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Challenges Associated With Space Weather Analysis And Prediction, John Lanicci 2014 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Challenges Associated With Space Weather Analysis And Prediction, John Lanicci

Space Traffic Management Conference

The term “space weather” is typically used to describe environmental conditions in the region extending from the sun’s surface, through the interplanetary medium, to the earth’s magnetic field and upper atmosphere, with a focus on those conditions that can affect the earth, its technological systems, and population. Space weather conditions are monitored continuously by a number of agencies around the world. These agencies use both satellite- and ground-based measurements to build analyses and employ predictive models that form the basis for impacts-based products dealing with myriad users in satellite operations, the utility industry, aviation, and satellite-based communications, to ...


Weather Research Requirements To Improve Space Launch From Cape Canaveral Air Force Station And Nasa Kennedy Space Center, William P. Roeder, Lisa L. Huddleston, William H. Bauman III, Kelly B. Doser 2014 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Weather Research Requirements To Improve Space Launch From Cape Canaveral Air Force Station And Nasa Kennedy Space Center, William P. Roeder, Lisa L. Huddleston, William H. Bauman Iii, Kelly B. Doser

Space Traffic Management Conference

Weather has a large affect on operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Weather is the leading source of scrubs and delays to space launch from CCAFS/KSC. Weather has an even larger impact on ground processing as space launch vehicles and payloads are prepared in the months before space launch. Many of those operations are very sensitive to weather. In addition, the weather in Florida is notoriously difficult to predict, especially during the summer when rapid deep convection can occur in minutes. Finally, the weather can be extremely subtle in this area ...


A Methodology For Near-Field Tsunami Inundation Forecasting: Application To The 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, Aditya Riadi Gusman, Yuichiro Tanioka, Breanyn MacInnes, Hiroaki Tsushima 2014 Central Washington University

A Methodology For Near-Field Tsunami Inundation Forecasting: Application To The 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, Aditya Riadi Gusman, Yuichiro Tanioka, Breanyn Macinnes, Hiroaki Tsushima

All Faculty Scholarship (COTS)

Existing tsunami early warning systems in the world can give either one or a combination of estimated tsunami arrival times, heights, or qualitative tsunami forecasts before the tsunami hits near-field coastlines. A future tsunami early warning system should be able to provide a reliable near-field tsunami inundation forecast on high-resolution topography within a short time period. Here we describe a new methodology for near-field tsunami inundation forecasting. In this method, a precomputed tsunami inundation and precomputed tsunami waveform database is required. After information about a tsunami source is estimated, tsunami waveforms at nearshore points can be simulated in real time ...


Reply To ‘Co2 Emissions From Crop Residue-Derived Biofuels’, Adam Liska, Haishun Yang, Matthew P. Pelton, Andrew E. Suyker 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Reply To ‘Co2 Emissions From Crop Residue-Derived Biofuels’, Adam Liska, Haishun Yang, Matthew P. Pelton, Andrew E. Suyker

Adam Liska Papers

The soil organic carbon (SOC) model that we used was parameterized with data from arable land under normal farming conditions in North America, Europe, Africa and Asia, but the equation is insensitive to changes in tillage, soil texture and moisture. The model has reasonable accuracy, however, in predicting changes in SOC, residue remaining and CO2 emissions from initial SOC, carbon inputs from residue, and daily temperature; the shoot-to-root ratio used in the geospatial simulation was 0.29 (that is, root carbon is 29% of total aboveground carbon), which did not underestimate carbon input to soil (Supplementary Figure 2 in ...


Timed/Saber Satellite Investigations Of Mesospheric Gravity Wave Variances Over The Andes, Jonathan R. Pugmire 2014 Utah State University

Timed/Saber Satellite Investigations Of Mesospheric Gravity Wave Variances Over The Andes, Jonathan R. Pugmire

Jonathan R Pugmire

Focusing on data from the SABER instrument aboard the TIMED satellite temperature variances are determined as a function of altitude to quantify small scale gravity waves. This was done using IDL software to extract all the temperature profile measurements that were measured by SABER within a limited geographical area, centered on our ground-based optical imager at Cerro Pachon, Chile (30.3°S, 70.7°S). Then large-scale tidal waves, with wavenumbers 0-6, were removed from each profile revealing the gravity wave perturbations. The temperature variance were computed and recorded at several altitudes. Temperature variances reveal possible increased activity due to ...


New Measurements Of Mcmurdo Gravity Wave Parameters, Jonathan R. Pugmire, Michael J. Taylor, P Dominique Pautet 2014 Utah State University

New Measurements Of Mcmurdo Gravity Wave Parameters, Jonathan R. Pugmire, Michael J. Taylor, P Dominique Pautet

Jonathan R Pugmire

The ANtarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network (ANGWIN) is an NSF sponsored international program designed to develop and utilize a network of gravity wave observatories using existing and new instrumentation operated at several established research stations around the continent. The primary goal is to better understand and quantify large-scale gravity wave climatology and their effects on the upper atmosphere over Antarctica. ANGWIN currently comprises research measurements from five nations (U.S., U.K., Australia, Japan, and Brazil) at seven international stations. Utah State University’s Atmospheric Imaging Lab operates all-sky infrared and CCD imagers and an Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM ...


New Measurements Of Mcmurdo Gravity Wave Parameters, Jonathan Pugmire, Michael J. Taylor 2014 Utah State University

New Measurements Of Mcmurdo Gravity Wave Parameters, Jonathan Pugmire, Michael J. Taylor

Graduate Student Presentations

The ANtarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network (ANGWIN) is an NSF sponsored international program designed to develop and utilize a network of gravity wave observatories using existing and new instrumentation operated at several established research stations around the continent. The primary goal is to better understand and quantify large-scale gravity wave climatology and their effects on the upper atmosphere over Antarctica. ANGWIN currently comprises research measurements from five nations (U.S., U.K., Australia, Japan, and Brazil) at seven international stations. Utah State University’s Atmospheric Imaging Lab operates all-sky infrared and CCD imagers and an Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM ...


Ogden College News, Cheryl Stevens, Dean 2014 Western Kentucky University

Ogden College News, Cheryl Stevens, Dean

Ogden College of Science & Engineering Publications

No abstract provided.


Spatial And Temporal Characteristics Of Polarimetric Tornadic Debris Signatures, Matthew S. Van Den Broeke, Sabrina T. Jauernic 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Spatial And Temporal Characteristics Of Polarimetric Tornadic Debris Signatures, Matthew S. Van Den Broeke, Sabrina T. Jauernic

Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Nonmeteorological scatter, including debris lofted by tornadoes, may be detected using the polarimetric radar variables. For the 17 months from January 2012 to May 2013, radar data were examined for each tornado reported in the domain of an operational polarimetric Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D). Characteristics of the tornadic debris signature (TDS) were recorded when a signature was present. Approximately 16% of all tornadoes reported in Storm Data were associated with a debris signature, and this proportion is shown to vary regionally. Signatures were more frequently seen with tornadoes that were rated higher on the enhanced Fujita (EF) scale, with ...


Air Mass Frequency During Precipitation Events In The Northern Plains Of The United States, Anthony Baum, Richard De Pasquale, Melissa L. Godek 2014 College of Saint Benedict and Saint John’s University

Air Mass Frequency During Precipitation Events In The Northern Plains Of The United States, Anthony Baum, Richard De Pasquale, Melissa L. Godek

The Compass: Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon

Since 1980, numerous billion-dollar disasters have affected the Northern Plains of the United States, including nine droughts and four floods. The atmospheric environment present during precipitation events can largely be described by the presiding air mass conditions since air masses characterize a multitude of meteorological variables at one time over a large region. The goal of this research is to add knowledge to current understandings of the factors responsible for precipitation in the Northern Plains through an assessment of synoptic air mass conditions. The Spatial Synoptic Classification is used to categorize 30 years of daily surface air mass types across ...


Utilizing Remote Sensing To Detect Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Properties, Amanda Kristedja 2014 Chapman University

Utilizing Remote Sensing To Detect Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Properties, Amanda Kristedja

e-Research: A Journal of Undergraduate Work

This paper focuses on the detection of oil spills using satellite information. ��For this research project, the focus will be primarily on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, which is the largest accidental oil spill. In order to detect an oil spill, the chlorophyll a content must be observed with data from the SeaWiFs at 9km and the MODIS-aqua at 9km and 4km. There is conflicting evidence of whether or not chlorophyll a concentration is positively correlated with the presence of an oil spill. This will be further investigated in the experiment. Also, by utilizing the MODIS instrument aboard the terra ...


Effects Of Ocean Acidification On Chlorophyll Content, C. del Fierro, R. Lloyd, H. el-Askary 2014 Chapman University

Effects Of Ocean Acidification On Chlorophyll Content, C. Del Fierro, R. Lloyd, H. El-Askary

e-Research: A Journal of Undergraduate Work

Airborne pollutants contribute to ocean acidification and hence to the associated chlorophyll content level. Previous work showed that falling aerosols causing ocean acidification would in turn result in bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders. Chlorophyll content has been used as a measure of the concentration of the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll a (the most common "green" chlorophyll) in the ocean. In our work we have monitored the change in chlorophyll content obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on board Terra/Aqua satellites from 2000-2009 over selected pilot areas. Moreover, we have used the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol ...


Effects Of Mid- And Upper-Level Dry Layers On Microphysics Of Simulated Supercell Storms, Matthew S. Van Den Broeke 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Mid- And Upper-Level Dry Layers On Microphysics Of Simulated Supercell Storms, Matthew S. Van Den Broeke

Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Conceptual differences are presented among supercell storms simulated with midlevel and deep dry layers of varying magnitude. Initial patterns are identified which should be studied more comprehensively using observed or simulated data. These initial results indicate that mixing ratios of small ice particles are most sensitive to the depth of a dry layer rather than to its magnitude, with fewer particles in simulations containing a deep dry layer. Hail from frozen drops may be most abundant when a deep layer is dried, and bursts of hail species reaching low levels may be followed 15–20 min later by an increase ...


Rapid: Effect Of A Very Low Nao Event On The Abundance Of The Lipid-Rich Planktonic Copepod, Calanus Finmarchicus, In The Gulf Of Maine, Jeffrey Runge 2014 The University of Maine

Rapid: Effect Of A Very Low Nao Event On The Abundance Of The Lipid-Rich Planktonic Copepod, Calanus Finmarchicus, In The Gulf Of Maine, Jeffrey Runge

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Final Reports

Test the hypothesis that a distinctly lower abundance of the planktonic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus in the Gulf of Maine follows the occurrence of very negative winter phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). In 2010, the station-based winter NAO index was -4.64, even more intense than the negative (-3.78) 1996 NAO winter index. If a two-year lagged relationship between very negative NAO winter indices and Calanus abundance in the Gulf of Maine is valid, cooler water from the Labrador Sea should replace Atlantic Temperate Slope Water in the GoM in 2012, inducing a major climatic ecosystem event on ...


Improved Storm Data Processing Through Parallel Computing Approaches, Shauna Smith 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Improved Storm Data Processing Through Parallel Computing Approaches, Shauna Smith

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

A previous research study conducted at Michigan Technological University by Dr. Deborah Nykanen and her colleague Dr. Daniel Harris analyzed storm data in order to develop algorithms that will allow coarse resolution rainfall forecasted by weather models to be optimally used in high resolution hydrology models with the goal of improving stream flow predictions and early detection algorithms that can be used to warn communities about potential flash floods. This research was performed by analyzing a series of independent radar images derived from Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data obtained from Dr. James A. Smith at Princeton University using a ...


Automated Image Interpretation For Science Autonomy In Robotic Planetary Exploration, Raymond Francis 2014 Western University

Automated Image Interpretation For Science Autonomy In Robotic Planetary Exploration, Raymond Francis

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Advances in the capabilities of robotic planetary exploration missions have increased the wealth of scientific data they produce, presenting challenges for mission science and operations imposed by the limits of interplanetary radio communications. These data budget pressures can be relieved by increased robotic autonomy, both for onboard operations tasks and for decision- making in response to science data.

This thesis presents new techniques in automated image interpretation for natural scenes of relevance to planetary science and exploration, and elaborates autonomy scenarios under which they could be used to extend the reach and performance of exploration missions on planetary surfaces.

Two ...


Verification And Analysis Of Impact-Based Tornado Warnings In The Central Region Of The National Weather Service, Holly B. Obermeier 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Verification And Analysis Of Impact-Based Tornado Warnings In The Central Region Of The National Weather Service, Holly B. Obermeier

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Tornado warnings are one of the most critical products issued by the National Weather Service (NWS), and favorable verification statistics are desirable. The 2011 NWS statistics for traditional tornado warnings indicate that the probability of detection (POD) is 70%, while the false alarm rate (FAR) is 76%. The recent Joplin, Missouri EF5 tornado event on 22 May 2011, which resulted in massive devastation and loss of life, prompted the NWS to re-evaluate the current tornado warning format. After the Joplin, MO event, the Central Region of the NWS implemented the impact-based tornado warning (IBTW) experiment in 2013. IBTWs consist of ...


Eastern Us Dryline Climatology And Synoptic-Scale Environment, Rebecca S. Duell 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Eastern Us Dryline Climatology And Synoptic-Scale Environment, Rebecca S. Duell

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The dryline is an important focal point for convection initiation, and the subject of many studies. While the most common location for drylines is the southern Great Plains, dryline passages and subsequent severe weather outbreaks have been documented in the Mississippi River Valley and into portions of the southeastern United States. Little is known about these “eastern” drylines or how often they occur, as no climatologies or detailed studies have been published on them. This thesis presents a fifteen-year climatology (1999-2013) of eastern drylines in an effort to identify how often and where they typically occur, and to identify synoptic ...


Growing Conditions For Algae, Angeles Mora, Tamar Melkonian, Alejandro Calderon-Urrea 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Growing Conditions For Algae, Angeles Mora, Tamar Melkonian, Alejandro Calderon-Urrea

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

With the growing demands of water in California and the increasing cost of fossil fuels to operate water-cleaning equipment, Algae was cultivated in different concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium (NPK) during different trails to identify the best growing conditions for the removal water contaminates. Before testing algae in waste water, the Algae: Dunaliella Primolecta, Chlorella Vulgaris, and Scenedesmus Dimorphus were cultivated in four different media containing distilled water and plant vitamins. The different mediums used include: Orchid Grow More (20-20-20), Miracle Grow (30-10-10), Murashige & Skoog, and Orchid Bloom Boster (11-35-15). As a result of the investigation, the algae, Scenedesmus ...


Laboratory Evaluation Of Black Carbon Deposition Onto Snow And Transport Via Snowmelt, Larry D. Hermanson, Joshua P. Schwarz 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Laboratory Evaluation Of Black Carbon Deposition Onto Snow And Transport Via Snowmelt, Larry D. Hermanson, Joshua P. Schwarz

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Black carbon (BC) is an aerosol material produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. BC has been shown to be the second most important anthropogenic climate warming agent after carbon dioxide due to its ability to absorb solar radiation, influence cloud behavior, and accelerate snow melt. BC in otherwise clean snow can significantly reduce its reflectivity. In order to learn about the significance of BC contamination in snow, we explored the deposition of BC onto snow and the transport of BC in snow during snowmelt. A Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), was used to measure the concentration and ...


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