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The Arctic: Science, Law, And Policy, Charles H. Norchi, Paul A. Mayewski 2017 University of Maine School of Law

The Arctic: Science, Law, And Policy, Charles H. Norchi, Paul A. Mayewski

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

In 1959, Sir Charles Snow (C.P. Snow) delivered a lecture at Cambridge University entitled The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution in which he identified a duality of cultures. There were the scientists and the humanists--two dimly acquanited cultures that rarely communicated, and when they did it was usually at cross-purposes. One culture was contentedly unknowing and skeptical of science, and the other was marginal to the great social questions of the time. For C.P. Snow, the polarization and lack of communication between the two groups could be fatal to the Western World. The 21st century has also ...


Age, Growth, And Reproduction Of Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites Aurorubens) In The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Trevor Dalton Moncrief 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Age, Growth, And Reproduction Of Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites Aurorubens) In The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Trevor Dalton Moncrief

Master's Theses

Vermilion Snapper is a commonly harvested species of reef fish in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). It supports both a large commercial and popular recreational fishery, however knowledge of this fish’s life history is limited spatially. Non-linear curve fitting was used to estimate growth parameters and Akaike information criteria (AIC) was used to determine relative model fit. The 2-parameter von Bertalanffy growth function provided the best model fit and lowest AIC score. Histological examination indicated that Vermilion Snapper are batch spawners with asynchronous oocyte development. Additionally, 17% of Vermilion Snapper in the actively spawning phase containing 24 hour ...


Do Halogenated Natural Products Bioaccumulate In Narragansett Bay?, Christine Gardiner, Anna Robuck, Rainer Lohmann 2017 University of Rhode Island

Do Halogenated Natural Products Bioaccumulate In Narragansett Bay?, Christine Gardiner, Anna Robuck, Rainer Lohmann

Senior Honors Projects

In recent decades, a new family of chemical compounds has begun to garner research attention—halogenated natural products, or HNPs. These chemicals are produced by algae, bacteria, worms, and sponges, and many are structurally similar to harmful manmade compounds, such as polychlorinated diphenyls (PCBs), or brominated flame retardants (PBDEs), which are known to cause cancer, reproduction issues, endocrine disruption, and death. While HNPs are produced naturally, they are still considered pollutants because of their bioaccumulative behavior and apparent toxicity.

Currently, there is limited research on their presence and effects, with a few studies from Europe and the Pacific highlighting their ...


Annual Summary Of Weather Data For Parsons, M. Knapp 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Annual Summary Of Weather Data For Parsons, M. Knapp

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Annual Summary of Weather Data for Parsons, Kansas, 2016.


Collecting Landscape Trees And Shrubs In Ukraine For The Evaluation Of Aesthetic Quality And Adaptation In The North Central United States, Mark P. Widrlechner, Robert E. Schutzki, Vasily Y. Yukhnovsky, Victor V. Sviatetsky 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Collecting Landscape Trees And Shrubs In Ukraine For The Evaluation Of Aesthetic Quality And Adaptation In The North Central United States, Mark P. Widrlechner, Robert E. Schutzki, Vasily Y. Yukhnovsky, Victor V. Sviatetsky

Mark P. Widrlechner

Past experiences with long-term evaluations of woody landscape plants from Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia- Herzegovina in the north central United States indicated that a relatively low proportion of these introductions were well adapted to climatic and soil conditions. Based on these results, criteria were developed to focus future exploration for landscape trees and shrubs from more analogous environments in eastern and central Europe. Application of these criteria identified the forest– steppe transition zone in the northern half of Ukraine as a region with great potential, because of similarities to the north central United States in climatic extremes, soil types and ...


A Zone Map For Mean Annual Moisture Balance In The North Central United States, Mark P. Widrlechner 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

A Zone Map For Mean Annual Moisture Balance In The North Central United States, Mark P. Widrlechner

Mark P. Widrlechner

There are many climatic factors that can limit the adaptation of woody landscape plants. In the North Central United States, one of the most widely studied limiting factors is winter injury caused by low temperatures. Mean annual minimum temperature is the basis for the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map (Cathey, 1990), which is perhaps the most well-known guide for defining woody plant adaptation in the region.


Spatial Thinking And Cognitive Processing In Meteorology, Peggy McNeal 2017 Western Michigan University

Spatial Thinking And Cognitive Processing In Meteorology, Peggy Mcneal

Research and Creative Activities Poster Day

Evidence suggests that spatial skills are highly malleable and that training in spatial thinking is effective, durable, and transferrable1. Understanding how meteorologists employ spatial skills in the forecasting process has implications for operational weather forecasting and meteorology education. This study began with exploratory research that identified mental animation and disembedding as key spatial skills used in weather forecasting. A follow-on pilot study tested the instruments, collected think-aloud data and found a correlation between spatial skills and forecasting. The complete study, in progress, is investigating the effect of spatial thinking, working memory and expertise on forecast task performance.


Direct Comparisons Of Ice Cloud Macro- And Microphysical Properties Simulated By The Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 With Hippo Aircraft Observations, Chenglai Wu, Xiaohong Liu, Minghui Diao, Kai Zhang, Andrew Gettelman, Zheng Lu, Joyce E. Penner, Zhaohui Lin 2017 University of Wyoming

Direct Comparisons Of Ice Cloud Macro- And Microphysical Properties Simulated By The Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 With Hippo Aircraft Observations, Chenglai Wu, Xiaohong Liu, Minghui Diao, Kai Zhang, Andrew Gettelman, Zheng Lu, Joyce E. Penner, Zhaohui Lin

Minghui Diao

In this study we evaluate cloud properties simulated by the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) using in situ measurements from the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) campaign for the period of 2009 to 2011. The modeled wind and temperature are nudged towards reanalysis. Model results collocated with HIPPO flight tracks are directly compared with the observations, and model sensitivities to the representations of ice nucleation and growth are also examined. Generally, CAM5 is able to capture specific cloud systems in terms of vertical configuration and horizontal extension. In total, the model reproduces 79.8 % of observed cloud occurrences inside model ...


Link Between Local Phenology And Climate Change, Blake Steiner, Tatyana Lobova 2017 Old Dominion University

Link Between Local Phenology And Climate Change, Blake Steiner, Tatyana Lobova

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

The SouthEast Virginia Phenology Project was initiated as collaboration between Norfolk Botanical Garden and Old Dominion University in 2010 to document phenology of seven native plants and potential effects of the climate change on their life cycle. The air temperature in Norfolk has increased on average by 0.02ºC per year since 1980. Four out of seven of taxonomically diverse plant species (Mayapple, Flowering Dogwood, Highbush Blueberry, and Common ButtonBush) exhibited significant sensitivity to warming temperatures. Of these four, only Common Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) had shown significant phenophases shift. Specifically, first flowering and first fruiting dates had shifted 2.7 ...


Synoptic Atmospheric Conditions, Land Cover, And Equivalent Temperature Variations In Kentucky, Dorothy Yemaa Na-Yemeh 2017 Western Kentucky University

Synoptic Atmospheric Conditions, Land Cover, And Equivalent Temperature Variations In Kentucky, Dorothy Yemaa Na-Yemeh

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Research has demonstrated that equivalent temperature (TE), which incorporates both the surface air temperature (T) and moist heat content associated with atmospheric moisture, is a better indicator of overall heat content. This thesis follows up on a study that used TE to determine the impacts of land use/land cover and air masses on the atmospheric heat content over Kentucky during the growing season (April-September). The study, which used data from the Kentucky Mesonet, reveals that moist weather types dominate the growing season and, as expected, differences between T and TE are smaller under dry atmospheric conditions ...


Characterizing South American Mesoscale Convective Complexes Using Isotope Hydrology, Kyle J. Hogancamp 2017 Western Kentucky University

Characterizing South American Mesoscale Convective Complexes Using Isotope Hydrology, Kyle J. Hogancamp

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) over subtropical South America contribute an average annual volume of precipitation equal to approximately seven km3 and occur with an average regularity in the region, with more than 30 per warm season. Isotopic characteristics of precipitation, such as δ2H and δ18O values, provide information that can be used to identify unique processes and sources related to precipitation events. The largest database of isotope characteristics of precipitation within the region is the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which provides varying temporal resolution data from stations around the world, including subtropical South America.

Using this database ...


Assessing Seasonal And Spatial Variability In The Hydrogeochemistry Of Glacial Meltwater In Iceland, Anisha Tuladhar 2017 Western Kentucky University

Assessing Seasonal And Spatial Variability In The Hydrogeochemistry Of Glacial Meltwater In Iceland, Anisha Tuladhar

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A detailed comparative geochemical characterization of three different types of Iceland glacial systems was conducted during June, August, and October, 2016. The study was carried out at a total of 11 outlet glacier rivers flowing from the icecaps Vatnajökull, Eyjafjallajökull, and Mýrdalsjökull. A total of 75 grab samples were collected (25 for each sampling period). The hydrogeochemical variations of Icelandic glacial meltwater are influenced by volcanic activity, temporal changes, and geographical location, which differed between the sampling sites within the glaciers and icecaps. Lower pH range, and comparatively higher and variable specific conductivity, SO4, S and F is linked to ...


Spatial And Temporal Distribution And Abundance Microplastics In Lake Champlain Long-Term Monitoring Samples, Susan-Marie Nadeau Hagar, Lindsey E. Austin 2017 SUNY Plattsburgh

Spatial And Temporal Distribution And Abundance Microplastics In Lake Champlain Long-Term Monitoring Samples, Susan-Marie Nadeau Hagar, Lindsey E. Austin

Center for Earth and Environmental Science Student Posters

Microplastics are particles less than 5mm in size, characterized as fibers, fragments, beads, foams, and pellets. Microplastics (MP) arise from four main processes: environmental degradation (UV exposure, mechanical and/or biological), direct release by means of wastewater treatment processing, unintentional loss of raw materials, and discharge of macerated wastes. Microplastics are potentially toxic to aquatic biota and the presence of microplastics in freshwater ecosystems is largely under-researched. The goal of our research was to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of microplastics and pre-production particulate (nurdles) from long-term monitoring (LTM) zooplankton samples within Lake Champlain collected between 1992-2016. Nurdles were ...


A Survey Of Microplastics In Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent In The Lake Champlain Basin, Sadie Brown, Erin Lee, Brandon Buksa, Thomas Niekrewicz 2017 SUNY Plattsburgh

A Survey Of Microplastics In Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent In The Lake Champlain Basin, Sadie Brown, Erin Lee, Brandon Buksa, Thomas Niekrewicz

Center for Earth and Environmental Science Student Posters

Microplastic pollution researchers are beginning to quantify, characterize, and collaborate on finding solutions to this emerging pollution problem. Recent studies have documented consumer care products and laundering of synthetic garments as major sources of microplastics. Most current wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) technologies are unable to capture and remove particulate size; thus, bioaccumulation over time poses a threat to aquatic organisms. In 2015, we began surveying WWTP post-treatment effluent samples from the city of Plattsburgh, NY (n = 31) and in 2016, added 3 other plants in the Lake Champlain watershed, specifically St Albans, VT (n = 8), Ticonderoga, NY (n = 4), and ...


Design And Characterization Of A Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer For Composition Measurements In The Upper Atmosphere, E. Addison Everett 2017 Utah State University

Design And Characterization Of A Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer For Composition Measurements In The Upper Atmosphere, E. Addison Everett

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In-situ composition measurements of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) are challenging; this region is only accessible via high-speed sounding rockets, ambient pressures extend into the 10-3 Torr range, and particles of interest range in mass from electrons to meteoric smoke and dust particles. Time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MS) are capable of making fast, accurate measurements over a wide mass range. However, since they rely on pressure-sensitive microchannel plate (MCP) detectors and high voltages, they have rarely been applied at these altitudes. A new TOF-MS for making in-situ composition measurements in the MLT has been developed at the Space Dynamics Laboratory ...


Modeling And Projection Of The North American Monsoon Using A High-Resolution Regional Climate Model, Jonathan D.D. Meyer 2017 Utah State University

Modeling And Projection Of The North American Monsoon Using A High-Resolution Regional Climate Model, Jonathan D.D. Meyer

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation aims to better understand how various climate modeling approaches affect the fidelity of the North American Monsoon (NAM), as well as the sensitivity of the future state of the NAM under a global warming scenario. Here, we improved over current fully-coupled general circulation models (GCM), which struggle to fully resolve the controlling dynamics responsible for the development and maintenance of the NAM. To accomplish this, we dynamically downscaled a GCM with a regional climate model (RCM). The advantage here being a higher model resolution that improves the representation of processes on scales beyond that which GCMs can resolve ...


Getting That Sinking Feeling: Analysis And Impacts Of Sea Level Rise On Three National Parks Along The East Coast, Usa, Julia K. Deros, Amanda L. Thibault, Amy B. True 2017 Gettysburg College

Getting That Sinking Feeling: Analysis And Impacts Of Sea Level Rise On Three National Parks Along The East Coast, Usa, Julia K. Deros, Amanda L. Thibault, Amy B. True

Student Publications

Due to global climate change, sea level rise (SLR) has become a threat for future generations, but the extent of this danger is unknown. To help understand the possible effects of SLR on the east coast of the United States, we studied three national parks: Acadia National Park (ACAD), Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS) and Everglades National Park (EVER). We predicted that ACAD would be less affected by SLR than ASIS and EVER due to the construction of its beach profile. By measuring the beach profile, we found that Sand Beach in ACAD was reflective with an average slope of ...


Investigating The Magnitude And Range Of The Urban Heat Island Within Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Samuel S. Thompson, Rachel A. Wilkins 2017 Gettysburg College

Investigating The Magnitude And Range Of The Urban Heat Island Within Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Samuel S. Thompson, Rachel A. Wilkins

Student Publications

Cities experience UHIs due to the thermal properties (albedo, thermal emittance, radiative flux, and heat capacity) of human-made substances and urban geometry. This study investigated the existence of an urban heat island (UHI) in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The goal of this project was to assess whether a small-scale city like Gettysburg demonstrates an UHI effect and, if present, the extent and magnitude of the UHI. We hypothesized that (1) temperatures within the city are significantly higher than the surrounding area, (2) the magnitude of the UHI will diminish as distance from the city center increases, and (3) the UHI will not ...


Climate Change, Natural Disasters, And Suicide: A Systematic Review, Ans Irfan, Peter LaPuma 2017 George Washington

Climate Change, Natural Disasters, And Suicide: A Systematic Review, Ans Irfan, Peter Lapuma

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background.
Natural disasters are projected to increase due to climate change. Mental health is not a well-researched area in public health, particularly as it relates to environmental health and in the aftermath of natural disasters. The suicide rate is approximately 13 per 100,000 people in the US, nationally. This already high suicide rate warrants researching this area mental health. Understanding the relation between natural disasters and suicide rates might help alleviate human suffering and potentially save lives in the future, in post-disaster settings. This research will further the knowledge of the association between natural disasters and suicide and provide ...


Cirrus Cloud Microphysics Over Darwin, Australia, Dorothea Ivanova, Matthew Johnson 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Cirrus Cloud Microphysics Over Darwin, Australia, Dorothea Ivanova, Matthew Johnson

Publications

Ice clouds, crucial to the understanding of both short - and long - term climate trends, are poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs). Cirrus clouds, one of the largest uncertainties in the global radiation budget, have been inadequately studied at low latitudes. Parameterizations exist for mid - latitude and tropical cirrus ( Ivanova et al. 2001; McFarquhar et al. 1997). Due to climate sensitivity in the GCM with respect to cloud input, without robust parameterizations of cirrus clouds, the GCM is inaccurate over most output fields, including radiative forcing, temperature, albedo, and heat flux (Yao and Del Genio 1999).

Studies of the microphysical ...


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