St-Laurent 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Associated Dataset: Modeling The Seasonal Cycle Of Iron And Carbon Fluxes In The Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica, Pierre St-Laurent

Data

This dataset features the results from the numerical simulation described in the associated publication (St-Laurent et al.). The simulation results are in the standard, self-documented NetCDF format (extension .nc); see https://www.unidata.ucar.edu/software/netcdf/ for more information. Files in this format can be manipulated and displayed by a wide range of freely available software. The results from the simulation are divided into monthly files (ocean_avg_0001.nc to ocean_avg_0098.nc). Each file holds 30 days worth of time-averaged daily model fields, from January 2006 to December 2013. The dataset also includes the forcings used in the model calculation ...


Measurement Of Solar Spectral Irradiance And Surface Ozone At Carrollton, Georgia, Usa, During The Great American Eclipse On 21 August 2017, Kirthi Tennakone, L Ajith DeSilva, Charles A. Zander*, Shea Rose, Austin B. Kerlin 2019 Georgia State University

Measurement Of Solar Spectral Irradiance And Surface Ozone At Carrollton, Georgia, Usa, During The Great American Eclipse On 21 August 2017, Kirthi Tennakone, L Ajith Desilva, Charles A. Zander*, Shea Rose, Austin B. Kerlin

Georgia Journal of Science

Measurements conducted at the University of West Georgia, Carrollton, Georgia, during the time of the solar eclipse of 21st August 2017 demonstrated that the integrated spectral irradiance in defined wavelength ranges in the ultraviolet and visible calculated as a fraction of the total irradiance reached a minimum at maximum obscuration of the Sun, whereas in an infrared range it was maximum. The method of analysis adopted supports the view that the changes in spectral irradiance during highly obscured partial phases is a consequence of limb darkening. In a surface ozone measurement, a minimum in ozone concentration occurred 30 +_ ...


Thresholds And Drivers Of Coral Calcification Responses To Climate Change, Niklas Kornder, Bernhard Riegl, Joana Figueiredo 2019 University of Amsterdam - The Netherlands; Nova Southeastern University

Thresholds And Drivers Of Coral Calcification Responses To Climate Change, Niklas Kornder, Bernhard Riegl, Joana Figueiredo

Bernhard Riegl

Increased temperature and CO2 levels are considered key drivers of coral reef degradation. However, individual assessments of ecological responses (calcification) to these stressors are often contradicting. To detect underlying drivers of heterogeneity in coral calcification responses, we developed a procedure for the inclusion of stress–effect relationships in ecological meta‐analyses. We applied this technique to a dataset of 294 empirical observations from 62 peer‐reviewed publications testing individual and combined effects of elevated temperature and pCO2 on coral calcification. Our results show an additive interaction between warming and acidification, which reduces coral calcification by 20% when pCO ...


Short‐Term Toxicity Of 1‐Methylnaphthalene To Americamysis Bahia And 5 Deep‐Sea Crustaceans, Anthony H. Knap, Nicholas Turner, Gopal Bera, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Tamara Frank, Jose Sericano, Bernhard Riegl 2019 Texas A&M University

Short‐Term Toxicity Of 1‐Methylnaphthalene To Americamysis Bahia And 5 Deep‐Sea Crustaceans, Anthony H. Knap, Nicholas Turner, Gopal Bera, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Tamara Frank, Jose Sericano, Bernhard Riegl

Bernhard Riegl

There are few studies that have evaluated hydrocarbon toxicity to vertically migrating deep‐sea micronekton. Crustaceans were collected alive using a 9‐m2 Tucker trawl with a thermally insulated cod end and returned to the laboratory in 10 °C seawater. Toxicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-methylnaphthalene to Americamysis bahia, Janicella spinacauda, Systellaspis debilis, Sergestes sp., Sergia sp., and a euphausiid species was assessed in a constant exposure toxicity test utilizing a novel passive dosing toxicity testing protocol. The endpoint of the median lethal concentration tests was mortality, and the results revealed high sensitivity of the deep‐sea micronekton ...


Short‐Term Toxicity Of 1‐Methylnaphthalene To Americamysis Bahia And 5 Deep‐Sea Crustaceans, Anthony H. Knap, Nicholas Turner, Gopal Bera, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Tamara Frank, Jose Sericano, Bernhard Riegl 2019 Texas A&M University

Short‐Term Toxicity Of 1‐Methylnaphthalene To Americamysis Bahia And 5 Deep‐Sea Crustaceans, Anthony H. Knap, Nicholas Turner, Gopal Bera, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Tamara Frank, Jose Sericano, Bernhard Riegl

D. Abigail Renegar

There are few studies that have evaluated hydrocarbon toxicity to vertically migrating deep‐sea micronekton. Crustaceans were collected alive using a 9‐m2 Tucker trawl with a thermally insulated cod end and returned to the laboratory in 10 °C seawater. Toxicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-methylnaphthalene to Americamysis bahia, Janicella spinacauda, Systellaspis debilis, Sergestes sp., Sergia sp., and a euphausiid species was assessed in a constant exposure toxicity test utilizing a novel passive dosing toxicity testing protocol. The endpoint of the median lethal concentration tests was mortality, and the results revealed high sensitivity of the deep‐sea micronekton ...


Frontline Experiences From Changing Fisheries Bycatch Paradigms, David Kerstetter 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Frontline Experiences From Changing Fisheries Bycatch Paradigms, David Kerstetter

David Kerstetter

No abstract provided.


A Principal Component Analysis Of Vertical Temperature Profiles For Tracking Movements Of Large Pelagic Fishes, Kathryn G. Carmody, Arthur Mariano, David Kerstetter 2019 Nova Southeastern University

A Principal Component Analysis Of Vertical Temperature Profiles For Tracking Movements Of Large Pelagic Fishes, Kathryn G. Carmody, Arthur Mariano, David Kerstetter

David Kerstetter

Pop-up satellite archival tag (PSAT) technology that records depth, temperature, and light-level data has expanded the understanding of free-swimming behavior for numerous pelagic animals. Astronomical algorithms using these light-level data have allowed geolocation estimates of daily longitude and latitude. However, many pelagic animals have a crepuscular behavior pattern in which individuals are at depths below the photic layer during the day, thus precluding the use of traditional light-based movement algorithms for geolocation in such species as swordfish. A principal component analysis (PCA) of temperature profiles is described herein that utilizes depth and temperature data rather than light to estimate the ...


Outplanting Technique, Host Genotype, And Site Affect The Initial Success Of Outplanted Acropora Cervicornis, Elizabeth Goergen, David S. Gilliam 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Outplanting Technique, Host Genotype, And Site Affect The Initial Success Of Outplanted Acropora Cervicornis, Elizabeth Goergen, David S. Gilliam

David Gilliam

Acropora cervicornis is the most widely used coral species for reef restoration in the greater Caribbean. However, outplanting methodologies (e.g., colony density, size, host genotype, and attachment technique) vary greatly, and to date have not been evaluated for optimality across multiple sites. Two experiments were completed during this study, the first evaluated the effects of attachment technique, colony size, and genotype by outplanting 405 A. cervicornis colonies, from ten genotypes, four size classes, and three attachment techniques (epoxy, nail and cable tie, or puck) across three sites. Colony survival, health condition, tissue productivity, and growth were assessed across one ...


Impacts Of A Regional, Multi-Year, Multi-Species Coral Disease Outbreak In Southeast Florida, Charles Walton, Nicole K. Hayes, David S. Gilliam 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Impacts Of A Regional, Multi-Year, Multi-Species Coral Disease Outbreak In Southeast Florida, Charles Walton, Nicole K. Hayes, David S. Gilliam

David Gilliam

Globally coral reefs have been declining at alarming rates as a result of anthropogenic stressors, leading to increased frequency and severity of widespread bleaching and disease events. These events are often associated with increased water temperatures due to climate change as well as regional and local stress from nutrient enrichment through runoff and sedimentation from coastal development. In late 2014, a white syndrome disease outbreak was reported off the coast of southeast Florida and was subsequently documented spreading throughout the region. This study examined the regional impacts of the disease event on the southeast Florida stony coral population utilizing stony ...


Identifying Causes Of Temporal Changes In Acropora Cervicornis Populations And The Potential For Recovery, Elizabeth Goergen, Alison L. Moulding, Brian K. Walker, David S. Gilliam 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Identifying Causes Of Temporal Changes In Acropora Cervicornis Populations And The Potential For Recovery, Elizabeth Goergen, Alison L. Moulding, Brian K. Walker, David S. Gilliam

David Gilliam

Corals, specifically the Atlantic staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, are under major threat as disturbance events such as storms and disease and predation outbreaks increase in frequency. Since its population declines due to a wide spread disease event in the early 1980s, limited long-term monitoring studies describing the impact of current threats and potential recovery have been completed. The aim of this study was to document the impacts of environmental (tropical storms, increased wind) and biological (disease and predation) threats on A. cervicornis to further understand its population dynamics and potential for recovery. Two high-density A. cervicornis patches (greater than 1 ...


Short‐Term Toxicity Of 1‐Methylnaphthalene To Americamysis Bahia And 5 Deep‐Sea Crustaceans, Anthony H. Knap, Nicholas Turner, Gopal Bera, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Tamara Frank, Jose Sericano, Bernhard Riegl 2019 Texas A&M University

Short‐Term Toxicity Of 1‐Methylnaphthalene To Americamysis Bahia And 5 Deep‐Sea Crustaceans, Anthony H. Knap, Nicholas Turner, Gopal Bera, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Tamara Frank, Jose Sericano, Bernhard Riegl

Tamara Frank

There are few studies that have evaluated hydrocarbon toxicity to vertically migrating deep‐sea micronekton. Crustaceans were collected alive using a 9‐m2 Tucker trawl with a thermally insulated cod end and returned to the laboratory in 10 °C seawater. Toxicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-methylnaphthalene to Americamysis bahia, Janicella spinacauda, Systellaspis debilis, Sergestes sp., Sergia sp., and a euphausiid species was assessed in a constant exposure toxicity test utilizing a novel passive dosing toxicity testing protocol. The endpoint of the median lethal concentration tests was mortality, and the results revealed high sensitivity of the deep‐sea micronekton ...


Thresholds And Drivers Of Coral Calcification Responses To Climate Change, Niklas Kornder, Bernhard Riegl, Joana Figueiredo 2019 University of Amsterdam - The Netherlands; Nova Southeastern University

Thresholds And Drivers Of Coral Calcification Responses To Climate Change, Niklas Kornder, Bernhard Riegl, Joana Figueiredo

Joana Figueiredo

Increased temperature and CO2 levels are considered key drivers of coral reef degradation. However, individual assessments of ecological responses (calcification) to these stressors are often contradicting. To detect underlying drivers of heterogeneity in coral calcification responses, we developed a procedure for the inclusion of stress–effect relationships in ecological meta‐analyses. We applied this technique to a dataset of 294 empirical observations from 62 peer‐reviewed publications testing individual and combined effects of elevated temperature and pCO2 on coral calcification. Our results show an additive interaction between warming and acidification, which reduces coral calcification by 20% when pCO ...


Coral Larvae Are Poor Swimmers And Require Fine-Scale Reef Structure To Settle, Tom Hata, Joshua S. Madin, Vivian R. Cumbo, Mark W. Denny, Joana Figueiredo, Saki Harii, Christopher J. Thomas, Andrew H. Baird 2019 Stanford University

Coral Larvae Are Poor Swimmers And Require Fine-Scale Reef Structure To Settle, Tom Hata, Joshua S. Madin, Vivian R. Cumbo, Mark W. Denny, Joana Figueiredo, Saki Harii, Christopher J. Thomas, Andrew H. Baird

Joana Figueiredo

Reef coral assemblages are highly dynamic and subject to repeated disturbances, which are predicted to increase in response to climate change. Consequently there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying different recovery scenarios. Recent work has demonstrated that reef structural complexity can facilitate coral recovery, but the mechanism remains unclear. Similarly, experiments suggest that coral larvae can distinguish between the water from healthy and degraded reefs, however, whether or not they can use these cues to navigate to healthy reefs is an open question. Here, we use a meta-analytic approach to document that coral larval ...


Cave Dripwater Isotopic Signals Related To The Altitudinal Gradient Of Mount-Lebanon: Implication For Speleothem Studies, Carole Nehme, Sophie Verheyden, Fadi H. Nader, Jocelyne Adjizian-Gerard, Dominique Genty, Kevin De Bont, Benedicte Minster, Ghada Salem, David Verstraten, Philippe Clayes 2019 Laboratoire IDEES UMR 6266 CNRS and Vrije Universiteit Brussel

Cave Dripwater Isotopic Signals Related To The Altitudinal Gradient Of Mount-Lebanon: Implication For Speleothem Studies, Carole Nehme, Sophie Verheyden, Fadi H. Nader, Jocelyne Adjizian-Gerard, Dominique Genty, Kevin De Bont, Benedicte Minster, Ghada Salem, David Verstraten, Philippe Clayes

International Journal of Speleology

An important step in paleoclimate reconstructions based on vadose cave carbonate deposits or speleothems is to evaluate the sensitivity of the cave environment and speleothems to regional climate. Accordingly, we studied four caves, located at different altitudes along the western flank of Mount-Lebanon (Eastern Mediterranean). The objectives of this study are to identify the present-day variability in temperature, pCO2, and water isotopic composition and to assess the possible influence of the altitudinal gradient on cave drip waters and cave streams. We present here an overview of the spatial variability of rainwater based on local and regional data, and we ...


Seasonal Origins Of Soil Water Used By Trees, Scott T. Allen, James W. Kirchner, Sabine Braun, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Gregory R. Goldsmith 2019 ETH Zurich

Seasonal Origins Of Soil Water Used By Trees, Scott T. Allen, James W. Kirchner, Sabine Braun, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Gregory R. Goldsmith

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Rain recharges soil water storages and either percolates downward into aquifers and streams or is returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration. Although it is commonly assumed that summer rainfall recharges plant-available water during the growing season, the seasonal origins of water used by plants have not been systematically explored. We characterize the seasonal origins of waters in soils and trees by comparing their midsummer isotopic signatures (δ2H) to seasonal isotopic cycles in precipitation, using a new seasonal origin index. Across 182 Swiss forest sites, xylem water isotopic signatures show that summer rain was not the predominant water source for ...


Data Supporting The Paper "Soot Compaction During Cloud Processing: Observations From Laboratory And Field Studies", Janarjan Bhandari, Swarup China, Kamal Kant Chandrakar, Greg Kinney, Will Cantrell, Raymond Shaw, Lynn R. Mazzoleni, Giulia Girotto, Noopur Sharma, Kyle Gorkowski, Stefania Gilardoni, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Nicola Zanca, Giulia Pavese, Francesco Esposito, Manvendra Dubey, Allison Aiken, Rajan K. Chakrabarty, Hans Moosmüller, Timothy B. Onasch, Rahul A. Zaveri, Barbara Scarnato, Paolo Fialho, Claudio Mazzoleni 2019 Michigan Technological University

Data Supporting The Paper "Soot Compaction During Cloud Processing: Observations From Laboratory And Field Studies", Janarjan Bhandari, Swarup China, Kamal Kant Chandrakar, Greg Kinney, Will Cantrell, Raymond Shaw, Lynn R. Mazzoleni, Giulia Girotto, Noopur Sharma, Kyle Gorkowski, Stefania Gilardoni, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Nicola Zanca, Giulia Pavese, Francesco Esposito, Manvendra Dubey, Allison Aiken, Rajan K. Chakrabarty, Hans Moosmüller, Timothy B. Onasch, Rahul A. Zaveri, Barbara Scarnato, Paolo Fialho, Claudio Mazzoleni

Department of Physics Publications

No abstract provided.


Vertical Marine Snow Distribution In The Stratified Hypersaline, And Anoxic Orca Basin (Gulf Of Mexico), Arne Diercks, Kai Ziervogel, Ryan Sibert, Samantha B. Joye, Vernon Asper 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

Vertical Marine Snow Distribution In The Stratified Hypersaline, And Anoxic Orca Basin (Gulf Of Mexico), Arne Diercks, Kai Ziervogel, Ryan Sibert, Samantha B. Joye, Vernon Asper

Faculty Publications

We present a complete description of the depth distribution of marine snow in Orca Basin (Gulf of Mexico), from sea surface through the pycnocline to within 10 m of the seafloor. Orca Basin is an intriguing location for studying marine snow because of its unique geological and hydrographic setting: the deepest ~200 m of the basin are filled with anoxic hypersaline brine. A typical deep ocean profile of marine snow distribution was observed from the sea surface to the pycnocline, namely a surface maximum in total particle number and midwater minimum. However, instead of a nepheloid (particle-rich) layer positioned near ...


Identifying Causes Of Temporal Changes In Acropora Cervicornis Populations And The Potential For Recovery, Elizabeth Goergen, Alison L. Moulding, Brian K. Walker, David S. Gilliam 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Identifying Causes Of Temporal Changes In Acropora Cervicornis Populations And The Potential For Recovery, Elizabeth Goergen, Alison L. Moulding, Brian K. Walker, David S. Gilliam

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Corals, specifically the Atlantic staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, are under major threat as disturbance events such as storms and disease and predation outbreaks increase in frequency. Since its population declines due to a wide spread disease event in the early 1980s, limited long-term monitoring studies describing the impact of current threats and potential recovery have been completed. The aim of this study was to document the impacts of environmental (tropical storms, increased wind) and biological (disease and predation) threats on A. cervicornis to further understand its population dynamics and potential for recovery. Two high-density A. cervicornis patches (greater than 1 ...


The Fire And Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment—A Plan For Integrated, Large Fire–Atmosphere Field Campaigns, Susan Prichard, N. Sim Larkin, Roger Ottmar, Nancy H.F. French, Kirk Baker, Tim Brown, Craig B. Clements, Matt Dickinson, Andrew Hudak, Adam Kochanski, Rod Linn, Yongqiang Liu, Brian Potter, William Mell, Danielle Tanzer, Shawn Urbanski, Adam Watts 2019 University of Washington

The Fire And Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment—A Plan For Integrated, Large Fire–Atmosphere Field Campaigns, Susan Prichard, N. Sim Larkin, Roger Ottmar, Nancy H.F. French, Kirk Baker, Tim Brown, Craig B. Clements, Matt Dickinson, Andrew Hudak, Adam Kochanski, Rod Linn, Yongqiang Liu, Brian Potter, William Mell, Danielle Tanzer, Shawn Urbanski, Adam Watts

Faculty Publications

The Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE) is designed to collect integrated observations from large wildland fires and provide evaluation datasets for new models and operational systems. Wildland fire, smoke dispersion, and atmospheric chemistry models have become more sophisticated, and next-generation operational models will require evaluation datasets that are coordinated and comprehensive for their evaluation and advancement. Integrated measurements are required, including ground-based observations of fuels and fire behavior, estimates of fire-emitted heat and emissions fluxes, and observations of near-source micrometeorology, plume properties, smoke dispersion, and atmospheric chemistry. To address these requirements the FASMEE campaign design includes a study ...


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