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Using Local Fishery Monitoring To Understand Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries In Tanzania, Matthew Robertson 2018 Louisiana State University

Using Local Fishery Monitoring To Understand Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries In Tanzania, Matthew Robertson

LSU Master's Theses

Nearshore marine fisheries provide the main source of protein for nearly 9 million people in the coastal villages of Tanzania, yet for decades the fisheries have shown signs of overexploitation. These fisheries are small-scale and co-managed by local coastal communities in groups known as Beach Management Units (BMUs). BMUs monitor individual fishing trip data (e.g. gear, vessel, taxa); however, these data have only been analyzed in nationally aggregated statistics and to our knowledge, are not presently used in management decision making. The present thesis aimed to identify the forms of data and information that local fishery monitoring can record ...


Techno-Optimism And Farmers’ Attitudes Toward Climate Change Adaptation, Maaz Gardezi, J. Gordon Arbuckle 2018 South Dakota State University

Techno-Optimism And Farmers’ Attitudes Toward Climate Change Adaptation, Maaz Gardezi, J. Gordon Arbuckle

Sociology Publications

In industrialized societies, techno-optimism is a belief that human ingenuity, through improved science and technology, will ultimately provide remedies to most current and future threats to human well-being, such as diseases, climate change, and poverty. Here we examine: (1) whether techno-optimism is found among Midwestern corn and soybean farmers and (2) how this confidence in human ingenuity influences their support for climate change adaptation. By examining data from a survey of nearly 5000 grain farmers in the Midwestern U.S., we found that greater techno-optimism can reduce farmers’ support for climate change adaptation and increase their propensity to express a ...


The Feasibility Of Using Inherent Optical Properties And The Apparent Optical Property Remote Sensing Reflectance To Estimate Suspended Particulate Matter, Particularly For Use In Airborne Hydrographic Surveys, Sarah Epps 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Feasibility Of Using Inherent Optical Properties And The Apparent Optical Property Remote Sensing Reflectance To Estimate Suspended Particulate Matter, Particularly For Use In Airborne Hydrographic Surveys, Sarah Epps

Dissertations

Airborne hydrographic surveys are routinely used to create and update nautical charts around the world. This research is intended to assist in maximizing the utility of the data products made available from those surveys in accordance with the current survey–once, use–many–times initiatives. Specifically, this project evaluates the feasibility of using the data available airborne hydrographic systems that utilize bathymetric lasers and hyperspectral sensors to estimate the concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM). SPM is sometimes also called suspended sediment. The ability to chart spatial distributions of SPM utilizing hydrographic survey systems already in operation will assist researchers ...


Estimating Watershed Residence Times In Artificially-Drained Landscapes And Relation To Nutrient Concentrations, Emma Beck, Lisa Welp, Alexandra L. Meyer 2018 Purdue University

Estimating Watershed Residence Times In Artificially-Drained Landscapes And Relation To Nutrient Concentrations, Emma Beck, Lisa Welp, Alexandra L. Meyer

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Nutrient runoff from agricultural lands feeds harmful algae blooms that create a variety of problems in freshwater ecosystems. In order to reduce the effects of this nutrient runoff, Best Management Practices (BMPs) are being put in place in agricultural lands. Most of these BMPs focus on slowing down the flow of water through the watershed to give nutrient concentrations time to deplete before the water flows to the stream or river. However, the effectiveness of these BMPs are highly unknown and the process of monitoring nutrient runoff is often complex and costly. The data in this study consists of 7 ...


Towards The Prediction Of Climate Extremes With Attribution Analysis Through Climate Diagnostics And Modeling: Cases From Asia To North America, Boniface Opoku Fosu 2018 Utah State University

Towards The Prediction Of Climate Extremes With Attribution Analysis Through Climate Diagnostics And Modeling: Cases From Asia To North America, Boniface Opoku Fosu

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This project summarizes the findings of research organized in two parts. The first involved the characterization of changes in the variability of climate that lead to extreme events. The second focused on the predictability of extreme climate on time-scales ranging from short forecast lead-times to long-lead climate predictions exceeding a year.

Initial studies focused on three interrelated, yet regionally unique extreme climate phenomena. First, the relationship between increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and particulate matter (PM) concentration in basin terrain was investigated. Next, we evaluated changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation associated with two climate phenomena at either extreme side of ...


Influence Of Global Atmospheric Circulation Variations On Weather And Climate Extremes, Yen-Heng Lin 2018 Utah State University

Influence Of Global Atmospheric Circulation Variations On Weather And Climate Extremes, Yen-Heng Lin

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Global warming and climate change deeply influence weather and climate extremes, causing substantial property damage and loss every year around the world. Given the importance of heating differences between low-latitude and Arctic regions, which produce heat sources and cold sources that each influence global circulations, we investigate three extreme weather events in different regions in order to better understand the possible connections between extreme events and global circulation changes.

This study begins with climate variations in the low-latitude western North Pacific. In early summer, the timing of the wet season has shifted from late May to early June since 1979 ...


Estimating Watershed Mercury Contribution To Lake Fort Smith State Park, Arkansas, Usa, William Miles Harmon 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Estimating Watershed Mercury Contribution To Lake Fort Smith State Park, Arkansas, Usa, William Miles Harmon

Theses and Dissertations

Mercury contamination associated with human activities poses global human health and environmental risks. A fish-consumption advisory has been in effect at Lake Fort Smith in central west Arkansas for more than a decade due to observed methylmercury concentrations in fish tissue. Lake Fort Smith is an important municipal drinking water supply and recreational resource. Water samples from the majority contributing tributary stream, Frog Bayou creek, were collected periodically, under differing hydrologic conditions in order to quantify the allochthonous mercury load delivered to the lake. Temperature, specific conductance, and turbidity data were collected and used to estimate dissolved organic carbon, methylmercury ...


The Energy Yield Of Global Crops 1961-2016, Quinn Montana 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Energy Yield Of Global Crops 1961-2016, Quinn Montana

Theses and Dissertations

It is often suggested that world food production must increase by 70%-100% or more by the year 2050 if we are to feed the anticipated world population at that time. To evaluate this claim, global crop production from 1961 to 2016 was inventoried using publicly available data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). To determine the adequacy of global crop output for humanity, annual global food crop production data (T y-1) were converted to energy yield in kilojoules (KJ y-1). These data were then compared to the annual metabolic energy requirement of the global human population ...


Effect Of Aerosol Distributions On Precipitation Patterns Needed For A Rapid Ice Age, Steven M. Gollmer 2018 Cedarville University

Effect Of Aerosol Distributions On Precipitation Patterns Needed For A Rapid Ice Age, Steven M. Gollmer

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Introduced in the Genesis Flood by Whitcomb and Morris (1961) and fleshed out by Oard (1979) a model for an ice age in the wake of the Genesis flood was used to explain the evidence of glaciation in Canada and the United States without resorting to eons of time. It was proposed that this rapid ice age was the consequence of post flood warm oceans, barren land and volcanic aerosols. The impact of warm oceans was simulated by Vardiman (1998) and Gollmer (2013) using climate models. Although warm oceans increase precipitation in the Arctic, global surface temperatures become unbearably hot ...


The Impact Of Mount Washington On The Height Of The Boundary Layer And The Vertical Structure Of Temperature And Moisture, Eric Kelsey, Adriana Bailey, Georgia Murray 2018 Mount Washington Observatory & Plymouth State University

The Impact Of Mount Washington On The Height Of The Boundary Layer And The Vertical Structure Of Temperature And Moisture, Eric Kelsey, Adriana Bailey, Georgia Murray

Faculty Scholarship & Creative Works

Discrimination of the type of air mass along mountain slopes can be a challenge and is not commonly performed, but is critical for identifying factors responsible for influencing montane weather, climate, and air quality. A field campaign to measure air mass type and transitions on the summit of Mount Washington, New Hampshire, USA was performed on 19 August 2016. Meteorological observations were taken at the summit and at several sites along the east and west slopes. Ozone concentrations were measured at the summit and on the valley floor. Additionally, water vapor stable isotopes were measured from a truck that drove ...


Early Miocene Antarctic Glacial History: New Insights From Heavy Mineral Analysis From Andrill And–2a Drill Core Sediments, Francesco Iacoviello, Giovanna Giorgetti, Isabella Turbanti Memmi, Sandra Passchier 2018 University College London

Early Miocene Antarctic Glacial History: New Insights From Heavy Mineral Analysis From Andrill And–2a Drill Core Sediments, Francesco Iacoviello, Giovanna Giorgetti, Isabella Turbanti Memmi, Sandra Passchier

Sandra Passchier

The present study deals with heavy mineral analysis of late Early Miocene marine sediments recovered in the McMurdo Sound region (Ross Sea, Antarctica) during the ANDRILL— SMS Project in 2007. The main objective is to investigate how heavy mineral assemblages reflect different source rocks and hence different provenance areas. These data contribute to a better understanding of East Antarctica ice dynamics in the Ross Sea sector during the Early Miocene (17.6–20.2 Ma), a time of long-term global warming and sea level rise. The AND-2A drill core recovered several stratigraphic intervals that span from Early Miocene to Pleistocene ...


Mechanisms Of Abrupt Extreme Precipitation Change Over The Northeastern United States, Huanping Huang, Jonathan M. Winter, Erich C. Osterberg 2018 Dartmouth College

Mechanisms Of Abrupt Extreme Precipitation Change Over The Northeastern United States, Huanping Huang, Jonathan M. Winter, Erich C. Osterberg

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

In 1996, the northeastern United States experienced an abrupt increase in extreme precipitation, but the causal mechanisms driving this increase remain poorly understood. We find that 89% of the 1996–2016 increase relative to 1979–1995 is explained by only 273 unique extreme events affecting >5 stations and occurring in the months of February, March, June, July, September, and October. We use daily weather maps to classify the 273 extreme precipitation events by meteorological cause (tropical cyclones, fronts, and extratropical cyclones) and use reanalysis data to determine large‐scale changes in the atmosphere and ocean associated with increased extreme precipitation ...


Review Of Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards And Risk Reduction In The Modern World, Kira H. Hamman 2018 Pennsylvania State University, Mont Alto

Review Of Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards And Risk Reduction In The Modern World, Kira H. Hamman

Numeracy

Timothy H. Dixon. 2017. Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards and Risk Reduction in the Modern World. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press) 300 pp. ISBN 978-1108113663.

In Curbing Catastrophe, Timothy H. Dixon explores commonalities among natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina, the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, and the meltdown at Fukushima. He identifies communication failure between scientists and policy makers as a major culprit in the devastation that results from such events and offers strategies for improving that communication. He includes optional in-depth scientific and quantitative examinations of the events and the resulting devastation, making the book appropriate for use in teaching ...


Notes On Contributors, 2018 The University of Maine

Notes On Contributors

The Catch

No abstract provided.


On How A Fisherman Supports Fishermen: Oral History With Patrick Shepard, Natalie Springuel 2018 The University of Maine

On How A Fisherman Supports Fishermen: Oral History With Patrick Shepard, Natalie Springuel

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Reflections On The Water, Patricia S. Ranzoni 2018 Bucksport, ME

Reflections On The Water, Patricia S. Ranzoni

The Catch

No abstract provided.


The World Is Your Oyster, Aliya Uteuova 2018 University of Maine

The World Is Your Oyster, Aliya Uteuova

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Editor's Note: The Catch Volume Vi, Catherine Schmitt 2018 The University of Maine

Editor's Note: The Catch Volume Vi, Catherine Schmitt

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Full Issue Volume Vi, 2018 The University of Maine

Full Issue Volume Vi

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Numerical Modeling Of The Effects Of Land Use Change And Irrigation On Streamflow Depletion Of Frenchman Creek, Nebraska, Moussa Guira 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Numerical Modeling Of The Effects Of Land Use Change And Irrigation On Streamflow Depletion Of Frenchman Creek, Nebraska, Moussa Guira

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

A three-dimensional Control Volume Finite Difference-based numerical groundwater flow model was constructed to assess the effects of agricultural irrigation and land use change on streamflow depletion. The study area is Frenchman Creek basin located in southwestern corner of the State of Nebraska, USA. This area was subject to an increased proliferation of groundwater abstraction for agricultural purposes since industrial revolution. It has also been subject to land use change from native rangeland to dry and irrigated cropland. The groundwater flow model was spatially discretized using Voronoi cells in unstructured grid built with the USGS MODFLOW-6. Temporal discretization defined 151 time ...


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