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Sea Surface Temperature Rises Shift Migration Patterns Due To Ecosystem Changes, Alexia Skrbic, Hesham el-Askary 2016 Chapman University

Sea Surface Temperature Rises Shift Migration Patterns Due To Ecosystem Changes, Alexia Skrbic, Hesham El-Askary

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The continuing climate change is negatively impacting ecosystems, specifically oceans which are declining and food webs are being altered by the increase of greenhouse gases. The increase of the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is increasing sea surface temperature of the world’s oceans. Certain organisms lower on the food chain like phytoplankton and zooplankton are directly affected by the warming which alters how they process nutrients and their productivity. The limited amount of these primary producers in the oceans and specifically the location they inhabit directly affects all the organisms above them on the food chain. Several marine ...


Modern Fair-Weather And Storm Sediment Transport Around Ship Island, Mississippi: Implications For Coastal Habitats And Restoration Efforts, Eve Rettew Eisemann 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Modern Fair-Weather And Storm Sediment Transport Around Ship Island, Mississippi: Implications For Coastal Habitats And Restoration Efforts, Eve Rettew Eisemann

Master's Theses

The Mississippi – Alabama barrier island chain is experiencing accelerated sea level rise, decreased sediment supply, and frequent hurricane impacts. These three factors drive unprecedented rates of morphology change and ecosystem reduction. All islands in the chain have experienced land loss on the order of hectares per year since records began in the 1840s. In 1969, Hurricane Camille impacted as a Category 5, breaching Ship Island, and significantly reduced viable seagrass habitat. Hurricane Katrina impacted as a Category 3 in 2005, further widening Camille Cut. To better understand the sustainability of these important islands and the ecosystems they support, sediment transport ...


Teleconnections In Steam: Antarctic Field-Camp Art, Craig Stevens, Gabby O'Connor 2016 National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research; The University of Auckland, New Zealand; New Zealand Association of Scientists.

Teleconnections In Steam: Antarctic Field-Camp Art, Craig Stevens, Gabby O'Connor

The STEAM Journal

We describe a component of a multi-element STEAM collaboration looking to explore ideas around the life cycle of Antarctic sea ice. One of the intermediate phases of the work involved the scientist deploying partially pre-made art components. Results were modulated by weather and operational constraints and generated a sequence of images and recordings as well as greater understanding of the creative collaboration process.


Reproductive Parameters Of Coastal Pelagic Fishes, Sonia Ahrabi-Nejad, David W. Kerstetter, Patricia Blackwelder, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Reproductive Parameters Of Coastal Pelagic Fishes, Sonia Ahrabi-Nejad, David W. Kerstetter, Patricia Blackwelder, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar

D. Abigail Renegar

The ability to manage a fish stock relies on an understanding of life history characteristics and basic biology of the species. Numerous age-growth studies are facilitated by the relative ease of ageing fishes through hard-part analyses. Determining reproductive parameters for fish populations is just as important for stock assessments and management, and histological examination of gonads provides the most accurate determination of fecundity and spawning periods. However, research in this area is limited. Coastal pelagic fishes are often targeted commercially and recreationally due to their easy access by private vessels. The objective of this study is to provide baseline data ...


Ultrastructural And Histological Analysis Of Dark Spot Syndrome In Siderastrea Siderea And Agaricia Agaricites, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Patricia Blackwelder, J. D. Miller, D. J. Gochfeld, Alison L. Moulding 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Ultrastructural And Histological Analysis Of Dark Spot Syndrome In Siderastrea Siderea And Agaricia Agaricites, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Patricia Blackwelder, J. D. Miller, D. J. Gochfeld, Alison L. Moulding

D. Abigail Renegar

Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) typically manifests in scleractinian corals as lesions of varying color, size, shape and location that can result in skeletal changes and tissue death. A causative agent for DSS has not yet been identified. The objective of this study was histological and ultrastructural comparison of the cellular and skeletal characteristics of DSS-affected and healthy Siderastrea siderea and Agaricia agaricites. The greater resolution possible with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed microbial activity and tissue changes not resolvable utilizing histology. DSS-affected tissue had less integrity, with increasing cellular degradation and vacuolization. A high concentration of electron dense inclusions, which ...


Acute And Sub-Acute Toxicity Of The Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon 1-Methylnaphthalene To The Shallow-Water Coral Porites Divaricata: Application Of A Novel Exposure Protocol, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Nick Turner, Bernhard Riegl, Richard E. Dodge, Anthony H. Knap, Paul Schuler 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Acute And Sub-Acute Toxicity Of The Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon 1-Methylnaphthalene To The Shallow-Water Coral Porites Divaricata: Application Of A Novel Exposure Protocol, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Nick Turner, Bernhard Riegl, Richard E. Dodge, Anthony H. Knap, Paul Schuler

D. Abigail Renegar

Previous research evaluating hydrocarbon toxicity to corals and coral reefs has generally focused on community level effects, and results are often not comparable between studies due to variability in hydrocarbon exposure characterization and evaluation of coral health and mortality during exposure. Toxicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-methylnaphthalene to the coral Porites divaricata was assessed in a constant exposure toxicity test utilizing a novel toxicity testing protocol uniquely applicable to shallow-water corals, which considered multiple assessment metrics and evaluated the potential for post-exposure mortality and/or recovery. Acute and sub-acute effects (gross morphological changes, photosynthetic efficiency, mortality, and histologic cellular ...


Coral Ultrastructural Response To Elevated Pco2 And Nutrients During Tissue Repair And Regeneration, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Patricia Blackwelder, Alison L. Moulding 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Coral Ultrastructural Response To Elevated Pco2 And Nutrients During Tissue Repair And Regeneration, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Patricia Blackwelder, Alison L. Moulding

D. Abigail Renegar

Corals and coral reefs have recently experienced widespread decline attributed to anthropogenic pressure on reef systems. Studies have demonstrated that nutrient and pCO2 stress effect coral growth and calcification, but study of specific effects on coral tissue is lacking. The objective of this research was to examine wound healing in corals and how it is affected by exposure to elevated nutrients and pCO2. Coral tissue repair and regeneration during wound healing in Montastraea cavernosa and Porites astreoides were assessed histologically and ultrastructurally by examining colony fragments exposed to elevated nitrate, phosphate, and pCO2. In M. cavernosa, tissue repair was facilitated ...


Analysis Of Aerosol Absorption Properties And Transport Over North Africa And The Middle East Using Aeronet Data, Ashraf Farahat, Hesham el-Askary, Peter Adetokunbo, Abu-Tharr Fuad 2016 King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia

Analysis Of Aerosol Absorption Properties And Transport Over North Africa And The Middle East Using Aeronet Data, Ashraf Farahat, Hesham El-Askary, Peter Adetokunbo, Abu-Tharr Fuad

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In this paper particle categorization and absorption properties were discussed to understand transport mechanisms at different geographic locations and possible radiative impacts on climate. The long-term Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data set (1999–2015) is used to estimate aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and the absorption Ångström exponent (abs) at eight locations in North Africa and the Middle East. Average variation in SSA is calculated at four wavelengths (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm), and the relationship between aerosol absorption and physical properties is used to infer dominant aerosol types at different locations. It was found that ...


Climate Change Adaptation Case Study: Benefit-Cost Analysis Of Coastal Flooding Hazard Mitigation, Will Cooper, Federico Garcia, Diana Pape, David Ryder, Ben Witherell 2016 ICF

Climate Change Adaptation Case Study: Benefit-Cost Analysis Of Coastal Flooding Hazard Mitigation, Will Cooper, Federico Garcia, Diana Pape, David Ryder, Ben Witherell

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The damage Hurricane Sandy caused had far-reaching repercussions up and down the East Coast of the United States. Vast coastal flooding accompanied the storm, inundating homes, businesses, and utility and emergency facilities. Since the storm, projects to mitigate similar future floods have been scrutinized. Such projects not only need to keep out floodwaters but also be designed to withstand the effect that climate change might have on rising sea levels and increased flood risk.

In this study, we develop an economic model to assess the costs and benefits of a berm (sea wall) to mitigate the effects of flooding from ...


Impact Of Climate Change On Corn Yields In Alabama, Pauline Welikhe, Joseph Essamuah-Quansah, Kenneth Boote, Senthold Asseng, Gamal El Afandi, Souleymane Fall, Desmond Mortley, Ramble Ankumah 2016 Tuskegee University

Impact Of Climate Change On Corn Yields In Alabama, Pauline Welikhe, Joseph Essamuah-Quansah, Kenneth Boote, Senthold Asseng, Gamal El Afandi, Souleymane Fall, Desmond Mortley, Ramble Ankumah

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

The study used calibrated Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CERES) maize (corn) model to simulate maize (corn) physiological growth processes and yields under 2045 and 2075 projected climate change scenarios for six representative counties in Alabama. The future climatologies for two emission scenarios Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 (medium) and RCP 8.5 (high) were developed based on the IPSL-CM5A-MR high resolution climate model. Average yield decreases of 19.5% and 37.3% were, respectively, projected under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 for 2045, and average yield decreases of 32.5% and 77.8% were, respectively, projected ...


Five Solar Geoengineering Tropes That Have Outstayed Their Welcome, Jesse Reynolds, Andy Parker, Peter Irvine 2016 Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam, Germany

Five Solar Geoengineering Tropes That Have Outstayed Their Welcome, Jesse Reynolds, Andy Parker, Peter Irvine

Jesse Reynolds

In the last decade, solar geoengineering (solar radiation management, or SRM) has received increasing consideration as a potential means to reduce risks of anthropogenic climate change. Some ideas regarding SRM that have been proposed have receded after being appropriately scrutinized, while others have strengthened through testing and critique. This process has improved understanding of SRM’s potential and limitations. However, a number of claims are frequently made in the academic and popular SRM discourses and, despite evidence to the contrary, pose the risk of hardening into accepted facts. Here, in order to foster a more productive and honest debate, we ...


Multiscale Wind Modelling For Sustainability And Resilience, Djordje Romanic 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Multiscale Wind Modelling For Sustainability And Resilience, Djordje Romanic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The research presented herein is a mix of meteorological and wind engineering disciplines. In many cases, there is a gap between these two fields and this thesis is an attempt to bridge that gap through multiscale wind modelling approaches. Data and methods used in this study cover a multitude of spatial and temporal scales. Applications are in the fields of sustainability and resilience. This relationship between multiscale wind modelling and sustainability and resilience is investigated examining several case studies of three different developments: urban, rural and coastal.

An urban wind modelling methodology is proposed and applied for a specific development ...


Seasonal Temperature Variations Controlling Cave Ventilation Processes In Cueva Larga, Puerto Rico, Rolf Vieten, Amos Winter, Sophie Friederike Warken, Andrea Schrӧder-Ritzrau, Thomas E. Miller, Denis Scholz 2016 University of Puerto Rico

Seasonal Temperature Variations Controlling Cave Ventilation Processes In Cueva Larga, Puerto Rico, Rolf Vieten, Amos Winter, Sophie Friederike Warken, Andrea Schrӧder-Ritzrau, Thomas E. Miller, Denis Scholz

International Journal of Speleology

Two years of cave monitoring investigate ventilation processes in Cueva Larga, a tropical cave in Puerto Rico. The cave is 1,440 m long with a large main passage (about 120,000 m3). Cave air pCO2 in the main passage varies seasonally, between 600 ppm in winter and 1,800 ppm in summer. The seasonal variability in cave pCO2 permits the estimation of a cave air exchange time of 36 ± 5 days and a winter ventilation rate of 3,300 ± 1,000 m3/day for the main cave passage. Calculations of virtual temperature and differences between ...


Mammalian Keratin Associated Proteins (Krtaps) Subgenomes: Disentangling Hair Diversity And Adaptation To Terrestrial And Aquatic Environments, Imran Khan, Emanuel Maldonado, Vitor Vasconcelos, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson, Agostinho Antunes 2016 Universidade do Porto

Mammalian Keratin Associated Proteins (Krtaps) Subgenomes: Disentangling Hair Diversity And Adaptation To Terrestrial And Aquatic Environments, Imran Khan, Emanuel Maldonado, Vitor Vasconcelos, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson, Agostinho Antunes

Stephen O'Brien

Background: Adaptation of mammals to terrestrial life was facilitated by the unique vertebrate trait of body hair, which occurs in a range of morphological patterns. Keratin associated proteins (KRTAPs), the major structural hair shaft proteins, are largely responsible for hair variation.

Results: We exhaustively characterized the KRTAP gene family in 22 mammalian genomes, confirming the existence of 30 KRTAP subfamilies evolving at different rates with varying degrees of diversification and homogenization. Within the two major classes of KRTAPs, the high cysteine (HS) subfamily experienced strong concerted evolution, high rates of gene conversion/recombination and high GC content. In contrast, high ...


Surfactant-Associated Bacteria In The Near-Surface Layer Of The Ocean, Naoko Kurata, Katie E. Vella, Bryan Hamilton, Mahmood S. Shivji, Alexander Soloviev, Silvia Matt, Aurelien Tartar, William Perrie 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Surfactant-Associated Bacteria In The Near-Surface Layer Of The Ocean, Naoko Kurata, Katie E. Vella, Bryan Hamilton, Mahmood S. Shivji, Alexander Soloviev, Silvia Matt, Aurelien Tartar, William Perrie

Aurelien Tartar

Certain marine bacteria found in the near-surface layer of the ocean are expected to play important roles in the production and decay of surface active materials; however, the details of these processes are still unclear. Here we provide evidence supporting connection between the presence of surfactant-associated bacteria in the near-surface layer of the ocean, slicks on the sea surface, and a distinctive feature in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the sea surface. From DNA analyses of the in situ samples using pyrosequencing technology, we found the highest abundance of surfactant-associated bacterial taxa in the near-surface layer below the ...


Spatial And Temporal Recruitment Patterns Of Juvenile Grunts (Haemujon Spp.) In South Florida, L. K. B. Jordan, David S. Gilliam, Robin L. Sherman, Paul T. Arena, Fleur M. Harttung, Robert M. Baron, Richard E. Spieler 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Spatial And Temporal Recruitment Patterns Of Juvenile Grunts (Haemujon Spp.) In South Florida, L. K. B. Jordan, David S. Gilliam, Robin L. Sherman, Paul T. Arena, Fleur M. Harttung, Robert M. Baron, Richard E. Spieler

Paul Arena

Grunts (Haemulidae) are important fisheries species and represent a major component of reef fish communities in the Greater Caribbean region. To date, little is known about their recruitment pattems. Data from more than 2,000 visual fish counts from multiple natural and artificial reef studies in Broward County, Florida, over a seven-year period, were examined to identify both spatial and temporal trends in recruitment of juvenile (i.e., < 5cm TL) grunts of the genus Haemulon. In general, data from these studies indicate that juvenile Haemulon spp. recruitment increases in the spring and peaks in the early summer months (i.e., June and July). Data from natural reef surveys revealed a predominantly nearshore preference for recruitment in water depths less than 8 m. However, on artificial reefs, recruitment commoniy occurred at 20 m depths. The biotic and abiotic factors determining the settlement of grunts are not clear and will be examined in future studies.


The Structure Of Fish Assemblages On Vessel-Reefs And Adjacent Natural Reefs In Southeast Florida, Paul T. Arena 2016 Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center

The Structure Of Fish Assemblages On Vessel-Reefs And Adjacent Natural Reefs In Southeast Florida, Paul T. Arena

Paul Arena

Derelict vessels are commonly deployed as artificial reefs in theUnited States, mainly for recreational fishers and divers.Broward County,Floridaalone has more than 70 vessel-reefs located in its coastal waters. Despite their popularity, few studies have rigorously examined fish assemblages on these structures and compared them to natural reefs. Resource managers need information about fish assemblages on vessel-reefs and natural reefs to better understand the dynamics of local fish populations, understanding which can then effect more informed management decisions.

The nearshore environment ofBroward County,Floridaconsists of three reef terraces, each separated by sand substrate, running parallel to the coastline in ...


Fish Colonization Of A Newly Deployed Vessel-Reef Off Southeast Florida: Preliminary Results, Paul T. Arena, Lance K. B. Jordan, Patrick Quinn, Arlo H. Hemphill, David R. Bryan, Brian Buskirk, Richard E. Spieler 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Fish Colonization Of A Newly Deployed Vessel-Reef Off Southeast Florida: Preliminary Results, Paul T. Arena, Lance K. B. Jordan, Patrick Quinn, Arlo H. Hemphill, David R. Bryan, Brian Buskirk, Richard E. Spieler

Paul Arena

Fish colonization on the Ebenezer II, a 25.5m merchant marine vessel, was studied from May 2002 - July 2003. The ship was scuttled in May 2002 off Broward County, Florida at a depth of 21m and was censused 10 times during the study period using a modified Bohnsack and Bannerot visual census method. Adjacent natural reefs and the Mcallister, a nearby, 30m tugboat deployed in June 1998, were censused during the same period.

Distinct changes in the fish assemblage on the Ebenezer II were observed throughout the sample period. A pioneer assemblage was observed during the first three months, characterized ...


Weights And Balances: Integrating Models For Prevention And Response To Southern California Offshore Oil Spills, Carmen Watts Clayton, Amoret Bunn 2016 CSUMB

Weights And Balances: Integrating Models For Prevention And Response To Southern California Offshore Oil Spills, Carmen Watts Clayton, Amoret Bunn

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Licensing offshore oil and gas reserves in the United States waters are overseen by the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Safety and Enforcement (BSEE). The licensing application includes planning for any worst-case oil spill scenario between BSEE and the applicant based on lessons learned from historic offshore spills such as the Deepwater Horizon (2010), Exxon Valdez (1989), and the Union Oil Platform Blowout (1969). The process for planning to respond to oil spills involves coordination with multiple agencies, trustees, and stakeholders to ensure that oil spill responses consider multiple factors, including ecologically sensitive species, commercial transportation ...


Dispersion Of Ammonia From Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Austin D. Wardall 2016 Western Kentucky University

Dispersion Of Ammonia From Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Austin D. Wardall

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this research is to investigate the dispersion of ammonia (NH3) from three Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in western Kentucky, as well as to investigate the Weather Research and Forecasting – Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model’s sensitivity response to initial NH3 concentrations under both wet conditions (significant precipitation) and dry conditions (no precipitation). As expected, pollutant concentrations generally were significantly higher near their points of origin and generally declined away from the sources. Contrary to expectations, ammonia tended to rise through the planetary boundary layer (PBL) regardless of atmospheric conditions. Results showed modeled NH3 pollution levels at the surface ...


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