Seasonal Temperature Variations Controlling Cave Ventilation Processes In Cueva Larga, Puerto Rico, 2016 University of Puerto Rico
Seasonal Temperature Variations Controlling Cave Ventilation Processes In Cueva Larga, Puerto Rico, Rolf Vieten, Amos Winter, Sophie Friederike Warken, Andrea Schrӧder-Ritzrau, Thomas E. Miller, Denis Scholz
International Journal of Speleology
Two years of cave monitoring investigate ventilation processes in Cueva Larga, a tropical cave in Puerto Rico. The cave is 1,440 m long with a large main passage (about 120,000 m3). Cave air pCO2 in the main passage varies seasonally, between 600 ppm in winter and 1,800 ppm in summer. The seasonal variability in cave pCO2 permits the estimation of a cave air exchange time of 36 ± 5 days and a winter ventilation rate of 3,300 ± 1,000 m3/day for the main cave passage. Calculations of virtual temperature and differences between ...
Mammalian Keratin Associated Proteins (Krtaps) Subgenomes: Disentangling Hair Diversity And Adaptation To Terrestrial And Aquatic Environments, Imran Khan, Emanuel Maldonado, Vitor Vasconcelos, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson, Agostinho Antunes
Background: Adaptation of mammals to terrestrial life was facilitated by the unique vertebrate trait of body hair, which occurs in a range of morphological patterns. Keratin associated proteins (KRTAPs), the major structural hair shaft proteins, are largely responsible for hair variation.
Results: We exhaustively characterized the KRTAP gene family in 22 mammalian genomes, confirming the existence of 30 KRTAP subfamilies evolving at different rates with varying degrees of diversification and homogenization. Within the two major classes of KRTAPs, the high cysteine (HS) subfamily experienced strong concerted evolution, high rates of gene conversion/recombination and high GC content. In contrast, high ...
Surfactant-Associated Bacteria In The Near-Surface Layer Of The Ocean, 2016 Nova Southeastern University
Surfactant-Associated Bacteria In The Near-Surface Layer Of The Ocean, Naoko Kurata, Katie E. Vella, Bryan Hamilton, Mahmood S. Shivji, Alexander Soloviev, Silvia Matt, Aurelien Tartar, William Perrie
Certain marine bacteria found in the near-surface layer of the ocean are expected to play important roles in the production and decay of surface active materials; however, the details of these processes are still unclear. Here we provide evidence supporting connection between the presence of surfactant-associated bacteria in the near-surface layer of the ocean, slicks on the sea surface, and a distinctive feature in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the sea surface. From DNA analyses of the in situ samples using pyrosequencing technology, we found the highest abundance of surfactant-associated bacterial taxa in the near-surface layer below the ...
No-Till Is Better Choice For Soybean After Corn, 2016 Iowa State University
No-Till Is Better Choice For Soybean After Corn, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna
H. Mark Hanna
The wet 2008 fall put a hold on tillage operations for many farmers, which may provide them with time to consider the use of no-tillage system for soybean after corn. Conventional tillage, whether for corn or soybean, generally has shown limited advantage in yield and economic returns. The exception is a few cases with corn that involve lack of drainage and wet, cold soil conditions.
Spatial And Temporal Recruitment Patterns Of Juvenile Grunts (Haemujon Spp.) In South Florida, 2016 Nova Southeastern University
Spatial And Temporal Recruitment Patterns Of Juvenile Grunts (Haemujon Spp.) In South Florida, L. K. B. Jordan, David S. Gilliam, Robin L. Sherman, Paul T. Arena, Fleur M. Harttung, Robert M. Baron, Richard E. Spieler
Grunts (Haemulidae) are important fisheries species and represent a major component of reef fish communities in the Greater Caribbean region. To date, little is known about their recruitment pattems. Data from more than 2,000 visual fish counts from multiple natural and artificial reef studies in Broward County, Florida, over a seven-year period, were examined to identify both spatial and temporal trends in recruitment of juvenile (i.e., < 5cm TL) grunts of the genus Haemulon. In general, data from these studies indicate that juvenile Haemulon spp. recruitment increases in the spring and peaks in the early summer months (i.e., June and July). Data from natural reef surveys revealed a predominantly nearshore preference for recruitment in water depths less than 8 m. However, on artificial reefs, recruitment commoniy occurred at 20 m depths. The biotic and abiotic factors determining the settlement of grunts are not clear and will be examined in future studies.
The Structure Of Fish Assemblages On Vessel-Reefs And Adjacent Natural Reefs In Southeast Florida, 2016 Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center
The Structure Of Fish Assemblages On Vessel-Reefs And Adjacent Natural Reefs In Southeast Florida, Paul T. Arena
Derelict vessels are commonly deployed as artificial reefs in theUnited States, mainly for recreational fishers and divers.Broward County,Floridaalone has more than 70 vessel-reefs located in its coastal waters. Despite their popularity, few studies have rigorously examined fish assemblages on these structures and compared them to natural reefs. Resource managers need information about fish assemblages on vessel-reefs and natural reefs to better understand the dynamics of local fish populations, understanding which can then effect more informed management decisions.
The nearshore environment ofBroward County,Floridaconsists of three reef terraces, each separated by sand substrate, running parallel to the coastline in ...
Fish Colonization Of A Newly Deployed Vessel-Reef Off Southeast Florida: Preliminary Results, 2016 Nova Southeastern University
Fish Colonization Of A Newly Deployed Vessel-Reef Off Southeast Florida: Preliminary Results, Paul T. Arena, Lance K. B. Jordan, Patrick Quinn, Arlo H. Hemphill, David R. Bryan, Brian Buskirk, Richard E. Spieler
Fish colonization on the Ebenezer II, a 25.5m merchant marine vessel, was studied from May 2002 - July 2003. The ship was scuttled in May 2002 off Broward County, Florida at a depth of 21m and was censused 10 times during the study period using a modified Bohnsack and Bannerot visual census method. Adjacent natural reefs and the Mcallister, a nearby, 30m tugboat deployed in June 1998, were censused during the same period.
Distinct changes in the fish assemblage on the Ebenezer II were observed throughout the sample period. A pioneer assemblage was observed during the first three months, characterized ...
Weights And Balances: Integrating Models For Prevention And Response To Southern California Offshore Oil Spills, Carmen Watts Clayton, Amoret Bunn
STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations
Licensing offshore oil and gas reserves in the United States waters are overseen by the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Safety and Enforcement (BSEE). The licensing application includes planning for any worst-case oil spill scenario between BSEE and the applicant based on lessons learned from historic offshore spills such as the Deepwater Horizon (2010), Exxon Valdez (1989), and the Union Oil Platform Blowout (1969). The process for planning to respond to oil spills involves coordination with multiple agencies, trustees, and stakeholders to ensure that oil spill responses consider multiple factors, including ecologically sensitive species, commercial transportation ...
Future Changes In Propagating And Non-Propagating Diurnal Rainfall Over East Asia, 2016 National Taiwan Normal University
Future Changes In Propagating And Non-Propagating Diurnal Rainfall Over East Asia, Wan-Ru Huang, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang
Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications
The characteristics of diurnal rainfall in the East Asian continent consist of a propagating regime over the Yangtze River and a non-propagating regime in southeast China. Simulations of these two diurnal rainfall regimes by 18 CMIP5 models were evaluated from the historical experiment of 1981–2005. The evaluation led to the identification of one model, the CMCC-CM that replicated the key characteristics of diurnal rainfall regimes including the propagation of moisture convergence. Using the CMCC-CM to assess the future (2076–2100) change of diurnal evolution and propagation projected by the RCP4.5 experiment, it was found that propagating diurnal rainfall ...
Water Column Productivity And Temperature Predict Coral Reef Regeneration Across The Indo-Pacific, 2016 Nova Southeastern University
Water Column Productivity And Temperature Predict Coral Reef Regeneration Across The Indo-Pacific, Bernhard Riegl (Editor), Peter W. Glynn, Evie A. Wieters, Samuel J. Purkis, C. D'Angelo, Joerg Wiedenmann
Predicted increases in seawater temperatures accelerate coral reef decline due to mortality by heat-driven coral bleaching. Alteration of the natural nutrient environment of reef corals reduces tolerance of corals to heat and light stress and thus will exacerbate impacts of global warming on reefs. Still, many reefs demonstrate remarkable regeneration from past stress events. This paper investigates the effects of sea surface temperature (SST) and water column productivity on recovery of coral reefs. In 71 Indo-Pacific sites, coral cover changes over the past 1-3 decades correlated negative-exponentially with mean SST, chlorophyll a, and SST rise. At six monitoring sites (Persian ...
Tissue Damage In Scleractinian And Alcyonacean Corals Due To Experimental Exposure To Sedimentation, 2016 : Institut fur Palaontologie der Universitiit Wien
Tissue Damage In Scleractinian And Alcyonacean Corals Due To Experimental Exposure To Sedimentation, Bernhard Riegl, Jonathan P. Bloomer
Four South African scleractinian corals (Favia favus, Favites pentagona, Platygyra daedalea and Gyrosmilia interrupta) and four alcyonacean corals (Lobophytum depressum, Lobophytum venustum, Sinularia dura and Sinularia leptoclados) were experimentally exposed to high sedimentation conditions in the laboratory during a period of six weeks. Experimental sedimentation corresponded to the highest measured sedimentation levels on South African coral reefs, being 200 mg cm-2h-l. Corals were monitored for tissue necroses and bleaching during the course of the experiment and histological sections were prepared after the termination of the experiment. During the experiment, tissue necroses appeared earlier and more frequently in alcyonacea than in ...
The State Of Coral Reef Ecosystems Of Southeast Florida, 2016 Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Coral Reef Conservation Program
The State Of Coral Reef Ecosystems Of Southeast Florida, Chantal Collier, Rob Ruzicka, Kenneth Banks, Luiz Barbieri, Jeff Beal, David Bingham, James A. Bohnsack, Sandra Brooke, Nancy Craig, Richard E. Dodge (Editor), Louis E. Fisher, Nick Gadbois, David S. Gilliam, Lisa Gregg, Todd Kellison, Vladimir N. Kosmynin, Brian Lapointe, Erin Mcdevitt, Janet Phipps, Nikki Poulos, John Proni, Patrick Quinn, Bernhard Riegl, Richard E. Spieler, Joanna Walczak, Brian K. Walker, Denise Warrick
No abstract provided.
The Statistics Of Natural Shapes In Modern Coral Reef Landscapes, 2016 Nova Southeastern University
The Statistics Of Natural Shapes In Modern Coral Reef Landscapes, Samuel J. Purkis, Kevin E. Kohler, Bernhard Riegl, Steven O. Rohmann
Spatial heterogeneity is a fundamental characteristic of modern and ancient depositional settings, and the scaling of many carbonate environments has been shown to follow power function distributions. The difficulty in obtaining information on the horizontal persistence of sedimentary lithotopes at the basin scale has, however, hampered evaluation of this fact over larger geographic areas. In recent years, large‐scale maps of reef facies derived from remotely sensed data have become widely available, allowing for an analysis of reef‐scale map products from 26 sites spread through four reef provinces, covering >7000 km2 of shallow‐water habitat in the U ...
Spatial Patterns In Arabian Gulf Coral Assemblages (Jebel Ali, Dubai, U.A.E.) In Response To Temperature-Forcing, 2016 Nova Southeastern University
Spatial Patterns In Arabian Gulf Coral Assemblages (Jebel Ali, Dubai, U.A.E.) In Response To Temperature-Forcing, Bernhard Riegl, Samuel J. Purkis, Kevin E. Kohler, Richard E. Dodge
We evaluated spatial and temporal patterns using maps from Ikonos satellite imagery in combination with 8 years of line transects and photosquares and the HadISST1 sea-surface temperature data set to explain why coral assemblages in the southern Arabian Gulf (Dubai) are impoverished and mostly do not build framework reefs. Analysis of archive sea surface temperature (SST) data confirms that the area is subjected to recurrent temperature anomalies. Frequencies of anomalies might suggest at least a partial link to the El Niño Southern Oscillation possibly via the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode. The dominant driver of local temperature was oscillations in the ...
Status Of Coral Reefs Of Little Cayman, Grand Cayman And Cayman Brac, British West Indies, In 1999 And 2000 (Part 1: Stony Corals And Algae), Carrie Manfrino, Bernhard Riegl, Jerome Lynn Hall, Robert Graifman
A benthic assessment of the isolated Cayman Islands was completed at 42 sites. Major changes in the reef community structure were documented by comparison with earlier studies. Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis, once abundant as shallow framework builders, were uncommon. Diseased stony corals were seen in >90% of the study sites, with the highest averages in Little Cayman, especially at Bloody Bay which is one of the most highly regulated marine parks in the Cayman Islands. The Montastraea annularis species complex accounted for two-thirds of the diseased corals which, along with other massive species, were affected largely by white-plague disease ...
Reefs And Coral Carpets In The Miocene Paratethys (Badenian, Leitha Limestone, Austria), 2016 Nova Southeastern University
Reefs And Coral Carpets In The Miocene Paratethys (Badenian, Leitha Limestone, Austria), Bernhard Riegl, W. E. Piller
Biohermal (reefs) and biostromal (coral carpets) facies were studied in the Austrian Middle Miocene Leitha Limestone. In the Vienna Basin ("Fenk quarry") non-framebuilding and framebuilding biostromal coral communities were found. In the Styrian Basin, well developed patch reefs were observed besides coral carpets. In the Fenk quarry, 2 coral carpet types, four non-framework coral communities, and one bivalve/coral community were found. In "Retznei quarry" (Styrian Basin) patch reefs, basal corallinacean calcarenites were followed by a Ponies layer capped by marl, and the main reef-building higher diversity phase dominated by faviids ( Montastraea, Tarbellastraea). In the "Tittenbacher quarry" no internal zonation ...
Red Sea Coral Reef Trajectories Over 2 Decades Suggest Increasing Community Homogenization And Decline In Coral Size, 2016 Nova Southeastern University
Red Sea Coral Reef Trajectories Over 2 Decades Suggest Increasing Community Homogenization And Decline In Coral Size, Bernhard Riegl, Andrew Bruckner, Gwilym Rowlands, Samuel J. Purkis, Philip Renaud
Three independent line intercept transect surveys on northern Red Sea reef slopes conducted in 1988/9 and 1997/8 in Egypt and from 2006–9 in Saudi Arabia were used to compare community patterns and coral size. Coral communities showed scale-dependent variability, highest at fine spatial and taxonomic scale (species-specific within and among reef patterns). At coarser scale (generic pattern across regions), patterns were more uniform (regionally consistent generic dominance on differently exposed reef slopes and at different depths). Neither fine- nor coarse-scale patterns aligned along the sampled 1700 km latitudinal gradient. Thus, a latitudinal gradient that had been described ...
Present Limits To Heat-Adaptability In Corals And Population-Level Responses To Climate Extremes, 2016 Nova Southeastern University
Present Limits To Heat-Adaptability In Corals And Population-Level Responses To Climate Extremes, Bernhard Riegl, Samuel J. Purkis, Ashraf S. Al-Cibahy, Mohammed A. Abdel-Moati, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg
Climate change scenarios suggest an increase in tropical ocean temperature by 1–3°C by 2099, potentially killing many coral reefs. But Arabian/Persian Gulf corals already exist in this future thermal environment predicted for most tropical reefs and survived severe bleaching in 2010, one of the hottest years on record. Exposure to 33–35°C was on average twice as long as in non-bleaching years. Gulf corals bleached after exposure to temperatures above 34°C for a total of 8 weeks of which 3 weeks were above 35°C. This is more heat than any other corals can survive ...
Rapid Recovery Of A Coral Reef At Darwin Island, Galapagos Islands, 2016 Columbia University
Rapid Recovery Of A Coral Reef At Darwin Island, Galapagos Islands, Adrienne M. S. Correa, Bernhard Riegl, Iliana B. Baums, Peter W. Glynn
Surveys at Darwin Island in 2006 and 2007 have demonstrated that this northernmost Galapagos Islands coral reef has recovered significantly since the 1982–3 El Niño event. When first surveyed in 1975, this structural reef exhibited actively accreting frameworks of pocilloporid and poritid corals. The coral suffered severe mortality in 1983, resulting in the near total loss of pocilloporids and extensive partial mortality of poritid corals. Large sections of the reef had not recovered by 1992 and dead frameworks were subject to bio-erosion, although small numbers of sexual recruits of pocilloporid corals and numerous recruits plus regenerating patches of Porites ...
Rapid Recovery Of A Coral Reef At Darwin Island, Galapagos Island, 2016 University of Miami, RSMAS
Rapid Recovery Of A Coral Reef At Darwin Island, Galapagos Island, Peter W. Glynn, Bernhard Riegl, Adrienne M. S. Correa, Iliana B. Baums
Surveys at Darwin Island in 2006 and 2007 have demonstrated that this northernmost Galapagos Islands coral reef has recovered significantly since the 1982-3 El Nino event. When first surveyed in 1975, this structural reef exhibited actively accreting frameworks of pocilloporid and poritid corals. The coral suffered severe mortality in 1983, resulting in the near total loss of pocilloporids and extensive partial mortality of poritid corals. Large sections of the reef had not recovered by 1992 and dead frameworks were subject to bio-erosion, although small numbers of sexual recruits of pocilloporid corals and numerous recruits plus regenerating patches of Porites lobata ...