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Aviation Bird Hazard In Nexrad Dual Polarization Weather Radar Confirmed By Visual Observations, Bradley M. Muller, Frederick R. Mosher, Christopher G. Herbster, Anthony T. Brickhouse 2015 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Aviation Bird Hazard In Nexrad Dual Polarization Weather Radar Confirmed By Visual Observations, Bradley M. Muller, Frederick R. Mosher, Christopher G. Herbster, Anthony T. Brickhouse

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Birds represent a significant hazard to flying aircraft as illustrated by the “Miracle on the Hudson” encounter in 2009 between U.S. Airways Flight 1549 and a flock of Canada Geese, forcing the flight to ditch in the river. Birds are common in the skies over Florida during the spring migration season, and often appear in the National Weather Service’s (NWS) NEXRAD weather radar imagery as an easily recognizable signature known as a “roost ring.” This paper presents a NEXRAD roost ring case in central Florida in a rare instance where the signatures were confirmed by visual observations of ...


Global Optimized Isothermal And Nonlinear Models Of Earth’S Standard Atmosphere, Nihad E. Daidzic, Ph.D., 2015 AAR Aerospace Consulting, LLC

Global Optimized Isothermal And Nonlinear Models Of Earth’S Standard Atmosphere, Nihad E. Daidzic, Ph.D.,

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Both, a global isothermal temperature model and a nonlinear quadratic temperature model of the ISA was developed and presented here. Constrained optimization techniques in conjunction with the least-square-root approximations were used to design best-fit isothermal models for ISA pressure and density changes up to 47 geopotential km for NLPAM, and 86 orthometric km for ISOAM respectively. The mass of the dry atmosphere and the relevant fractional-mass scale heights have been computed utilizing the very accurate eight-point Gauss-Legendre numerical quadrature for both ISOAM and NLPAM. Both, the ISOAM and the NLPAM represent viable alternatives to ISA in many practical applications and ...


The Distribution Of Dissolved Barium Along The U.S. Geotraces North Atlantic Transect: Impact Of Biogeochemical Processes, Circulation And Phase Association, Karen Renee Grissom 2015 University of Southern Mississippi

The Distribution Of Dissolved Barium Along The U.S. Geotraces North Atlantic Transect: Impact Of Biogeochemical Processes, Circulation And Phase Association, Karen Renee Grissom

Master's Theses

During the last four decades, since the completion of the GEOSECS program, there has been a growing interest in the biogeochemical cycle of barium (Ba) due to its potential as a proxy for interpreting the geologic record. The typical barium distribution exhibits removal in the upper water column and regeneration at depth, consistent with its classification as a bio-intermediate element and similar to the nutrient-like profiles of silicic acid and alkalinity. To better constrain the uses of Ba, trace element clean samples were collected during the North Atlantic US GEOTRACES cruises.

The cycling of barium in the North Atlantic region ...


Retrieval Of Aerosol Microphysical Properties From Aeronet Photopolarimetric Measurements, Xiaoguang Xu 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Retrieval Of Aerosol Microphysical Properties From Aeronet Photopolarimetric Measurements, Xiaoguang Xu

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in earth climate by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly through altering the cloud formation, life- time, and radiative properties. However, accurate quantification of these effects is in no small part hindered by our limited knowledge about the particle size distribution (PSD) and refractive index, the aerosol microphysical properties essentially pertain to aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The research goal of this thesis is to obtain the aerosol microphysical properties of both fine and coarse modes from the polarimetric solar radiation measured by the SunPhotometer of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET ...


Green Lakes Water Column Parameters: September 2002, Mark A. Teece 2015 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Green Lakes Water Column Parameters: September 2002, Mark A. Teece

Green Lakes

No abstract provided.


The Online System For Lidar Data Handling And Real Time Monitoring Of Lidar Operations At Alo-Usu, Luis Navarro Dominguez, Vincent B. Wickwar, Jose Gamboa, Marco Milla 2015 Utah State University

The Online System For Lidar Data Handling And Real Time Monitoring Of Lidar Operations At Alo-Usu, Luis Navarro Dominguez, Vincent B. Wickwar, Jose Gamboa, Marco Milla

Conference publications

t is no longer sufficient to use lidar, such as the Rayleigh lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Utah State University (USU), to observe the middle atmosphere and reduce the data to geophysical parameters. Extended operations, with inevitable equipment, data reduction, and analysis improvements, require us to keep careful track of all these changes and how they affect the scientific products. Furthermore, many of the funding agencies and the journals now require us to do, at least, some of this. We have built three interconnected data structures to organize and manage the different hardware and software set- ups ...


Variations In Mesospheric Neutral Densities From Rayleigh Lidar Observations At Utah State University, David L. Barton, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron, Leda Sox, Luis A. Navarro 2015 Utah State University

Variations In Mesospheric Neutral Densities From Rayleigh Lidar Observations At Utah State University, David L. Barton, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron, Leda Sox, Luis A. Navarro

Conference publications

A Rayleigh lidar was operated from 1993 to 2004, at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W) at the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU). Observations were carried out on over 900 nights, 729 of which had good data starting at 45 km and going upward toward 90 km. They were reduced for absolute temperatures and relative neutral number densities. The latter at 45 km can be put on an absolute basis by using atmospheric models that go up to at least 45 km. The models’ absolute ...


Temperature Deviations In The Midlatitude Mesosphere During Stratospheric Warmings As Measured With Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Chad Fish, Joshua P. Herron 2015 Utah State University

Temperature Deviations In The Midlatitude Mesosphere During Stratospheric Warmings As Measured With Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Chad Fish, Joshua P. Herron

Conference publications

While mesospheric temperature anomalies associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) have been observed extensively in the polar regions, observations of these anomalies at midlatitudes are sparse. The original Rayleigh-scatter lidar that operated at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W) in the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU) collected an extensive set of temperature data for 11 years in the 45–90 km altitude range. This work focuses on the extensive Rayleigh lidar observations made during six major SSW events that occurred between 1993 and 2004, providing ...


Early Temperatures Observed With The Extremely Sensitive Rayleigh Lidar At Utah State University, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Matthew T. Emerick, Joshua P. Herron, David L. Barton 2015 Utah State University

Early Temperatures Observed With The Extremely Sensitive Rayleigh Lidar At Utah State University, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Matthew T. Emerick, Joshua P. Herron, David L. Barton

Conference publications

Rayleigh-scatter lidar observations were made at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Utah State University (USU) from 1993–2004 from 45–90 km. The lidar operated at 532 nm with a power-aperture-product (PAP) of ~3.1 Wm2. The sensitivity of the lidar has since been increased by a factor of 66 to 205 Wm2, extending the maximum altitude into new territory, the lower thermosphere. Observations have been extended up to 115 km, almost to the 120 km goal. Early temperatures from four ~4-week periods starting in June 2014 are presented and discussed. They are compared to each other, to the ...


Bio-Fuel Alternatives In South African Airways (Saa) Operations - Is It An Effective Response To Vulnerability Over Carbon Taxes And Penalty?, Daniel Kwasi Adjekum 2015 University of North Dakota

Bio-Fuel Alternatives In South African Airways (Saa) Operations - Is It An Effective Response To Vulnerability Over Carbon Taxes And Penalty?, Daniel Kwasi Adjekum

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The paper did a comparative analysis of the carbon emission and European Union Emission Trading Surcharges (EU ETS) of South African Airways (SAA) current fleet that used aviation jet A1 fuel and the same fleet if it had used a 25% bio-fuel ‘drop in’ for the European routes within the first quarter of the 2014 flying year (FY 14). Operational data in terms of the flight scheduled, aircraft type, total time enroute, route stage length, passenger estimates were obtained through SAA’s flight operations website. An independent t–test was conducted to compare means of the emissions. The mean carbon ...


Obliczenia Rozprzestrzeniania Się Pyłu Drobnego W Powietrzu Atmosferycznym Z Wykorzystaniem Dyfuzyjnych Modeli Gaussa, Robert Oleniacz, Mateusz Rzeszutek 2015 AGH University o Science and Technology

Obliczenia Rozprzestrzeniania Się Pyłu Drobnego W Powietrzu Atmosferycznym Z Wykorzystaniem Dyfuzyjnych Modeli Gaussa, Robert Oleniacz, Mateusz Rzeszutek

Robert Oleniacz

The chapter presents a comparison of results of modelling concentrations of fine dust (suspended dust PM10) in the air with the use of two diffusion models: the Gaussian plume model (used commonly in Poland), and the Gaussian puff model CALPUFF (used significantly less frequently). It indicates discrepancies in obtained results of calculations for point emitters taking into consideration three dimensional options (with the following heights: 20, 40 and 60 m and diameters of respectively: 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 m). For particular variants, errors were visualised, resulting from use of the simple Gaussian plume model in place of ...


Hail And Fungicide Use On Corn, Adam Sisson, Daren S. Mueller, Alison E. Robertson 2015 Iowa State University

Hail And Fungicide Use On Corn, Adam Sisson, Daren S. Mueller, Alison E. Robertson

Integrated Crop Management News

Hail annually destroys approximately 1.4 percent of corn (Climate of Iowa 2006). Years like 2009 stand out vividly to many people as major hailstorms cut across parts of Iowa, damaging more than 1 million acres of corn in a single season. Many farmers and agronomists have been interested in the effects of fungicide application on corn after a hail event (Figure 1). In response, a multi-year study looking at mid-season "hail events" with fungicides applied after simulated hail events was completed. Here is a videoof the project.


Development Of An Integrated Online Balloon Flight System, Ethan E. Harstad 2015 Stratospheric Ballooning Association

Development Of An Integrated Online Balloon Flight System, Ethan E. Harstad

2015 Academic High Altitude Conference

Aerodyne Labs has been working with the Stratospheric Ballooning Association to develop an all inclusive high altitude ballooning software suite. This software suite is intended to allow every step of conducting a balloon flight to be conducted on a single website. Flight predictions can be performed many days in advance and used to automatically generate notices for both the FAA and public. Once the balloon has been launched, telemetry can be streamed to the website to allow real-time position and telemetry updates, including a dedicated view for FAA controllers. Data that is not streamed from the payload can be uploaded ...


Integrating K12 Outreach With Undergraduate & Graduate Student Research Through Balloonsat: High Altitude Balloons, J Tillman Kennon, Bryant Fong 2015 Arkansas State University - Main Campus

Integrating K12 Outreach With Undergraduate & Graduate Student Research Through Balloonsat: High Altitude Balloons, J Tillman Kennon, Bryant Fong

2015 Academic High Altitude Conference

The Arkansas BalloonSAT team has successfully launched and recovered 37 BalloonSAT’s dating back to the first flight on December 16, 2006. Numerous instruments measuring such things as atmospheric temperature, humidity, radiation, and light intensity have recorded data from different locations over the State of Arkansas. The initial focus of this project was outreach with the k-12 schools, and still involves outreach; however atmospheric research has become a significant component for this endeavor. This ongoing collaborative projection has involved a number of faculty and students from different academic backgrounds, including physics, chemistry, biology, and astronomy among different ASGC schools who ...


Techniques For Payload Stabilization For Improved Photography During Stratospheric Balloon Flights, James Flaten, Christopher Gosch, Joseph (Benjamin) Habeck 2015 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities / MN Space Grant

Techniques For Payload Stabilization For Improved Photography During Stratospheric Balloon Flights, James Flaten, Christopher Gosch, Joseph (Benjamin) Habeck

2015 Academic High Altitude Conference

Payload-box rotation and swing are perennial challenges to achieving high-quality photography (typically videography) during weather-balloon flights to “near-space” (AKA the stratosphere). Continuous camera motion can lead to blurred still photos, nearly-impossible-to-watch video footage, and precludes time-exposure photography required for most astronomical imaging even though altitudes are reached where the daytime sky appears black. Apparently-random payload rotation, persisting even at altitude, can often exceed servo rotation rates and frustrate attempts to do active camera pointing. Here we discuss mostly-passive payload stabilization strategies we, and our collaborators, have used to mitigate and dampen both swing and rotation of suspended payloads on high-altitude ...


The “Stratospheric Cricket Keeper” – Developing A Simple“Life-Support” Payload For High-Altitude Balloon Missions, Lucas Kramer, Chad Serba, James Flaten 2015 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

The “Stratospheric Cricket Keeper” – Developing A Simple“Life-Support” Payload For High-Altitude Balloon Missions, Lucas Kramer, Chad Serba, James Flaten

2015 Academic High Altitude Conference

Exposure to the environmental conditions of “near-space” (AKA the stratosphere) is quickly fatal to nearly all forms of animal life. It is even challenging to build a sealable enclosure that can keep insects (crickets) alive through the dramatic and simultaneous pressure and temperature drops experienced during a high-altitude balloon mission. This poster describes the development of a rugged “cricket keeper” in which we were able to fly crickets to the stratosphere and, quoting the words of JFK, “return (them) safely to the earth!” This “life-support” payload had large windows (for the view!) and included Arduino-logged temperature and pressure sensors, an ...


Long Term Tropospheric And Stratospheric Measurements Using High Altitude Balloons, Bryant Fong, J Tillman Kennon, Ed Roberts, Hashim Ali 2015 Arkansas State University - Main Campus

Long Term Tropospheric And Stratospheric Measurements Using High Altitude Balloons, Bryant Fong, J Tillman Kennon, Ed Roberts, Hashim Ali

2015 Academic High Altitude Conference

The Arkansas BalloonSAT program is an educational outreach and research program at Arkansas State University. A variety of instruments including HOBO data loggers, Anasonde, and Arduino methane sensors have been flown on flights in the past five years. Measurements using BalloonSAT provides a cost effective option, while also matching measurements made with satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles. This includes identifying water vapor, pressure, background radiation, methane, carbon dioxide and temperature profiles over seasons and years. Water vapor trends were observed to vary with seasons, with water vapor lowest in the summer and greatest in the spring at stratospheric altitudes. Methane ...


Learning To Fly: Initial Experiments In High Altitude Ballooning, Tracy L. Knowles, Dalton Warren, Sara Stewart, Angel Smith, Joe Maciag 2015 Bluegrass Community and Technical College

Learning To Fly: Initial Experiments In High Altitude Ballooning, Tracy L. Knowles, Dalton Warren, Sara Stewart, Angel Smith, Joe Maciag

2015 Academic High Altitude Conference

The Bluegrass Community and Technical College’s (BCTC) Balloon Sat Project trained students and faculty to design, build, and fly balloon-borne atmospheric data collection payloads. Students and faculty attended NASA’s Balloon Sat four day workshop/Flight at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. During the Spring 2015 semester, the student team launched two balloons with sensors on board that measured atmospheric temperature, pressure, altitude, humidity, and carbon dioxide concentrations.


Using A High Altitude Balloon Platform To Observe And Measure Seasonal Ozone Flux Over Agricultural Landscapes, Cody Sabo 2015 DePaul University

Using A High Altitude Balloon Platform To Observe And Measure Seasonal Ozone Flux Over Agricultural Landscapes, Cody Sabo

2015 Academic High Altitude Conference

The concentration of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) in the atmosphere has continued to rise since the industrial era. This issue has had a multitude of negative impacts on all living things. Among the major GHGs are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Ozone is of particular importance because it not only has the ability to trap heat in the atmosphere, but it also directly impacts organisms by causing harm to both plants and humans. The damage that ozone causes to plants is most closely linked to ozone uptake rather than ozone concentration. So, measuring ozone uptake is becoming critical for ...


In-Season Corn And Soybean Forecast Of Soil Water-Nitrogen And Yields For Central And Northwest Iowa: A Pilot Project, Sotirios Archontoulis, Mark A. Licht, Ranae N. Dietzel 2015 Iowa State University

In-Season Corn And Soybean Forecast Of Soil Water-Nitrogen And Yields For Central And Northwest Iowa: A Pilot Project, Sotirios Archontoulis, Mark A. Licht, Ranae N. Dietzel

Integrated Crop Management News

A team of Iowa State University Department of Agronomy faculty and staff specialists in crops, soils and climate have begun an innovative pilot project to provide an in-season crop and soil water-nitrogen status and an end-of-season yield forecast. The approach combines use of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) cropping systems model, the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF), and parallel in-field data collection to verify model predictions.


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