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Neutral Density Behavior From 45-90 Km Based On Rayleigh Lidar Observations Above Usu, David Barton 2014 Utah State University

Neutral Density Behavior From 45-90 Km Based On Rayleigh Lidar Observations Above Usu, David Barton

Physics Capstone Project

There are over 900 nights of observations taken by the Rayleigh lidar above Utah State University from 1993 to 2004. The data have been reduced to give absolute temperatures and relative densities in the mesosphere, from 45-90 km (Herron, 2004, 2007). From the 11 years of relative density data an 11-year climatology of mesospheric densities above Logan, Utah has been created. From this climatology I have been able to normalize the 11 years of density data to the following models: the MSISe00 empirical model, the CPC (Climate Prediction Center) reanalysis model, the ERA Interim reanalysis model, and the NASA MERRA ...


Effects Of Exposure Time On Cu(Ii) Adsorption And Retention To Iron Oxyhydroxide Nanoparticles, Anthony Torossian, Jack Jacobs, Christopher S. Kim 2014 Chapman University

Effects Of Exposure Time On Cu(Ii) Adsorption And Retention To Iron Oxyhydroxide Nanoparticles, Anthony Torossian, Jack Jacobs, Christopher S. Kim

Undergraduate Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Iron oxyhydroxides form naturally, often as nanoscale particles, in surface aquatic systems and represent both a powerful natural attenuation process and a potential remediation strategy for the retention and sequestration of dissolved metals in solution. This is of particular importance in mining environments due to elevated metal concentrations, acid mine drainage, and the health issues that may arise with exposure to potentially toxic metals. Such trace elements are readily transported in water supplies, increasing the geographical extent of their contamination. While metal adsorption processes to mineral surfaces have been extensively studied, desorption processes inform the long-term stability of sorbed metals ...


The Non-Lethal Effects Of Climate Change On The Territoriality Of Lottia Gigantea, Tracey Gunanto, Christina Chavez, Jessica Martinez, William G. Wright 2014 Chapman University

The Non-Lethal Effects Of Climate Change On The Territoriality Of Lottia Gigantea, Tracey Gunanto, Christina Chavez, Jessica Martinez, William G. Wright

Undergraduate Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The intertidal zone has been described as ground zero for global warming. Here, the owl limpet, Lottia gigantea, adapted to the cool ocean temperatures, must withstand a few hours of baking sun during day-time low tides. This hardship is predicted to increase in frequency and severity in the future as the globe warms. Our research hypothesized that heat events compromise territorial behavior of L. gigantea. All observations and experiments were performed at Inspiration Point near Newport Beach, California. We measured the natural radiant temperature of tagged limpets during day-time low tides using a field-calibrated infrared “thermogun”. We also experimentally amplified ...


How The Presence Of Plastic In The North Pacific Gyre Affects The Growth Of Thalassiosira Through Remote Sensing And Laboratory Replication, Jordynn Brennan, Hesham el-Askary 2014 Chapman University

How The Presence Of Plastic In The North Pacific Gyre Affects The Growth Of Thalassiosira Through Remote Sensing And Laboratory Replication, Jordynn Brennan, Hesham El-Askary

Undergraduate Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Through the use of remote sensing, we are able to determine the approximate location of the garbage patch in the North Pacific Gyre. Though remote sensing does not penetrate the surface of the ocean, monthly satellite images can be analyzed to determine the rate of growth or rate of decrease of certain parameters, such as atmospheric gases, phytoplankton, and dissolved organic matter. Over the past decade, data from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (Giovanni program) has shown a significant increase in dissolved organic matter and chlorophyll a content in the area of the North Pacific Garbage ...


The Effect Of Arsenic Exposure On Feeding Habits Of Hermit Crabs, Natalie Kobayashi, Christopher S. Kim 2014 Chapman University

The Effect Of Arsenic Exposure On Feeding Habits Of Hermit Crabs, Natalie Kobayashi, Christopher S. Kim

Undergraduate Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Contaminants that affect marine ecosystems have origins from processes associated with mining and the burning of fossil fuels. This study examines the degree to which arsenic concentrations affect the feeding patterns of hermit crabs to suggest the extent of impact the substance has on a marine ecosystem. Exploring the relationship between the amounts of arsenic exposed to hermit crabs and the amount retained defines the bioavailability of arsenic. The study also aims to correlate the arsenic concentrations in the tissue and the mass of consumed pellet after two weeks of exposure. We hypothesize that when the hermit crabs are exposed ...


Aerosols, Hurricanes, And Their Interactions : A Case Study Of Hurricane Sandy, Andrew Fontenot, Hesham el-Askary, W. Lau 2014 Chapman University

Aerosols, Hurricanes, And Their Interactions : A Case Study Of Hurricane Sandy, Andrew Fontenot, Hesham El-Askary, W. Lau

Undergraduate Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

While the effects of aerosols on precipitation have been studied, their effects on more extreme precipitation events like Tropical Cyclones have only been questioned relatively recently. Because of the rarity of the intersection of significant quantities of aerosols and forming/formed tropical cyclones, as well as the possible destruction caused, most experiments about their effects take place in computer models that may not fully simulate the effects of the aerosols. Limitations in satellite sensing make it difficult to track processes and material distributions in hurricanes from afar as well. Hurricane Sandy, a devastating hurricane that formed in October of 2012 ...


Long Term Ground Based Precipitation Data Analysis: Spatial And Temporal Variability, Luciano Rodriguez, Cyril S. Rakovski, Hesham el-Askary, Mohamed Allali 2014 Chapman University

Long Term Ground Based Precipitation Data Analysis: Spatial And Temporal Variability, Luciano Rodriguez, Cyril S. Rakovski, Hesham El-Askary, Mohamed Allali

Undergraduate Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

California is an area of diverse topography and has what many scientists call a Mediterranean climate. Various precipitation patterns exist due to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) which can cause abnormal precipitation or droughts. As temperature increases mainly due to the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere, it is rapidly changing the climate of not only California but the world. An increase in temperature is leading to droughts in certain areas as other areas are experiencing heavy rainfall/flooding. Droughts in return are providing a foundation for fires harming the ecosystem and nearby population. Various natural hazards can be induced ...


A Trend Analysis Of Aerosol Related Parameters And Their Relation To Precipitation Variability In Arizona !, Krista Rasmussen, Hesham el-Askary 2014 Chapman University

A Trend Analysis Of Aerosol Related Parameters And Their Relation To Precipitation Variability In Arizona !, Krista Rasmussen, Hesham El-Askary

Undergraduate Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The Objective of our research was to investigate if there is a correlation between haboob outbreaks, resulting in large dust storms over Arizona, and the precipitation patterns over the region. We examined the extent of this correlation over the last ten years using satellite daily observations to highlight the possibility of better forecasts for precipitation events, such as monsoon thunderstorms. Our research indicates that haboobs increase precipitation in the Sonoran desert of Arizona because the dust particles are large enough to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Data was collected from five locations spread out over the state of Arizona ...


Cloud Impacts On Pavement Temperature And Shortwave Radiation, Curtis L. Walker 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Cloud Impacts On Pavement Temperature And Shortwave Radiation, Curtis L. Walker

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Forecast systems provide decision support for end-users ranging from the solar energy industry to municipalities concerned with road safety. Pavement temperature is an important variable when considering vehicle response to various weather conditions. A complex, yet direct relationship exists between tire and pavement temperatures. Literature has shown that as tire temperature increases, friction decreases which affects vehicle performance. Many forecast systems suffer from inaccurate radiation forecasts resulting in part from the inability to model different types of clouds and their influence on radiation. This research focuses on forecast improvement by determining how cloud type impacts pavement temperature and the amount ...


Challenges Associated With Space Weather Analysis And Prediction, John Lanicci 2014 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Challenges Associated With Space Weather Analysis And Prediction, John Lanicci

Space Traffic Management Conference

The term “space weather” is typically used to describe environmental conditions in the region extending from the sun’s surface, through the interplanetary medium, to the earth’s magnetic field and upper atmosphere, with a focus on those conditions that can affect the earth, its technological systems, and population. Space weather conditions are monitored continuously by a number of agencies around the world. These agencies use both satellite- and ground-based measurements to build analyses and employ predictive models that form the basis for impacts-based products dealing with myriad users in satellite operations, the utility industry, aviation, and satellite-based communications, to ...


Weather Research Requirements To Improve Space Launch From Cape Canaveral Air Force Station And Nasa Kennedy Space Center, William P. Roeder, Lisa L. Huddleston, William H. Bauman III, Kelly B. Doser 2014 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Weather Research Requirements To Improve Space Launch From Cape Canaveral Air Force Station And Nasa Kennedy Space Center, William P. Roeder, Lisa L. Huddleston, William H. Bauman Iii, Kelly B. Doser

Space Traffic Management Conference

Weather has a large affect on operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Weather is the leading source of scrubs and delays to space launch from CCAFS/KSC. Weather has an even larger impact on ground processing as space launch vehicles and payloads are prepared in the months before space launch. Many of those operations are very sensitive to weather. In addition, the weather in Florida is notoriously difficult to predict, especially during the summer when rapid deep convection can occur in minutes. Finally, the weather can be extremely subtle in this area ...


A Methodology For Near-Field Tsunami Inundation Forecasting: Application To The 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, Aditya Riadi Gusman, Yuichiro Tanioka, Breanyn MacInnes, Hiroaki Tsushima 2014 Central Washington University

A Methodology For Near-Field Tsunami Inundation Forecasting: Application To The 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, Aditya Riadi Gusman, Yuichiro Tanioka, Breanyn Macinnes, Hiroaki Tsushima

All Faculty Scholarship (COTS)

Existing tsunami early warning systems in the world can give either one or a combination of estimated tsunami arrival times, heights, or qualitative tsunami forecasts before the tsunami hits near-field coastlines. A future tsunami early warning system should be able to provide a reliable near-field tsunami inundation forecast on high-resolution topography within a short time period. Here we describe a new methodology for near-field tsunami inundation forecasting. In this method, a precomputed tsunami inundation and precomputed tsunami waveform database is required. After information about a tsunami source is estimated, tsunami waveforms at nearshore points can be simulated in real time ...


Habitat And Seasonal Distribution Of The North American River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) And Vertebrate Species Assemblages In Two Protected Areas Of The Florida Everglades, Catherine Faye Hamilton 2014 Nova Southeastern University

Habitat And Seasonal Distribution Of The North American River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) And Vertebrate Species Assemblages In Two Protected Areas Of The Florida Everglades, Catherine Faye Hamilton

Theses and Dissertations

The Florida Everglades ecosystem is threatened by human development, increased pollution, freshwater scarcity, and invasive species; factors that have negatively impacted the Everglades and native species health and populations. Man-made canals and levies have redirected the natural flow of fresh water from Lake Okeechobee into the Florida Everglades, starving central and south Florida ecosystems of necessary fresh water and nutrients. Through the efforts of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP), freshwater is being redirected back into central and south Florida, returning the sheet flow of water back into the Everglades. Monitoring species abundance in the Everglades is a beneficial conservational ...


Reply To ‘Co2 Emissions From Crop Residue-Derived Biofuels’, Adam Liska, Haishun Yang, Matthew P. Pelton, Andrew E. Suyker 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Reply To ‘Co2 Emissions From Crop Residue-Derived Biofuels’, Adam Liska, Haishun Yang, Matthew P. Pelton, Andrew E. Suyker

Adam Liska Papers

The soil organic carbon (SOC) model that we used was parameterized with data from arable land under normal farming conditions in North America, Europe, Africa and Asia, but the equation is insensitive to changes in tillage, soil texture and moisture. The model has reasonable accuracy, however, in predicting changes in SOC, residue remaining and CO2 emissions from initial SOC, carbon inputs from residue, and daily temperature; the shoot-to-root ratio used in the geospatial simulation was 0.29 (that is, root carbon is 29% of total aboveground carbon), which did not underestimate carbon input to soil (Supplementary Figure 2 in ...


Inner-Shelf Circulation And Sediment Dynamics On A Series Of Shoreface-Connected Ridges Offshore Of Fire Island, Ny, John C. Warner, Jeffrey List, William C. Schwab, George Voulgaris, Brandy Armstrong, Nicole Marshall 2014 University of South Carolina

Inner-Shelf Circulation And Sediment Dynamics On A Series Of Shoreface-Connected Ridges Offshore Of Fire Island, Ny, John C. Warner, Jeffrey List, William C. Schwab, George Voulgaris, Brandy Armstrong, Nicole Marshall

George Voulgaris

Locations along the inner-continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, NY, are characterized by a series of shoreface-connected ridges (SFCRs). These sand ridges have approximate dimensions of 10 km in length, 3 km spacing, and up to ∼8 m ridge to trough relief and are oriented obliquely at approximately 30° clockwise from the coastline. Stability analysis from previous studies explains how sand ridges such as these could be formed and maintained by storm-driven flows directed alongshore with a key maintenance mechanism of offshore deflected flows over ridge crests and onshore in the troughs. We examine these processes both with a limited ...


Timed/Saber Satellite Investigations Of Mesospheric Gravity Wave Variances Over The Andes, Jonathan R. Pugmire 2014 Utah State University

Timed/Saber Satellite Investigations Of Mesospheric Gravity Wave Variances Over The Andes, Jonathan R. Pugmire

Jonathan R Pugmire

Focusing on data from the SABER instrument aboard the TIMED satellite temperature variances are determined as a function of altitude to quantify small scale gravity waves. This was done using IDL software to extract all the temperature profile measurements that were measured by SABER within a limited geographical area, centered on our ground-based optical imager at Cerro Pachon, Chile (30.3°S, 70.7°S). Then large-scale tidal waves, with wavenumbers 0-6, were removed from each profile revealing the gravity wave perturbations. The temperature variance were computed and recorded at several altitudes. Temperature variances reveal possible increased activity due to ...


New Measurements Of Mcmurdo Gravity Wave Parameters, Jonathan R. Pugmire, Michael J. Taylor, P Dominique Pautet 2014 Utah State University

New Measurements Of Mcmurdo Gravity Wave Parameters, Jonathan R. Pugmire, Michael J. Taylor, P Dominique Pautet

Jonathan R Pugmire

The ANtarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network (ANGWIN) is an NSF sponsored international program designed to develop and utilize a network of gravity wave observatories using existing and new instrumentation operated at several established research stations around the continent. The primary goal is to better understand and quantify large-scale gravity wave climatology and their effects on the upper atmosphere over Antarctica. ANGWIN currently comprises research measurements from five nations (U.S., U.K., Australia, Japan, and Brazil) at seven international stations. Utah State University’s Atmospheric Imaging Lab operates all-sky infrared and CCD imagers and an Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM ...


New Measurements Of Mcmurdo Gravity Wave Parameters, Jonathan Pugmire, Michael J. Taylor 2014 Utah State University

New Measurements Of Mcmurdo Gravity Wave Parameters, Jonathan Pugmire, Michael J. Taylor

Graduate Student Presentations

The ANtarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network (ANGWIN) is an NSF sponsored international program designed to develop and utilize a network of gravity wave observatories using existing and new instrumentation operated at several established research stations around the continent. The primary goal is to better understand and quantify large-scale gravity wave climatology and their effects on the upper atmosphere over Antarctica. ANGWIN currently comprises research measurements from five nations (U.S., U.K., Australia, Japan, and Brazil) at seven international stations. Utah State University’s Atmospheric Imaging Lab operates all-sky infrared and CCD imagers and an Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM ...


Ogden College News, Cheryl Stevens, Dean 2014 Western Kentucky University

Ogden College News, Cheryl Stevens, Dean

Ogden College of Science & Engineering Publications

No abstract provided.


Spatial And Temporal Characteristics Of Polarimetric Tornadic Debris Signatures, Matthew S. Van Den Broeke, Sabrina T. Jauernic 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Spatial And Temporal Characteristics Of Polarimetric Tornadic Debris Signatures, Matthew S. Van Den Broeke, Sabrina T. Jauernic

Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Nonmeteorological scatter, including debris lofted by tornadoes, may be detected using the polarimetric radar variables. For the 17 months from January 2012 to May 2013, radar data were examined for each tornado reported in the domain of an operational polarimetric Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D). Characteristics of the tornadic debris signature (TDS) were recorded when a signature was present. Approximately 16% of all tornadoes reported in Storm Data were associated with a debris signature, and this proportion is shown to vary regionally. Signatures were more frequently seen with tornadoes that were rated higher on the enhanced Fujita (EF) scale, with ...


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