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Methanethiol, Dimethyl Sulfide And Acetone Over Biologically Productive Waters In The Southwest Pacific Ocean, Sarah J. Lawson, Cliff S. Law, Mike J. Harvey, Thomas G. Bell, Carolyn F. Walker, Warren J. De Bruyn, Eric S. Saltzman 2020 ommonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia

Methanethiol, Dimethyl Sulfide And Acetone Over Biologically Productive Waters In The Southwest Pacific Ocean, Sarah J. Lawson, Cliff S. Law, Mike J. Harvey, Thomas G. Bell, Carolyn F. Walker, Warren J. De Bruyn, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Atmospheric methanethiol (MeSHa), dimethyl sulfide (DMSa) and acetone (acetonea) were measured over biologically productive frontal waters in the remote southwest Pacific Ocean in summertime 2012 during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) voyage. MeSHa mixing ratios varied from below the detection limit (< 10 ppt) up to 65 ppt and were 3 %–36 % of parallel DMSa mixing ratios. MeSHa and DMSa were correlated over the voyage (R2=0.3, slope = 0.07) with a stronger correlation over a coccolithophore-dominated phytoplankton bloom (R2=0.5, slope 0.13). The diurnal cycle for MeSHa shows similar behaviour to DMSa with mixing ratios varying by a ...


Antibiotic Resistance In Marine Microbial Communities Proximal To A Florida Sewage Outfall System, Dale W. Griffin, Kenneth Banks, Kurtis Gregg, Sarah Shedler, Brian Walker 2020 US Geological Survey

Antibiotic Resistance In Marine Microbial Communities Proximal To A Florida Sewage Outfall System, Dale W. Griffin, Kenneth Banks, Kurtis Gregg, Sarah Shedler, Brian Walker

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Water samples were collected at several wastewater treatment plants in southeast Florida, and water and sediment samples were collected along and around one outfall pipe, as well as along several transects extending both north and south of the respective outfall outlet. Two sets of samples were collected to address potential seasonal differences, including 38 in the wet season (June 2018) and 42 in the dry season (March 2019). Samples were screened for the presence/absence of 15 select antibiotic resistance gene targets using the polymerase chain reaction. A contrast between seasons was found, with a higher frequency of detections occurring ...


Light Organ Photosensitivity In Deep-Sea Shrimp May Suggest A Novel Role In Counterillumination, Heather D. Bracken-Grissom, Danielle M. DeLeo, Megan L. Porter, Tom Iwanicki, Jamie E. Sickles, Tamara Frank 2020 Florida International University

Light Organ Photosensitivity In Deep-Sea Shrimp May Suggest A Novel Role In Counterillumination, Heather D. Bracken-Grissom, Danielle M. Deleo, Megan L. Porter, Tom Iwanicki, Jamie E. Sickles, Tamara Frank

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Extraocular photoreception, the ability to detect and respond to light outside of the eye, has not been previously described in deep-sea invertebrates. Here, we investigate photosensitivity in the bioluminescent light organs (photophores) of deep-sea shrimp, an autogenic system in which the organism possesses the substrates and enzymes to produce light. Through the integration of transcriptomics, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we find evidence for the expression of opsins and phototransduction genes known to play a role in light detection in most animals. Subsequent shipboard light exposure experiments showed ultrastructural changes in the photophore similar to those seen in crustacean eyes ...


What Is The Most Threatening Disaster To The Continental United States?, Aaron Spomer, Elijah Kaufman, Julisa Prieto-Garcia, Brooke Aschwanden 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

What Is The Most Threatening Disaster To The Continental United States?, Aaron Spomer, Elijah Kaufman, Julisa Prieto-Garcia, Brooke Aschwanden

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Our goal for our project is to fully understand which natural disaster is the most destructive to the United States. We have chosen to compare hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, wildfires, earthquakes, and nor’easters. We have researched the cost of the total damage and repair, how the warning systems have improved over time, the death tolls from each, and also the frequency at which each one occurs. Each group member will research a different disaster impact, and the data will create a comprehensive view of the level of devastation each disaster has. We collected data all the way from the early ...


Rockhounding, Seafaring, And Other Material Tales For The End Of The World, Noemie Fortin 2020 Concordia University, Montreal

Rockhounding, Seafaring, And Other Material Tales For The End Of The World, Noemie Fortin

The Goose

In the face of accelerated environmental degradation and climate instability, the future of the Earth and of all life on earth is difficult to visualize. Therefore, the different mediums through which we consider environmental issues are just as important as the actions we take to address them. Focusing on three projects combining art, science, and activism, this article suggests a compilation of material tales. They tell stories of plastic rocks and aluminum nuggets where the protagonists are partly finely crafted objects, partly waste materials, and sometimes both at once. Artists Kelly Jazvac, Yesenia Thibeault-Picazo, and the collective Studio Swine collaborate ...


Rain, Rain, Gone Away. Decreased Growing Season Rainfall For The Dryland Cropping Region Of South-Western Australia, Tim Scanlon, Greg Doncon 2020 DPIRD

Rain, Rain, Gone Away. Decreased Growing Season Rainfall For The Dryland Cropping Region Of South-Western Australia, Tim Scanlon, Greg Doncon

Journal articles

The shift in Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures in 1976 led to a change in rainfall for the broad-scale winter annual grain cropping and pasture region in the south-west of Western Australia (the WA wheatbelt). Agriculture in the eastern part the WA Wheatbelt was particularly sensitive to the change in rainfall because it is a marginal area for agronomic production, with low rainfall before changes in sea surface temperature. A second shift in sea surface temperature occurred in 2000, but there has been no analysis of the resulting impact on rainfall in the eastern WA wheatbelt. An analysis of rainfall ...


Role Of Coastal Environmental Conditions During Austral Winter On Plankton Community Dynamics And The Occurrence Of Pseudo-Nitzschia Spp. And Domoic Acid In Inhambane Province, Mozambique, Holly Kelchner 2020 Louisiana State University

Role Of Coastal Environmental Conditions During Austral Winter On Plankton Community Dynamics And The Occurrence Of Pseudo-Nitzschia Spp. And Domoic Acid In Inhambane Province, Mozambique, Holly Kelchner

LSU Master's Theses

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasing globally in frequency, persistence, and geographic extent. HABs pose a threat to economic stability, and ecosystem and human health. To date no incidences of marine toxins produced by phytoplankton have been recorded in Mozambique, which may be due to the absence of a monitoring program and general awareness of the potential threat. This study is the first documentation of the occurrence of a neurotoxin, domoic acid (DA), produced by the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia spp. along the east coast of Africa. The coast of Inhambane Province is a biodiversity hotspot where year-round Rhincodon typus (whale ...


A Design For A Sustained Assessment Of Climate Forcing And Feedbacks Related To Land Use And Land Cover Change, Thomas Loveland, Rezaul Mahmood 2020 Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS)

A Design For A Sustained Assessment Of Climate Forcing And Feedbacks Related To Land Use And Land Cover Change, Thomas Loveland, Rezaul Mahmood

HPRCC Personnel Publications

L and use and land cover change (LULCC) plays an important role in the climate system. Many studies have documented the impacts of LULCC on local, regional, and global climate. The National Climate Assessment Report (Melillo et al. 2014) identifies LULCC as a “cross cutting” issue of future climate change studies. This report, and the previous U.S. Climate Change Science Program strategic plan (2003), noted that land use and land cover (LULC) and its feedback is an important source of uncertainty within the climate system (Melillo et al. 2014). As a result, the report calls for a better understanding ...


Massive Pollutants Released To Galveston Bay During Hurricane Harvey: Understanding Their Retention And Pathway Using Lagrangian Numerical Simulations, Jiabi Du, Kyeong Park, Xin Yu, Yinglong J. Zhang, Fei Ye 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Massive Pollutants Released To Galveston Bay During Hurricane Harvey: Understanding Their Retention And Pathway Using Lagrangian Numerical Simulations, Jiabi Du, Kyeong Park, Xin Yu, Yinglong J. Zhang, Fei Ye

VIMS Articles

Increasing frequency of extreme precipitation events under the future warming climate makes the storm-related pollutant release more and more threatening to coastal ecosystems. Hurricane Harvey, a 1000-year extreme precipitation event, caused massive pollutant release from the Houston metropolitan area to the adjacent Galveston Bay. 0.57 × 106 tons of raw sewage and 22,000 barrels of oil, refined fuels and chemicals were reportly released during Harvey, which would likely deteriorate the water quality and damage the coastal ecosystem. Using a Lagrangian particle-tracking method coupled with a validated 3D hydrodynamic model, we examined the retention, pathway, and fate of the ...


Climate Change And Tourist Destinations: Florida's Case, Alan Fyall, Dr. Asli Tasci, Jill Fjelstul, Roberta Atzori 2020 University of Central Florida

Climate Change And Tourist Destinations: Florida's Case, Alan Fyall, Dr. Asli Tasci, Jill Fjelstul, Roberta Atzori

Rosen Research Review

Aside from the physical impacts of climate change, society's perception of climate change, and the response to it at different decision-making levels, are now critical issues. As public awareness of the consequences of climate change increases, it becomes a consideration in everyday decision-making, including tourism. The research of three colleagues at Rosen college o Hospitality Managment, Dr. Alan Fyall, Dr. Asli D. A. Tasci, and Dr. Jill Fjelstul, along with Dr. Roberta Atzori from California State University, Monterey Bay, examines how social representations of climate change may affect a choice of holiday destination. In particular, they examine how they ...


Are New Hampshire’S Winters Warming? Yes, But Fewer Than Half Of State Residents Recognize The Trend, Lawrence C. Hamilton, Elizabeth Burakowski 2020 University of New Hampshire

Are New Hampshire’S Winters Warming? Yes, But Fewer Than Half Of State Residents Recognize The Trend, Lawrence C. Hamilton, Elizabeth Burakowski

The Carsey School of Public Policy at the Scholars' Repository

In this brief, authors Elizabeth Burakowski and Lawrence Hamilton review some basic evidence about winter warming in New Hampshire, explore to what extent state residents are aware of this trend, and ask who is aware, in terms of characteristics such as age, education, or participation in winter sports. Results from two statewide surveys find limited awareness of the trend overall, and no significant differences by age, education, or winter sports participation. Instead, perceptions of this winter trend depend on political identity: conservatives are much less likely than other groups to recognize that warming has occurred.


Effects Of Optical Turbulence And Density Gradients On Particle Image Velocimetry, Silvia Matt, Gero Nootz, Samuel Hellman, Weilin Hou 2020 Stennis Space Center

Effects Of Optical Turbulence And Density Gradients On Particle Image Velocimetry, Silvia Matt, Gero Nootz, Samuel Hellman, Weilin Hou

Faculty Publications

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a well-established tool to collect high-resolution velocity and turbulence data in the laboratory, in both air and water. Laboratory experiments are often performed under conditions of constant temperature or salinity or in flows with only small gradients of these properties. At larger temperature or salinity variations, the changes in the index of refraction of water or air due to turbulent microstructure can lead to so-called optical turbulence. We observed a marked influence of optical turbulence on particle imaging in PIV. The effect of index of refraction variations on PIV has been described in air for ...


A Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory For Nebraska: Livestock And Coal Loom Large, Eric Holley, Adam Liska 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory For Nebraska: Livestock And Coal Loom Large, Eric Holley, Adam Liska

Adam Liska Papers

Mitigation of climate change requires the systematic identification and cataloging of emissions sources at city, state, and national levels. In this study, an inventory of annual greenhouse gas emissions from the state of Nebraska was created based on industry data, and emissions inventories were completed each year from 1990 to 2016. Nebraska’s net emissions were found to increase from 56.2 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMtCO2e) in 1990 to 87.4 MMtCO2e in 2016. Agriculture was found to be the sector with the most emissions (36 MMtCO2e) followed by electricity ...


A Pre-Industrial Sea-Level Rise Hotspot Along The Atlantic Coast Of North America, W. R. Gehrels, Sönke Dangendorf, N. L. M. Barlow, M. H. Saher, A. J. Long, P. L. Woodworth, C. G. Piecuch, K. Berk 2020 Old Dominion University

A Pre-Industrial Sea-Level Rise Hotspot Along The Atlantic Coast Of North America, W. R. Gehrels, Sönke Dangendorf, N. L. M. Barlow, M. H. Saher, A. J. Long, P. L. Woodworth, C. G. Piecuch, K. Berk

CCPO Publications

The Atlantic coast of North America north of Cape Hatteras has been proposed as a “hotspot” of late 20th century sea‐level rise. Here we test, using salt‐marsh proxy sea‐level records, if this coast experienced enhanced sea‐level rise over earlier multidecadal‐centennial periods. While we find in agreement with previous studies that 20th century rates of sea‐level change were higher compared to rates during preceding centuries, rates of 18th century sea‐level rise were only slightly lower, suggesting that the “hotspot” is a reoccurring feature for at least three centuries. Proxy sea‐level records from North ...


Organic Sulfur: A Spatially Variable And Understudied Component Of Marine Organic Matter, Krista Longnecker, Lisa Oswald, Melissa C. Kido Soule, Gregory A. Cutter, Elizabeth B. Kujawinski 2020 Old Dominion University

Organic Sulfur: A Spatially Variable And Understudied Component Of Marine Organic Matter, Krista Longnecker, Lisa Oswald, Melissa C. Kido Soule, Gregory A. Cutter, Elizabeth B. Kujawinski

OEAS Faculty Publications

Sulfur (S) is a major heteroatom in organic matter. This project evaluated spatial variability in the concentration and molecular-level composition of organic sulfur along gradients of depth and latitude. We measured the concentration of total organic sulfur (TOS) directly from whole seawater. Our data reveal high variability in organic sulfur, relative to established variability in total organic carbon or nitrogen. The deep ocean contained significant amounts of organic sulfur, and the concentration of TOS in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) decreased with increasing age while total organic carbon remained stable. Analysis of dissolved organic matter extracts by ultrahigh resolution mass ...


Recovering From Industrial Overshoot: Thermal Removal Of Atmospheric Co2, Ted von Hippel, Sandra Boetcher, Matthew Traum, Farshid Azadian Ph.D., William MacKunis 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Recovering From Industrial Overshoot: Thermal Removal Of Atmospheric Co2, Ted Von Hippel, Sandra Boetcher, Matthew Traum, Farshid Azadian Ph.D., William Mackunis

Sustainability Conference

Humanity will soon overshoot a safe level of atmospheric CO2, if it hasn't done so already. Countries, industries, and the global economy need to dramatically and quickly alter their behavior and technology to avoid this dangerous overshoot, yet this appears unlikely. Direct Air Capture of CO2 represents an insurance policy for society - a way of removing excess atmospheric CO2. I will present an approach to this problem based on thermal physics that cools cubic kilometers of air to extract CO2 as it sublimates. I propose a combination of an efficient heat exchanger, radiative cooling, and refrigeration, all at industrial ...


A Revised Holocene Coral Sea-Level Database From The Florida Reef Tract, Usa, Anastasios Stathakopoulos, Bernhard Riegl, Lauren T. Toth 2020 Nova Southeastern University; U.S. Geological Survey

A Revised Holocene Coral Sea-Level Database From The Florida Reef Tract, Usa, Anastasios Stathakopoulos, Bernhard Riegl, Lauren T. Toth

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

The coral reefs and mangrove habitats of the south Florida region have long been used in sea-level studies for the western Atlantic because of their broad geographic extent and composition of sea-level tracking biota. The data from this region have been used to support several very different Holocene sea-level reconstructions (SLRs) over the years. However, many of these SLRs did not incorporate all available coral-based data, in part because detailed characterizations necessary for inclusion into sea-level databases were lacking. Here, we present an updated database comprised of 303 coral samples from published sources that we extensively characterized for the first ...


Seasonal Variability Of The Co2 System In A Large Coastal Plain Estuary, Jaclyn R. Friedman, Elizabeth H. Shadwick, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Raymond G. Najjar, Olivia A. De Meo, Fei Da, Juliette L. Smith 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Seasonal Variability Of The Co2 System In A Large Coastal Plain Estuary, Jaclyn R. Friedman, Elizabeth H. Shadwick, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Raymond G. Najjar, Olivia A. De Meo, Fei Da, Juliette L. Smith

VIMS Articles

The Chesapeake Bay, a large coastal plain estuary, has been studied extensively in terms of its water quality, and yet, comparatively less is known about its carbonate system. Here we present discrete observations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity from four seasonal cruises in 2016–2017. These new observations are used to characterize the regional CO2 system and to construct a DIC budget of the mainstem. In all seasons, elevated DIC concentrations were observed at the mouth of the bay associated with inflowing Atlantic Ocean waters, while minimum concentrations of DIC were associated with fresher waters at ...


Comparison Of Two Methods For Measuring Sea Surface Temperature When Surfing, Robert J. W. Brewin, Tyler Cyronak, Philip Bresnahan, Andreas J. Andersson, Jon Richard, Katherine Hammond, Oliver Billson, Lee de Mora, Thomas Jackson, Dan Smale, Giorgio Dall'Olmo 2020 University of Exeter - United Kingdom; Plymouth Marine Laboratory - United Kingdom

Comparison Of Two Methods For Measuring Sea Surface Temperature When Surfing, Robert J. W. Brewin, Tyler Cyronak, Philip Bresnahan, Andreas J. Andersson, Jon Richard, Katherine Hammond, Oliver Billson, Lee De Mora, Thomas Jackson, Dan Smale, Giorgio Dall'olmo

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Nearshore coastal waters are among the most dynamic regions on the planet and difficult to sample from conventional oceanographic platforms. It has been suggested that environmental sampling of the nearshore could be improved by mobilising vast numbers of citizens who partake in marine recreational sports, like surfing. In this paper, we compared two approaches for measuring sea surface temperature (SST), an Essential Climate Variable, when surfing. One technique involved attaching a commercially-available miniature temperature logger (Onset UTBI-001 TidbiT v2) to the leash of the surfboard (tether connecting surfer and surfboard) and the second, attaching a surfboard fin (Smartfin) that contained ...


Reproductive Biology And Trophic Niche Of Hardhead Catfish In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Lucas G. Pensinger 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Reproductive Biology And Trophic Niche Of Hardhead Catfish In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Lucas G. Pensinger

LSU Master's Theses

Generally, marine fishes have very high fecundity with each female producing many small eggs which hatch into small larvae. However, Ariopsis felis, a species of marine catfish common to coastal Louisiana, has low fecundity and produces the largest eggs of the teleost fishes. Despite wide range and generally high abundance, we know very little of A. felis biology and population. The few existing studies of A. felis are older and often have questionable or unclear methodology.

I examined four aspects of A. felis reproductive biology: 1) reproductive timing,

2) fecundity, 3) length at first maturity, and 4) mouth brooding. I ...


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