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Bonnet Carré Spillway Freshwater Transport And Corresponding Biochemical Properties In The Mississippi Bight, Sabrina M. Parra, Virginie Sanial, Adam D. Boyette, M. Kemal Cambazoglu, Inia M. Soto, Adam T. Greer, Luciano M. Chiaverano, Angie Hoover, Michael S. Dinniman 2020 Old Dominion University

Bonnet Carré Spillway Freshwater Transport And Corresponding Biochemical Properties In The Mississippi Bight, Sabrina M. Parra, Virginie Sanial, Adam D. Boyette, M. Kemal Cambazoglu, Inia M. Soto, Adam T. Greer, Luciano M. Chiaverano, Angie Hoover, Michael S. Dinniman

CCPO Publications

Large freshwater pulses to coastal ecosystems change local hydrologic regimes and alter biogeochemical processes. The Mississippi Bight coastal ecosystem, located in the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf, is influenced by extensive freshwater inputs: the Mississippi River (MSR) and several smaller rivers to the east. Under river flood conditions, MSR waters flow through the Bonnet Carré Spillway (BCS) to relieve pressure on levees in New Orleans, Louisiana. In 2015, mild wintertime temperatures and heavy rainfall throughout the MSR watershed led to extreme flooding and prompted an unusually early BCS opening on January 10, 2016 for 23 days. This study examines the ...


Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause 2020 East Tennessee State University

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Saltville valley in southwestern Virginia is home to Quaternary localities containing paleontological and archaeological remains. Historically the valley has been mined for salt and the small lakes, ponds and springs along the valley floor have a brackish signature. A preliminary report on the site’s ostracode fauna suggested that the site’s water was not always saline. This study analyzed modern and Quaternary ostracodes to understand the valley’s hydrologic and chemical evolution. Sediments contained primarily freshwater species, including the environmentally sensitive Candona crogmaniana. The presence of Pelocypris tuberculatum and a new Fabaeformiscandona species throughout a vertical section spanning ...


What Is The U.S. Drought Monitor?, National Drought Mitigation Center 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

What Is The U.S. Drought Monitor?, National Drought Mitigation Center

Publications of the National Drought Mitigation Center

The USDA uses the map as a trigger for programs that help agricultural producers recover from drought and other natural disasters:

Livestock Forage Disaster Program (LFP)

Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm Raised Fish Program (ELAP)

Fast-Track Secretarial Disaster Declarations

Emergency Loans Program


The U.S. Drought Monitor Network: Improving Drought Early Warning, THE U.S. DROUGHT MONITOR NETWORK 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The U.S. Drought Monitor Network: Improving Drought Early Warning, The U.S. Drought Monitor Network

Publications of the National Drought Mitigation Center

WHAT IS THE U.S. DROUGHT MONITOR NETWORK?

WHO ARE THE OBSERVERS?

WHAT BENEFITS?

The network in action

HOW DOES IT WORK?

WHO CREATES THE MAP?


What Is The Limiting Nutrient In Winter In Urban Reservoirs? A Case Study., Precious Nyabami 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

What Is The Limiting Nutrient In Winter In Urban Reservoirs? A Case Study., Precious Nyabami

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The importance of reservoirs in widely acknowledged by urban population, yet little is understood scientifically about their ability to process nutrients deposited into them in winter. Nutrients in waste water, lawns and construction runoff are deposited into reservoirs and several ecosystem services are lost which leads to what several researchers call “the urban syndrome”. Some studies have been done on the winter limnology of lakes, yet little is understood about the same process in reservoirs. To fill this missing knowledge gap, a study on one of Nebraska’s lakes (Holmes’ lake) was done. In this study, we simulated how phosphorus ...


Massive Peatland Carbon Banks Vulnerable To Rising Temperatures, A. M. Hopple, R. M. Wilson, M. Kolton, Cassandra A. Zalman, J. P. Chanton, J. Kostka, P. J. Hanson, Jason K. Keller, S. D. Bridgham 2020 University of Oregon

Massive Peatland Carbon Banks Vulnerable To Rising Temperatures, A. M. Hopple, R. M. Wilson, M. Kolton, Cassandra A. Zalman, J. P. Chanton, J. Kostka, P. J. Hanson, Jason K. Keller, S. D. Bridgham

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Peatlands contain one-third of the world’s soil carbon (C). If destabilized, decomposition of this vast C bank could accelerate climate warming; however, the likelihood of this outcome remains unknown. Here, we examine peatland C stability through five years of whole-ecosystem warming and two years of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (eCO2). Warming exponentially increased methane (CH4) emissions and enhanced CH4 production rates throughout the entire soil profile; although surface CH4 production rates remain much greater than those at depth. Additionally, older deeper C sources played a larger role in decomposition following prolonged warming. Most troubling ...


Iron-Mediated Organic Matter Decomposition In Humid Soils Can Counteract Protection, Chunmei Chen, Steven J. Hall, Elizabeth Coward, Aaron Thompson 2020 Tianjin University

Iron-Mediated Organic Matter Decomposition In Humid Soils Can Counteract Protection, Chunmei Chen, Steven J. Hall, Elizabeth Coward, Aaron Thompson

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Soil organic matter (SOM) is correlated with reactive iron (Fe) in humid soils, but Fe also promotes SOM decomposition when oxygen (O2) becomes limited. Here we quantify Fe-mediated OM protection vs. decomposition by adding 13C dissolved organic matter (DOM) and 57FeII to soil slurries incubated under static or fluctuating O2. We find Fe uniformly protects OM only under static oxic conditions, and only when Fe and DOM are added together: de novo reactive FeIII phases suppress DOM and SOM mineralization by 35 and 47%, respectively. Conversely, adding 57FeII alone increases SOM mineralization by 8% following oxidation to 57FeIII. Under O2 ...


Building Adaptive Capacity In Tribal Communities Of The Missouri River Basin To Manage Drought And Climate Extremes: A Case Study From The Wind River Indian Reservation, Crystal J. Stiles, Natalie Umphlett, Mitch Cottenoir 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Building Adaptive Capacity In Tribal Communities Of The Missouri River Basin To Manage Drought And Climate Extremes: A Case Study From The Wind River Indian Reservation, Crystal J. Stiles, Natalie Umphlett, Mitch Cottenoir

HPRCC Personnel Publications

Native American peoples of the Northern and Central Plains have long endured harsh climate conditions, such as floods and droughts, and they possess valuable traditional knowledges that have enhanced their resilience to these extreme events. However, in recent times, limited capacity to adapt to a rapidly changing climate combined with a lack of resources have increased tribes’ vulnerability to climate extremes and their associated impacts. In response, a number of projects have been developed to assist tribes with their self-identified climate- and drought-related needs, particularly in the context of on-reservation decision-making. In this case study, we present an engagement strategy ...


Examining Terrain Effects On Upstate New York Tornado Events Utilizing High-Resolution Model Simulations, Luke Lebel 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

Examining Terrain Effects On Upstate New York Tornado Events Utilizing High-Resolution Model Simulations, Luke Lebel

Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences

The region at the intersection of the Mohawk and Hudson valleys of New York is characterized by complex terrain. It has been hypothesized that this complex terrain may have an impact on the development and evolution of severe convection in the region. Specifically, previous research has hypothesized that terrain-channeled flow in the Hudson and Mohawk valleys contributed to increased low-level wind shear and instability in the valleys during past severe weather outbreaks. However, a lack of observations in the region prevented this hypothesis from being robustly tested.

The goal of this study is to further examine this hypothesis and complement ...


High-Resolution Simulation Of A Tornado In Bangladesh On 13 May 1996, Katherine Hollinger 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

High-Resolution Simulation Of A Tornado In Bangladesh On 13 May 1996, Katherine Hollinger

Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences

The country of Bangladesh has been known to experience some of the deadliest tornado outbreaks in the world. The severe weather season in this region only spans from late March to early May, but can produce significant severe weather outbreaks in that short time. Even with these outbreaks occurring, there has not been extensive analysis completed to evaluate the environmental parameters on these tornado event days in this region.

The goal of this project is to use a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulation to evaluate a significant tornado that occurred in the Tangail and Jamalpur districts in Bangladesh ...


Ragweed And Sagebrush Pollen Can Distinguish Between Vegetation Types At Broad Spatial Scales, Hannah M. Carroll, Alan D. Wanamaker, Lynn G. Clark, Brian J. Wilsey 2020 Iowa State University

Ragweed And Sagebrush Pollen Can Distinguish Between Vegetation Types At Broad Spatial Scales, Hannah M. Carroll, Alan D. Wanamaker, Lynn G. Clark, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Patterns of vegetation distribution at regional to subcontinental scales can inform understanding of climate. Delineating ecoregion boundaries over geologic time is complicated by the difficulty of distinguishing between prairie types at broad spatial scales using the pollen record. Pollen ratios are sometimes employed to distinguish between vegetation types, although their applicability is often limited to a geographic range. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database offers an unparalleled opportunity to synthesize a large number of pollen datasets. Ambrosia (ragweed) is a genus of mesic‐adapted species sensitive to summer moisture. Artemisia (sagebrush, wormwood, mugwort) is a genus of dry‐mesic‐adapted species resilient ...


The Rapid Weakening Of Hurricane Fred (2009), Christina Talamo 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

The Rapid Weakening Of Hurricane Fred (2009), Christina Talamo

Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences

This research project discusses the rapid weakening of Hurricane Fred, a major Category 3 hurricane that occurred in the Atlantic basin during the 2009 Atlantic hurricane season. Between the days of 9 September and 13 September, Fred remained stationary off the coast of Africa in the Atlantic Ocean and never made landfall, all the while consistently weakening over open ocean from a major Category 3 hurricane to a tropical storm. In the Atlantic basin, I will define the rapid weakening, or RW, of a tropical cyclone as a decrease in the storm’s maximum sustained winds by 10.3 m ...


Arcgis Analysis Of Riparian Zone Restoration Potential In The Middle Creek – Penns Creek Huc-12 Watershed, Julie Benco 2020 Susquehanna University

Arcgis Analysis Of Riparian Zone Restoration Potential In The Middle Creek – Penns Creek Huc-12 Watershed, Julie Benco

Senior Scholars Day

The Middle Creek – Penns Creek HUC-12 watershed contains 48.9 miles of impaired streams out of the greater 73.1 miles of waterways within its capacity. The known impaired streams fail, by the water quality standards set by the Department of Environmental Protection, to meet the qualifications necessary to obtain their regulated attainments. In order to restore the waterways, best management practices (BMPs) can be installed to reduce nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorous, and sediment loads. ArcGIS and Model my Watershed are utilized to produce a spatial analysis of the watershed and model how the best management practices will ...


Competitive Interactions Between Creek Chub (Semotilus Atromaculatus) And Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) Under The Influence Of Rising Temperatures, Bryan Colby, Jonathan Niles Dr, Matt Wilson, Matthew Persons Dr. 2020 Susquehanna University

Competitive Interactions Between Creek Chub (Semotilus Atromaculatus) And Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) Under The Influence Of Rising Temperatures, Bryan Colby, Jonathan Niles Dr, Matt Wilson, Matthew Persons Dr.

Senior Scholars Day

The natural distribution of many freshwater fish species are limited by their thermal tolerances, both because a species cannot inhabit an area outside its tolerance range and because of increased stress when in environments approaching the limits of its tolerance range. Many species may mediate temperature change physiologically, behaviorally, or both but these changes often may change or compromise interspecific dynamics through the effects on feeding behavior, growth rate, immune responses, and social behavior. In the Appalachian Mountains, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) are found in warm-water and cold-water streams, the latter of which are also inhabited by brook trout (Salvelinus ...


Sea Level Rise Vulnerability Analysis Of Mangrove Ecosystems Using Gis, Kayla Caldwell 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Sea Level Rise Vulnerability Analysis Of Mangrove Ecosystems Using Gis, Kayla Caldwell

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is accelerating beyond what is natural due to excessive emissions from human activities. The sea level has been rising for many years and is currently at a rate of 3.6 mm/yr. Mangroves are known to only keep pace with a sea level rate of less than 1.2 mm/yr. Mangroves are particularly vulnerable to rising sea levels if they are not able to keep pace through vertical sediment accretion or inland migration. To test the vulnerability of the south Florida mangrove ecosystems to sea level rise, this study analyzed changes in the mangrove forest coverage ...


Comparative Study Of The Effects Of Light On Photophore Ultrastructure From Two Families Of Deep-Sea Decapod Crustaceans: Oplophoridae And Sergestidae, Jamie E. Sickles 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Comparative Study Of The Effects Of Light On Photophore Ultrastructure From Two Families Of Deep-Sea Decapod Crustaceans: Oplophoridae And Sergestidae, Jamie E. Sickles

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Counterillumination, the mechanism by which pelagic species produce bioluminescence to replace the light blocked by their bodies to hide their silhouettes, has been known for over 100 years. However, little is known about how these animals are able to so precisely replicate the intensity of downwelling light. The recent discovery of opsins in photophores (Bracken-Grissom et al. 2020) suggests that these autogenic organs (i.e. non-bacterial) may be sensitive to light, in addition to their function of emitting visible light. The study presented here is 1) the first ultrastructural assessment of photophores in species Systellaspis debilis, Janicella spinicauda, Parasergestes armatus ...


Case Studies Of Colorado Lows And The Impacts On Winter Weather Maintenance, Nathan Rick 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Case Studies Of Colorado Lows And The Impacts On Winter Weather Maintenance, Nathan Rick

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Winter storms of varying degrees plague the Plains each year, bringing with them ice, snow, wind, and cold temperatures which adversely affect public, commercial, and private transportation alike. The Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) adopted a Maintenance Decision Support System (NDOT-MDSS) to aid in their winter weather maintenance practices. NDOT-MDSS ingests data from a variety of numerical weather models as well as real time surface and pavement observations to output both a weather forecast and winter road maintenance recommendation that can be taken into account by NDOT to finalize their maintenance decisions for a specific storm system or road segment ...


Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Essential And Non-Essential Elements Recorded In Western Arctic Bowhead Whales (Balaena Mysticetus), Samantha L. Shore 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Essential And Non-Essential Elements Recorded In Western Arctic Bowhead Whales (Balaena Mysticetus), Samantha L. Shore

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Western Arctic bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, migrate annually among the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas. Foraging along their route, they use keratinous baleen to filter microscopic zooplankton from the water column. A single baleen plate from an adult bowhead whale grows continuously and stores 20+ years of dietary and environmental data. This study utilized induced coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to evaluate concentrations of 14 essential and non-essential elements in baleen samples from nine subsistence-harvested whales, yielding continuous data from 1958–1999 (n=148). Stable isotope data previously reported on these samples provided information on location (Beaufort Sea; Bering/Chukchi seas ...


Surveillance Of Microplastic Pollution In Central Virginia Freshwater Ecosystems, Alexandra Reddy 2020 Liberty University

Surveillance Of Microplastic Pollution In Central Virginia Freshwater Ecosystems, Alexandra Reddy

Senior Honors Theses

Aquatic organisms often mistake microplastic particulates (MP) as food and inadvertently ingest the particulates, which can biomagnify through the food chain. While MP ingestion is well-researched in the marine environment, little is known about microplastics in freshwater  ecosystems. This project explores MP occurrence in an ecologically significant freshwater invertebrate: crayfish. Crayfish from two Central Virginia streams are collected to identify MP in the digestive tracts and gill filaments, and characterize the MP using analytical chemistry techniques. It was determined that MP were present in the digestive tracts and gill filaments of crayfish collected from both streams, and that MP frequency ...


Reconstructing Deep-Ocean Circulation During Cenozoic Climate Transitions From The Marine Sediment Record, Brian Romans 2020 Virginia Tech

Reconstructing Deep-Ocean Circulation During Cenozoic Climate Transitions From The Marine Sediment Record, Brian Romans

Sustainability Seminar Series

Ocean circulation plays a critical role in the Earth’s climate system through the storage and transfer of heat and carbon dioxide. The North Atlantic and Southern Ocean are of particular interest because these are regions where deep-water components of global circulation develop. Dr. Romans uses the deep-sea sedimentary record to reconstruct past ocean circulation and its relationship to past climatic and tectonic conditions. He integrates information from a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, from seismic-reflection data that reveals regional sedimentation patterns to high resolution records based on quantitative grain-size analysis from cores. Dr. Romans will present research ...


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