Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

10,162 Full-Text Articles 16,974 Authors 796,373 Downloads 160 Institutions

All Articles in Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Faceted Search

10,162 full-text articles. Page 1 of 289.

Designing Climate Policy: Lessons From The Renewable Fuel Standard And The Blend Wall, Gabriel E. Lade, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell, Aaron Smith 2018 Iowa State University

Designing Climate Policy: Lessons From The Renewable Fuel Standard And The Blend Wall, Gabriel E. Lade, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell, Aaron Smith

Economics Working Papers

Many policies mandate renewable energy production to combat global climate change. These policies often differ significantly from first-best policy prescriptions. Among the largest renewable energy mandates enacted to date is the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates biofuel consumption far beyond what is feasible with current technology and infrastructure. In this article, we critically review the methods used by the Environmental Protection Agency to project nearand long-term compliance costs under the RFS, and draw lessons from the RFS experience to date that would improve the program’s efficiency. The lessons are meant to inform both future RFS rulemaking and the ...


A Field Guide For Weathering: Embodied Tactics For Collectives Of Two Or More Humans, Jennifer Mae Hamilton, Astrida Neimanis 2018 University of New England, Armidale

A Field Guide For Weathering: Embodied Tactics For Collectives Of Two Or More Humans, Jennifer Mae Hamilton, Astrida Neimanis

The Goose

In our inherited meteorological practices and frameworks, weather conditions are managed for us in a range of ways (for example, through architecture, technology, commodity culture, infrastructure, economic rationale). This field guide brings the weather back to the body. A traditional field guide provides tools for the individual sovereign human subject to observe and document nature “over there”. In contrast, through a range of different activities, our field guide not only invites investigation and cataloguing of the field that we also comprise, but also challenges what counts as a noteworthy observation regarding the weather and also climate.


Sea Squad, Liam Geary Baulch 2018 Goldsmiths, University of London

Sea Squad, Liam Geary Baulch

The Goose

The Sea Squad is a band of cheerleaders against climate change. Taking action as a team in formation, they gather momentum, inviting all people to cheer with them, mimicking the infinitely expandable nature of the seas' molecular structure. The work was developed and performed as a bilingual project at Est-Nord-Est in Saint-Jean-Port-Joli, Quebec, Canada, and has since been performed and exhibited internationally. The following poems are some of the chants that Sea Squad use to get a crowd cheering together against climate change.


An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman 2018 University of Kentucky

An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Due to the adverse effect of atmospheric aerosols on public health and their ability to affect climate, extensive research has been undertaken in recent decades to understand their sources and sinks, as well as to study their physical and chemical properties. Atmospheric aerosols are important players in the Earth’s radiative budget, affecting incoming and outgoing solar radiation through absorption and scattering by direct and indirect means. While the cooling properties of pure inorganic aerosols are relatively well understood, the impact of organic aerosols on the radiative budget is unclear. Additionally, organic aerosols are transformed through chemical reactions during atmospheric ...


Data Supporting The Paper "Dispersion Aerosol Indirect Effect In Turbulent Clouds: Laboratory Measurements Of Effective Radius", K. K. Chandrakar, Will Cantrell, A. Kostinski, R. A. Shaw 2018 Michigan Technological University

Data Supporting The Paper "Dispersion Aerosol Indirect Effect In Turbulent Clouds: Laboratory Measurements Of Effective Radius", K. K. Chandrakar, Will Cantrell, A. Kostinski, R. A. Shaw

Department of Physics Publications

No abstract provided.


Impacts Of Climate Extremes On Terrestrial Productivity, Suhua Wei 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Impacts Of Climate Extremes On Terrestrial Productivity, Suhua Wei

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Terrestrial biosphere absorbs approximately 28% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This terrestrial carbon sink might become saturated in a future climate regime. To explore the issues associated with this topic, an accurate estimate of gross primary production (GPP) of global terrestrial ecosystems is needed. A major uncertainty in modeling global terrestrial GPP is the parameter of light use efficiency (LUE). Most LUE estimates in global models are satellite-based and coarsely measured with emphasis on environmental variables. Others are from eddy covariance towers with much greater spatial and temporal data quality and emphasis on mechanistic processes, but in a limited number ...


Simulation Data Supporting The Paper "Optical Properties And Radiative Forcing Of Fractal-Like Tar Ball Aggregates From Biomass Burning", Janjaran Bhandari, Swarup China, Giulia Girotto, Barbara Scarnato, Kyle Gorkowski, Allison Aiken, Manvendra Dubey, C. Mazzoleni 2018 Michigan Technological University

Simulation Data Supporting The Paper "Optical Properties And Radiative Forcing Of Fractal-Like Tar Ball Aggregates From Biomass Burning", Janjaran Bhandari, Swarup China, Giulia Girotto, Barbara Scarnato, Kyle Gorkowski, Allison Aiken, Manvendra Dubey, C. Mazzoleni

Department of Physics Publications

Simulations data supporting the paper "Optical properties and radiative forcing of fractal-like tar ball aggregates from biomass burning," to be submitted to the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer.


The Influence Of Arctic Amplification On Mid-Latitude Summer Circulation, Dim Coumou, Giorgia Di Capua, Steve Vavrus, Lei Wang, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang 2018 Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

The Influence Of Arctic Amplification On Mid-Latitude Summer Circulation, Dim Coumou, Giorgia Di Capua, Steve Vavrus, Lei Wang, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

Accelerated warming in the Arctic, as compared to the rest of the globe, might have profound impacts on mid-latitude weather. Most studies analyzing Arctic links to mid-latitude weather focused on winter, yet recent summers have seen strong reductions in sea-ice extent and snow cover, a weakened equator-to-pole thermal gradient and associated weakening of the mid-latitude circulation. We review the scientific evidence behind three leading hypotheses on the influence of Arctic changes on mid-latitude summer weather: Weakened storm tracks, shifted jet streams, and amplified quasi-stationary waves. We show that interactions between Arctic teleconnections and other remote and regional feedback processes could ...


Observation Of A Link Between Energy Dissipation Rate And Oscillation Frequency Of The Large-Scale Circulation In Dry And Moist Rayleigh-Bénard Turbulence, Dennis Niedermeier, Kelken Chang, Will Cantrell, Kamal Kant Chandrakar, David Ciochetto, Raymond Shaw 2018 Michigan Technological University

Observation Of A Link Between Energy Dissipation Rate And Oscillation Frequency Of The Large-Scale Circulation In Dry And Moist Rayleigh-Bénard Turbulence, Dennis Niedermeier, Kelken Chang, Will Cantrell, Kamal Kant Chandrakar, David Ciochetto, Raymond Shaw

Department of Physics Publications

In this study both the small- and large-scale flow properties of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection are investigated. Experiments are carried out using the Π chamber (aspect ratio Γ=2) for Rayleigh number range Ra∼108–109 and Prandtl number Pr≈0.7. Furthermore, experiments are run for dry and wet conditions, i.e., top and bottom surfaces of the chamber are dry and wet, respectively. For wet conditions we further distinguish between conditions with and without the presence of sodium chloride aerosol particles which, if supersaturated conditions are achieved, lead to cloud droplet formation. We therefore refer to these ...


Preventing Extinction Of At-Risk Plant Species In A Complex World, Holly Lee Bernardo 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Preventing Extinction Of At-Risk Plant Species In A Complex World, Holly Lee Bernardo

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Earthճ current biodiversity crisis is now considered a true mass extinction event, with species level extinction rates well above background rates and population level extinction rates orders of magnitude more common that species extinctions. There are many threats driving this loss of biodiversity. How each threat impacts the viability of a species is highly context dependent, but all are anthropogenic in origin and so as the human population continues to increase, so too will the pressure of these threats on our natural systems. Ultimately, how much a threat decreases the viability of a species depends on how that threat influences ...


Using Local Fishery Monitoring To Understand Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries In Tanzania, Matthew Robertson 2018 Louisiana State University

Using Local Fishery Monitoring To Understand Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries In Tanzania, Matthew Robertson

LSU Master's Theses

Nearshore marine fisheries provide the main source of protein for nearly 9 million people in the coastal villages of Tanzania, yet for decades the fisheries have shown signs of overexploitation. These fisheries are small-scale and co-managed by local coastal communities in groups known as Beach Management Units (BMUs). BMUs monitor individual fishing trip data (e.g. gear, vessel, taxa); however, these data have only been analyzed in nationally aggregated statistics and to our knowledge, are not presently used in management decision making. The present thesis aimed to identify the forms of data and information that local fishery monitoring can record ...


Techno-Optimism And Farmers’ Attitudes Toward Climate Change Adaptation, Maaz Gardezi, J. Gordon Arbuckle 2018 South Dakota State University

Techno-Optimism And Farmers’ Attitudes Toward Climate Change Adaptation, Maaz Gardezi, J. Gordon Arbuckle

Sociology Publications

In industrialized societies, techno-optimism is a belief that human ingenuity, through improved science and technology, will ultimately provide remedies to most current and future threats to human well-being, such as diseases, climate change, and poverty. Here we examine: (1) whether techno-optimism is found among Midwestern corn and soybean farmers and (2) how this confidence in human ingenuity influences their support for climate change adaptation. By examining data from a survey of nearly 5000 grain farmers in the Midwestern U.S., we found that greater techno-optimism can reduce farmers’ support for climate change adaptation and increase their propensity to express a ...


Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman 2018 University of Kentucky

Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Understanding the acid–base behavior of carboxylic acids on aqueous interfaces is a fundamental issue in nature. Surface processes involving carboxylic acids such as acetic and pyruvic acids play roles in (1) the transport of nutrients through cell membranes, (2) the cycling of metabolites relevant to the origin of life, and (3) the photooxidative processing of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions in aerosols and atmospheric waters. Here, we report that 50% of gaseous acetic acid and pyruvic acid molecules transfer a proton to the surface of water at pH 2.8 and 1.8 units lower than their respective acidity constants ...


The Feasibility Of Using Inherent Optical Properties And The Apparent Optical Property Remote Sensing Reflectance To Estimate Suspended Particulate Matter, Particularly For Use In Airborne Hydrographic Surveys, Sarah Epps 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Feasibility Of Using Inherent Optical Properties And The Apparent Optical Property Remote Sensing Reflectance To Estimate Suspended Particulate Matter, Particularly For Use In Airborne Hydrographic Surveys, Sarah Epps

Dissertations

Airborne hydrographic surveys are routinely used to create and update nautical charts around the world. This research is intended to assist in maximizing the utility of the data products made available from those surveys in accordance with the current survey–once, use–many–times initiatives. Specifically, this project evaluates the feasibility of using the data available airborne hydrographic systems that utilize bathymetric lasers and hyperspectral sensors to estimate the concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM). SPM is sometimes also called suspended sediment. The ability to chart spatial distributions of SPM utilizing hydrographic survey systems already in operation will assist researchers ...


Estimating Watershed Residence Times In Artificially-Drained Landscapes And Relation To Nutrient Concentrations, Emma Beck, Lisa Welp, Alexandra L. Meyer 2018 Purdue University

Estimating Watershed Residence Times In Artificially-Drained Landscapes And Relation To Nutrient Concentrations, Emma Beck, Lisa Welp, Alexandra L. Meyer

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Nutrient runoff from agricultural lands feeds harmful algae blooms that create a variety of problems in freshwater ecosystems. In order to reduce the effects of this nutrient runoff, Best Management Practices (BMPs) are being put in place in agricultural lands. Most of these BMPs focus on slowing down the flow of water through the watershed to give nutrient concentrations time to deplete before the water flows to the stream or river. However, the effectiveness of these BMPs are highly unknown and the process of monitoring nutrient runoff is often complex and costly. The data in this study consists of 7 ...


Influence Of Global Atmospheric Circulation Variations On Weather And Climate Extremes, Yen-Heng Lin 2018 Utah State University

Influence Of Global Atmospheric Circulation Variations On Weather And Climate Extremes, Yen-Heng Lin

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Global warming and climate change deeply influence weather and climate extremes, causing substantial property damage and loss every year around the world. Given the importance of heating differences between low-latitude and Arctic regions, which produce heat sources and cold sources that each influence global circulations, we investigate three extreme weather events in different regions in order to better understand the possible connections between extreme events and global circulation changes.

This study begins with climate variations in the low-latitude western North Pacific. In early summer, the timing of the wet season has shifted from late May to early June since 1979 ...


The Energy Yield Of Global Crops 1961-2016, Quinn Montana 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Energy Yield Of Global Crops 1961-2016, Quinn Montana

Theses and Dissertations

It is often suggested that world food production must increase by 70%-100% or more by the year 2050 if we are to feed the anticipated world population at that time. To evaluate this claim, global crop production from 1961 to 2016 was inventoried using publicly available data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). To determine the adequacy of global crop output for humanity, annual global food crop production data (T y-1) were converted to energy yield in kilojoules (KJ y-1). These data were then compared to the annual metabolic energy requirement of the global human population ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of Calcareous Nannofossils Across A Late Oligocene Paleolatitude Transect Of The North Atlantic Ocean, William Barrett Clark 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Quantitative Analysis Of Calcareous Nannofossils Across A Late Oligocene Paleolatitude Transect Of The North Atlantic Ocean, William Barrett Clark

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Samples from ODP Sites 926, 628, 563, U1406, 647, and 918, were analyzed quantitatively across a paleolatitude transect of the North Atlantic Ocean to determine the paleolatitudinal distribution of calcareous nannofossils in the Late Oligocene and the effects of that distribution on biostratigraphic resolution. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA), a Temperature index (TI), and the Shannon Diversity Index (H), were used to examine the paleoenvironmental gradients which exerted the most control over the distribution of species and their abundances. The temperature index correlates significantly to the first axis of the DCA, suggesting that thermal controls were the most important factor in ...


Towards The Prediction Of Climate Extremes With Attribution Analysis Through Climate Diagnostics And Modeling: Cases From Asia To North America, Boniface Opoku Fosu 2018 Utah State University

Towards The Prediction Of Climate Extremes With Attribution Analysis Through Climate Diagnostics And Modeling: Cases From Asia To North America, Boniface Opoku Fosu

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This project summarizes the findings of research organized in two parts. The first involved the characterization of changes in the variability of climate that lead to extreme events. The second focused on the predictability of extreme climate on time-scales ranging from short forecast lead-times to long-lead climate predictions exceeding a year.

Initial studies focused on three interrelated, yet regionally unique extreme climate phenomena. First, the relationship between increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and particulate matter (PM) concentration in basin terrain was investigated. Next, we evaluated changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation associated with two climate phenomena at either extreme side of ...


Assessment Of Snow Atmosphere Forcing During Central Idaho Atmospheric Rivers, William Rudisill 2018 Boise State University

Assessment Of Snow Atmosphere Forcing During Central Idaho Atmospheric Rivers, William Rudisill

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Atmospheric Rivers (AR) are globally occuring weather features and the primary mechanism through which water vapor moves from the tropics and subtropics towards the mid-latitudes, doing so at rates comparable to the world’s largest terrestrial rivers. AR that encounter mountains often cause extreme precipitation in the form of rain and snow, high winds, and flooding in many watersheds. They account for as much as 20-30% of cool season precipitation in the central Idaho Mountains. In the Northern Hemisphere, seasonal snow cover during Winter and Spring months is the most variable land surface component in space and time, and acts ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress