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Phosphorus Rate Effects With And Without Avail® On Dryland Winter Wheat In An Eroded Calcareous Soil, Ryan C. Hodges 2019 Utah State University

Phosphorus Rate Effects With And Without Avail® On Dryland Winter Wheat In An Eroded Calcareous Soil, Ryan C. Hodges

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Soluble phosphorus fertilizer is bound in the soil rapidly after application in soils high in calcium. A fertilizer additive known as AVAIL® (J.R. Simplot Company) is purported to keep applied phosphorus fertilizer more available to plants by binding to soil minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and iron, thereby reducing phosphorus binding. This could prove useful due to the attraction of AVAIL® with cations such as Ca2+, but is fairly unstudied for dryland wheat production on alkaline, calcium-rich soils. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of low-rate fertilizer treatments with AVAIL® on dryland small grain ...


General Aviation Weather Encounter Case Studies, John M. Lanicci, Massoud Bazargan, Daniel Halperin, Scott Shappell, Jaclyn Baron, Rebecca Iden, Carla Hackworth, Kali Holcomb 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

General Aviation Weather Encounter Case Studies, John M. Lanicci, Massoud Bazargan, Daniel Halperin, Scott Shappell, Jaclyn Baron, Rebecca Iden, Carla Hackworth, Kali Holcomb

Scott Shappell

This study presents a compilation of 24 cases involving general aviation (GA) pilots’ weather encounters over the continental U.S. The project team interviewed pilots who had experienced a weather encounter, and we examined their backgrounds, flight experience, and weather encounter details. Results from meteorological data analysis for each weather encounter were consistent with findings of larger GA weather accident studies in terms of the types of hazards encountered and flight phase during which the encounters occurred. Investigation of pilot weather products and the sources from which they were obtained revealed a lack of uniformity of pre-flight data sources and ...


Ionospheric Signatures Of Acoustic Waves Generated By Transient Tropospheric Forcing, M. D. Zettergren, J. B. Snively 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Ionospheric Signatures Of Acoustic Waves Generated By Transient Tropospheric Forcing, M. D. Zettergren, J. B. Snively

Matthew David Zettergren

Acoustic waves generated by tropospheric sources may attain significant amplitudes in the thermosphere and overlying ionosphere. Although they are weak precursors to gravity waves in the mesosphere below, acoustic waves may achieve temperature and vertical wind perturbations on the order of approximately tens of Kelvin and m/s throughout the E and F regions. Their perturbations to total electron content are predicted to be detectable by groundbased radar and GPS receivers; they also drive field-aligned currents that may be detectable in situ via magnetometers. Although transient and short lived, ionospheric signatures of acoustic waves may provide new and quantitative insight ...


Dynamics Of Density Cavities Generated By Frictional Heating: Formation, Distortion, And Instability, M. D. Zettergren, J. L. Semeter, H. Dahlgren 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Dynamics Of Density Cavities Generated By Frictional Heating: Formation, Distortion, And Instability, M. D. Zettergren, J. L. Semeter, H. Dahlgren

Matthew David Zettergren

A simulation study of the generation and evolution of mesoscale density cavities in the polar ionosphere is conducted using a time-dependent, nonlinear, quasi-electrostatic model. The model demonstrates that density cavities, generated by frictional heating, can form in as little as 90 s due to strong electric fields of ∼120 mV/m, which are sometimes observed near auroral zone and polar cap arcs. Asymmetric density cavity features and strong plasma density gradients perpendicular to the geomagnetic field are naturally generated as a consequence of the strong convection and finite extent of the auroral feature. The walls of the auroral density cavities ...


Nonlinear Ionospheric Responses To Large-Amplitude Infrasonic-Acoustic Waves Generated By Undersea Earthquakes, M. D. Zettergren, J. B. Snively, A. Komjathy, O. P. Verkhoglyadova 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Nonlinear Ionospheric Responses To Large-Amplitude Infrasonic-Acoustic Waves Generated By Undersea Earthquakes, M. D. Zettergren, J. B. Snively, A. Komjathy, O. P. Verkhoglyadova

Matthew David Zettergren

Numerical models of ionospheric coupling with the neutral atmosphere are used to investigate perturbations of plasma density, vertically integrated total electron content (TEC), neutral velocity, and neutral temperature associated with large-amplitude acoustic waves generated by the initial ocean surface displacements from strong undersea earthquakes. A simplified source model for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake is constructed from estimates of initial ocean surface responses to approximate the vertical motions over realistic spatial and temporal scales. Resulting TEC perturbations from modeling case studies appear consistent with observational data, reproducing pronounced TEC depletions which are shown to be a consequence of the impacts of ...


Measuring The Seeds Of Ion Outflow: Auroral Sounding Rocket Observations Of Low-Altitude Ion Heating And Circulation, P. A. Fernandes, K. A. Lynch, M. Zettergren, D. L. Hampton, T. A. Bekkeng, et al. 2019 Los Alamos National Labratory

Measuring The Seeds Of Ion Outflow: Auroral Sounding Rocket Observations Of Low-Altitude Ion Heating And Circulation, P. A. Fernandes, K. A. Lynch, M. Zettergren, D. L. Hampton, T. A. Bekkeng, Et Al.

Matthew David Zettergren

We present an analysis of in situ measurements from the MICA (Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator) nightside auroral sounding rocket with comparisons to a multifluid ionospheric model. MICA made observations at altitudes below 325 km of the thermal ion kinetic particle distributions that are the origins of ion outflow. Late flight, in the vicinity of an auroral arc, we observe frictional processes controlling the ion temperature. Upflow of these cold ions is attributed to either the ambipolar field resulting from the heated electrons or possibly to ion-neutral collisions. We measure convection away from the arc (poleward) and downflows of ...


Movement Of Lifetime Maximum Intensity Locations During The North Atlantic Hurricane Season, Morgan Steckler 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Movement Of Lifetime Maximum Intensity Locations During The North Atlantic Hurricane Season, Morgan Steckler

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Where a storm reaches its lifetime maximum intensity (LMI) can be a powerful indicator of tropical cyclone intensification patterns. Any changes in this location may demonstrate how hurricanes are affected by climate change. Studies on the annual and decadal trends in LMI location have shown that the latitude where storms are reaching their LMI is shifting, but at different rates and in different directions depending on the ocean basin. In the North Atlantic, for example, LMI location seems to be moving slightly closer to the equator, especially for those storms with the greatest intensities. LMI location patterns have yet to ...


The Impact Of Trees On Passive Survivability During Extreme Heat Events In Warm And Humid Regions, Ulrike Passe, Janette R. Thompson, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Boshun Gao, Breanna L. Marmur 2019 Iowa State University

The Impact Of Trees On Passive Survivability During Extreme Heat Events In Warm And Humid Regions, Ulrike Passe, Janette R. Thompson, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Boshun Gao, Breanna L. Marmur

Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Communities are increasingly affected by excessive heat. The likelihood of extreme heat events is predicted to increase in the Midwest region of the United States. By mid-century (2036–2065), one year out of 10 is projected to have a 5-day period that is 13°F warmer than a comparable earlier period (1976–2005). The frequency of high humidity/dew point days (“extra moist tropical air mass days,” MT++ synoptic climate classification system) has also increased significantly during a similar period (1975–2010) and between 2010 and 2014 included 8 of 26 heat events. This impact is exacerbated by the fact ...


The Impact Of Trees On Passive Survivability During Extreme Heat Events In Warm And Humid Regions, Ulrike Passe, Janette R. Thompson, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Boshun Gao, Breanna L. Marmur 2019 Iowa State University

The Impact Of Trees On Passive Survivability During Extreme Heat Events In Warm And Humid Regions, Ulrike Passe, Janette R. Thompson, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Boshun Gao, Breanna L. Marmur

Janette R. Thompson

Communities are increasingly affected by excessive heat. The likelihood of extreme heat events is predicted to increase in the Midwest region of the United States. By mid-century (2036–2065), one year out of 10 is projected to have a 5-day period that is 13°F warmer than a comparable earlier period (1976–2005). The frequency of high humidity/dew point days (“extra moist tropical air mass days,” MT++ synoptic climate classification system) has also increased significantly during a similar period (1975–2010) and between 2010 and 2014 included 8 of 26 heat events. This impact is exacerbated by the fact ...


The Impact Of Trees On Passive Survivability During Extreme Heat Events In Warm And Humid Regions, Ulrike Passe, Janette R. Thompson, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Boshun Gao, Breanna L. Marmur 2019 Iowa State University

The Impact Of Trees On Passive Survivability During Extreme Heat Events In Warm And Humid Regions, Ulrike Passe, Janette R. Thompson, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Boshun Gao, Breanna L. Marmur

Ulrike Passe

Communities are increasingly affected by excessive heat. The likelihood of extreme heat events is predicted to increase in the Midwest region of the United States. By mid-century (2036–2065), one year out of 10 is projected to have a 5-day period that is 13°F warmer than a comparable earlier period (1976–2005). The frequency of high humidity/dew point days (“extra moist tropical air mass days,” MT++ synoptic climate classification system) has also increased significantly during a similar period (1975–2010) and between 2010 and 2014 included 8 of 26 heat events. This impact is exacerbated by the fact ...


The Impact Of Trees On Passive Survivability During Extreme Heat Events In Warm And Humid Regions, Ulrike Passe, Janette R. Thompson, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Boshun Gao, Breanna L. Marmur 2019 Iowa State University

The Impact Of Trees On Passive Survivability During Extreme Heat Events In Warm And Humid Regions, Ulrike Passe, Janette R. Thompson, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Boshun Gao, Breanna L. Marmur

Breanna L. Marmur

Communities are increasingly affected by excessive heat. The likelihood of extreme heat events is predicted to increase in the Midwest region of the United States. By mid-century (2036–2065), one year out of 10 is projected to have a 5-day period that is 13°F warmer than a comparable earlier period (1976–2005). The frequency of high humidity/dew point days (“extra moist tropical air mass days,” MT++ synoptic climate classification system) has also increased significantly during a similar period (1975–2010) and between 2010 and 2014 included 8 of 26 heat events. This impact is exacerbated by the fact ...


Detection Of Selection Signatures Among Brazilian, Sri Lankan, And Egyptian Chicken Populations Under Different Environmental Conditions, Muhammed Walugembe, Francesca Bertolini, Chandraratne Mahinda B. Dematawewa, Matheus P. Reis, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild 2019 Iowa State University

Detection Of Selection Signatures Among Brazilian, Sri Lankan, And Egyptian Chicken Populations Under Different Environmental Conditions, Muhammed Walugembe, Francesca Bertolini, Chandraratne Mahinda B. Dematawewa, Matheus P. Reis, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild

Max Rothschild

Extreme environmental conditions are a major challenge in livestock production. Changes in climate, particularly those that contribute to weather extremes like drought or excessive humidity, may result in reduced performance and reproduction and could compromise the animal’s immune function. Animal survival within extreme environmental conditions could be in response to natural selection and to artificial selection for production traits that over time together may leave selection signatures in the genome. The aim of this study was to identify selection signatures that may be involved in the adaptation of indigenous chickens from two different climatic regions (Sri Lanka = Tropical; Egypt ...


The Impact Of Trees On Passive Survivability During Extreme Heat Events In Warm And Humid Regions, Ulrike Passe, Janette R. Thompson, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Boshun Gao, Breanna L. Marmur 2019 Iowa State University

The Impact Of Trees On Passive Survivability During Extreme Heat Events In Warm And Humid Regions, Ulrike Passe, Janette R. Thompson, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Boshun Gao, Breanna L. Marmur

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Communities are increasingly affected by excessive heat. The likelihood of extreme heat events is predicted to increase in the Midwest region of the United States. By mid-century (2036–2065), one year out of 10 is projected to have a 5-day period that is 13°F warmer than a comparable earlier period (1976–2005). The frequency of high humidity/dew point days (“extra moist tropical air mass days,” MT++ synoptic climate classification system) has also increased significantly during a similar period (1975–2010) and between 2010 and 2014 included 8 of 26 heat events. This impact is exacerbated by the fact ...


Comparison Of Terrain Effects In Divergent Versus Non-Divergent Barotropic Models, Tyler E. Green, Thomas A. Guinn 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Comparison Of Terrain Effects In Divergent Versus Non-Divergent Barotropic Models, Tyler E. Green, Thomas A. Guinn

Beyond: Undergraduate Research Journal

The effects of including terrain in divergent and non-divergent, single-level barotropic models are examined in detail using a global spectral model. The non-divergent model solves the barotropic vorticity equation, while the divergent model solves the shallow water equations. In both models, the impact of terrain is evaluated by examining the evolution of the predicted heights of a pressure surface. Four simulations with initially zonal flow were run for each model using a two-dimensional Gaussian mountain shape for terrain, with two different mean fluid depths of 5,000 m and 7,500 m, and two different peak mountain heights of 2 ...


Monitoring Lesser Known Harmful Algal Blooms On The Oregon Coast, Taylor Dodrill, Tawnya D. Peterson, Matthew Hunter, Micah Rogers 2019 Portland State University

Monitoring Lesser Known Harmful Algal Blooms On The Oregon Coast, Taylor Dodrill, Tawnya D. Peterson, Matthew Hunter, Micah Rogers

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Annual Conference

Ocean warming has expanded the niche of harmful algal blooms (HABs), including HABs previously believed to pose little risk of shellfish contamination in the Pacific Northwest. Monitoring efforts in Washington and California have demonstrated that Dinophysis spp. is a HAB of emerging concern and has been linked to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning events. However, quantitative monitoring for Dinophysis spp. on the Oregon Coast has been limited. This analysis provides a preliminary characterization of risk that Dinophysis spp. poses to shellfish consumers in Oregon. Furthermore, we assess the predator-prey interaction between Dinophysis spp. and its prey, Mesodinium rubrum, to determine whether their ...


Model Data For Jgr Paper "The Role Of Mjo Propagation, Lifetime And Intensity On Modulating The Temporal Evolution Of The Mjo Extratropical Response", Cheng Zheng, Edmund Kar Man Chang 2019 Stony Brook University

Model Data For Jgr Paper "The Role Of Mjo Propagation, Lifetime And Intensity On Modulating The Temporal Evolution Of The Mjo Extratropical Response", Cheng Zheng, Edmund Kar Man Chang

SoMAS Research Data

These data represent a selection of the idealized model data analyzed and presented in the paper "The role of MJO propagation, lifetime and intensity on modulating the temporal evolution of the MJO extratropical response" published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheres. Data description: The directory "ensemble_mean" contains the data using ensemble mean of 1000 model members with different initial conditions. First 10 members of the 1000 members are stored in the "individual_member" folder. The data of experiments conducted by the stationary wave model are stored in the "stationary_wave_model" folder. The description of each experiment settings (different heating) can be ...


Detecting Change: Observations Of Temperature And Precipitation Across Virginia’S Climate Divisions, Jeremy S. Hoffman, Michael J. Allen, Christopher F. Labosier 2019 The Science Museum of Virginia

Detecting Change: Observations Of Temperature And Precipitation Across Virginia’S Climate Divisions, Jeremy S. Hoffman, Michael J. Allen, Christopher F. Labosier

Virginia Journal of Science

Modern global climate change is primarily attributable to human activities and the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Climate change impacts span a range of sectors, including agriculture, forestry, public health, and water resource management. The Commonwealth of Virginia has already and will continue to deal with many of these impacts, yet lacks concentrated effort to detect, document, and adapt to local climate changes. This study documents observed changes in temperature and precipitation across Virginia’s six climate divisions. Mean seasonal anomalies of minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation from 1986 to 2016 are examined relative to a long-term ...


Cloud Phase And Relative Humidity Distributions Over The Southern Ocean In Austral Summer Based On In Situ Observations And Cam5 Simulations, John D’Alessandro, Minghui Diao, Chenglai Wu, Xiaohong Liu, Jorgen Jensen, Britton Stephens 2019 San Jose State University

Cloud Phase And Relative Humidity Distributions Over The Southern Ocean In Austral Summer Based On In Situ Observations And Cam5 Simulations, John D’Alessandro, Minghui Diao, Chenglai Wu, Xiaohong Liu, Jorgen Jensen, Britton Stephens

Faculty Publications

Cloud phase and relative humidity (RH) distributions at -67°–0°C over the Southern Ocean during austral summer are compared between in situ airborne observations and global climate simulations. A scale-aware comparison is conducted using horizontally averaged observations from 0.1–50 km. Cloud phase frequencies, RH distributions and liquid mass fraction are found less affected by horizontal resolutions than liquid and ice water content (LWC, IWC), liquid and ice number concentrations (Ncliq, Ncice), and ice supersaturation (ISS) frequency. At -10°–0°C, observations show 27%–34% and 17%–37% of liquid and mixed phases, while simulations show 60%–70 ...


Cloud Phase And Relative Humidity Distributions Over The Southern Ocean In Austral Summer Based On In Situ Observations And Cam5 Simulations, John J. D’Alessandro, Minghui Diao, Chenglai Wu, Xiaohong Liu, Jorgen B. Jensen, Britton B. Stephens 2019 San Jose State University

Cloud Phase And Relative Humidity Distributions Over The Southern Ocean In Austral Summer Based On In Situ Observations And Cam5 Simulations, John J. D’Alessandro, Minghui Diao, Chenglai Wu, Xiaohong Liu, Jorgen B. Jensen, Britton B. Stephens

Minghui Diao

Cloud phase and relative humidity (RH) distributions at -67°–0°C over the Southern Ocean during austral summer are compared between in situ airborne observations and global climate simulations. A scale-aware comparison is conducted using horizontally averaged observations from 0.1–50 km. Cloud phase frequencies, RH distributions and liquid mass fraction are found less affected by horizontal resolutions than liquid and ice water content (LWC, IWC), liquid and ice number concentrations (Ncliq, Ncice), and ice supersaturation (ISS) frequency. At -10°–0°C, observations show 27%–34% and 17%–37% of liquid and mixed phases, while simulations show 60%–70 ...


The Effects Of Reactant Concentration And Air Flow Rate In The Consumption Of Dissolved O2 During The Photochemistry Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman 2019 University of Kentucky

The Effects Of Reactant Concentration And Air Flow Rate In The Consumption Of Dissolved O2 During The Photochemistry Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The sunlight photochemistry of the organic chromophore pyruvic acid (PA) in water generates ketyl and acetyl radicals that contribute to the production and processing of atmospheric aerosols. The photochemical mechanism is highly sensitive to dissolved oxygen content, [O2(aq)], among other environmental conditions. Thus, herein we investigate the photolysis (λ ≥ 305 nm) of 10–200 mM PA at pH 1.0 in water covering the relevant range 0 ≤ [O2(aq)] ≤ 1.3 mM. The rapid consumption of dissolved oxygen by the intermediate photolytic radicals is monitored in real time with a dissolved oxygen electrode. In addition, the rate ...


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