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Late Quaternary Evolution And Stratigraphic Framework Influence On Coastal Systems Along The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Usa, Robert Hollis 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Late Quaternary Evolution And Stratigraphic Framework Influence On Coastal Systems Along The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Usa, Robert Hollis

Master's Theses

Coastal systems in the Gulf of Mexico are threatened to reduced sediment supply, storm impacts and relative sea level rise (RSLR). The geologic record can provide insights of geomorphic threshold crossings (formation, progradation, transgression, destruction) to these forcing mechanisms to predict future barrier evolution to climate change. The stratigraphic framework and antecedent topography directly influence coastal evolution over geologic timescales. This study synthesizes ~2100km of geophysical data, 700+ sediment cores, and 63 radiocarbon dates to regionally map two sequence boundaries, multiple ravinement surfaces and fourteen depositional facies. One marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 valley’s fill provided up to 300 ...


Summertime Connecticut River Water Pathways And Wind Impacts, Yan Jia, Michael M. Whitney 2018 Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut

Summertime Connecticut River Water Pathways And Wind Impacts, Yan Jia, Michael M. Whitney

Department of Marine Sciences

Long Island Sound is a large macrotidal estuary. Connecticut River as the primary freshwater source enters near the sound’s mouth. The summertime pathways of river water under low discharge and mild wind conditions are studied through both numerical simulations with a passive dye pulse and field surface drifter observations. Within the 19-day modeling analysis period, a third of the river dye pulse moves up-estuary with the near-bottom dense inflow into central and western sound with a spring-neap tidal modulation; another third leaves the sound with the near-surface outflow towards the continental shelf through Block Island Sound. The latter pathway ...


Multispectral Classification Of Gulf Of Maine Surface Waters: Seasonal And Interannual Variability, Brianna M. King 2018 University of Maine

Multispectral Classification Of Gulf Of Maine Surface Waters: Seasonal And Interannual Variability, Brianna M. King

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bio-optically, surface waters of the northeastern US continental shelf are strongly heterogeneous, exhibiting highly variable distributions in both time and space of suspended sediment, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and phytoplankton concentration and community structure. These render the standard global NASA satellite chlorophyll algorithm suspect. However, spectral signatures of the water are well quantified by the actual satellite-based multispectral reflectance (Rrs) measurements. Here, we use 6 bands of Rrs measurements from 19 years (1998-2016) of monthly composite SeaWiFS and MODIS data to identify the spectral signatures of dominant water types present over the northeast shelf. A merged multivariate clustering approach ...


Associated Dataset: Ocean Circulation Causes Strong Variability In The Mid-Atlantic Bight Nitrogen Budget, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent 2018 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Associated Dataset: Ocean Circulation Causes Strong Variability In The Mid-Atlantic Bight Nitrogen Budget, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent

Data

The dataset includes model outputs used in the associated publication (Friedrichs et al.), which used the United States Eastern Continental Shelf (USECoS) biogeochemical model embedded in the Regional-Ocean-Modeling-System (ROMS) to examine the impact of the oceanic circulation on the nitrogen budget of the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB). The model simulation covers the period 2004 to 2008 and is fully described in the associated publication. The model simulation highlights that the horizontal along-shelf and across-shelf fluxes dominate the spatiotemporal variability of net community production (NCP) in the MAB. The highest NCP is found in a year when inorganic nitrogen entering from across ...


Impacts Of Pacific Ssts On Atmospheric Circulations Leading To California Winter Precipitation Variability: A Diagnostic Modeling, Boksoon Myoung, Sang-Wook Yeh, Jinwon Kim, Menas Kafatos 2018 APEC Climate Center

Impacts Of Pacific Ssts On Atmospheric Circulations Leading To California Winter Precipitation Variability: A Diagnostic Modeling, Boksoon Myoung, Sang-Wook Yeh, Jinwon Kim, Menas Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

One of the primary meteorological causes of the winter precipitation deficits and droughts in California (CA) is anomalous developments and maintenance of upper-tropospheric ridges over the northeastern Pacific. In order to understand and find the key factors controlling the winter precipitation variability in CA, the present study examines two dominant atmospheric modes of the 500 hPa geopotential height in the Northern Hemisphere using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) and their associated large-scale circulation patterns for the last 41 winters (1974/75–2014/15). Explaining 17.5% of variability, the second mode (EOF2) shows strong anti-cyclonic circulations in the North Pacific ...


Evaluation Of Spatial Generalization Characteristics Of A Robust Classifier As Applied To Coral Reef Habitats In Remote Islands Of The Pacific Ocean, Justin J. Gapper, Hesham el-Askary, Erik J. Linstead, Thomas Piechota 2018 Chapman University

Evaluation Of Spatial Generalization Characteristics Of A Robust Classifier As Applied To Coral Reef Habitats In Remote Islands Of The Pacific Ocean, Justin J. Gapper, Hesham El-Askary, Erik J. Linstead, Thomas Piechota

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study was an evaluation of the spectral signature generalization properties of coral across four remote Pacific Ocean reefs. The sites under consideration have not been the subject of previous studies for coral classification using remote sensing data. Previous research regarding using remote sensing to identify reefs has been limited to in-situ assessment, with some researchers also performing temporal analysis of a selected area of interest. This study expanded the previous in-situ analyses by evaluating the ability of a basic predictor, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), trained on Depth Invariant Indices calculated from the spectral signature of coral in one location ...


Eddy Flux Measurements Of Sulfur Dioxide Deposition To The Sea Surface, Jack G. Porter, Warren J. De Bruyn, Eric S. Saltzman 2018 University of California, Irvine

Eddy Flux Measurements Of Sulfur Dioxide Deposition To The Sea Surface, Jack G. Porter, Warren J. De Bruyn, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Deposition to the sea surface is a major atmospheric loss pathway for many important trace gases, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2). The air–sea transfer of SO2 is controlled entirely on the atmospheric side of the air–sea interface due to high effective solubility and other physical– chemical properties. There have been few direct field measurements of such fluxes due to the challenges associated with making fast-response measurements of highly soluble trace gases at very low ambient levels. In this study, we report direct eddy covariance air–sea flux measurements of SO2, sensible heat, water vapor, and momentum. The measurements ...


A Model Archive For Sediment Transport Model Including Short-Lived Radioisotopes: Model Description And Idealized Test Cases, Justin J. Birchler, Courtney K. Harris, Tara A. Kniskern 2018 US Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center

A Model Archive For Sediment Transport Model Including Short-Lived Radioisotopes: Model Description And Idealized Test Cases, Justin J. Birchler, Courtney K. Harris, Tara A. Kniskern

Data

This dataset includes model input, code, and output used in the publication Birchler et al. (2018, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering), which used a coupled hydrodynamic-sediment transport-biogeochemical model to investigate the roles of resuspension, deposition, on biodiffusion on the behavior of short-lived radioisotopes in an idealized one-dimensional model setting. Model development for this project focused on incorporating radioisotope tracers into the sediment transport module in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). As described in Birchler et al. (2018, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering), the model can account for supply and sorption of radioisotope tracers in the water column ...


Predicted Deepwater Bathymetry From Satellite Altimetry: Non-Fourier Transform Alternatives, Maxsimo Salazar 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Predicted Deepwater Bathymetry From Satellite Altimetry: Non-Fourier Transform Alternatives, Maxsimo Salazar

Dissertations

Robert Parker (1972) demonstrated the effectiveness of Fourier Transforms (FT) to compute gravitational potential anomalies caused by uneven, non-uniform layers of material. This important calculation relates the gravitational potential anomaly to sea-floor topography. As outlined by Sandwell and Smith (1997), a six-step procedure, utilizing the FT, then demonstrated how satellite altimetry measurements of marine geoid height are inverted into seafloor topography. However, FTs are not local in space and produce Gibb’s phenomenon around discontinuities. Seafloor features exhibit spatial locality and features such as seamounts and ridges often have sharp inclines. Initial tests compared the windowed-FT to wavelets in reconstruction ...


Sea Squad, Liam Geary Baulch 2018 Goldsmiths, University of London

Sea Squad, Liam Geary Baulch

The Goose

The Sea Squad is a band of cheerleaders against climate change. Taking action as a team in formation, they gather momentum, inviting all people to cheer with them, mimicking the infinitely expandable nature of the seas' molecular structure. The work was developed and performed as a bilingual project at Est-Nord-Est in Saint-Jean-Port-Joli, Quebec, Canada, and has since been performed and exhibited internationally. The following poems are some of the chants that Sea Squad use to get a crowd cheering together against climate change.


Reconstruction Of Sea Level Around The Korean Peninsula Using Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Functions, Se-Hyeon Cheon, Benjamin D. Hamlington, Kyung-Duck Suh 2018 Old Dominion University

Reconstruction Of Sea Level Around The Korean Peninsula Using Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Functions, Se-Hyeon Cheon, Benjamin D. Hamlington, Kyung-Duck Suh

OEAS Faculty Publications

Since the advent of the modern satellite altimeter era, the understanding of the sea level has increased dramatically. The satellite altimeter record, however, dates back only to the 1990s. The tide gauge record, on the other hand, extends through the 20th century but with poor spatial coverage when compared to the satellites. Many studies have been conducted to create a dataset with the spatial coverage of the satellite datasets and the temporal length of the tide gauge records by finding novel ways to combine the satellite data and tide gauge data in what is known as sea level reconstruction. However ...


Geotraces And Beyond: Studies Of Trace Elements In Coastal And Open Ocean Waters With An Emphasis On The Effects Of Oxygen Depletion And Hydrothermal Plumes, Peng Ho 2018 University of Southern Mississippi

Geotraces And Beyond: Studies Of Trace Elements In Coastal And Open Ocean Waters With An Emphasis On The Effects Of Oxygen Depletion And Hydrothermal Plumes, Peng Ho

Dissertations

We investigated various dissolved trace element (dTE) distributions in two distinct areas: the coastal northern Gulf of Mexico and the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.

A multi-year (2007‒2011) chemical time series of eight stations in the western Mississippi Sound (MS) and northwestern Mississippi Bight (MB) was undertaken to examine the factors affecting chemical distributions in this dynamic region. Key findings include the frequent development of bottom water hypoxia in MB during late spring-summer, the likely contribution of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the material flows, and observation of effects of episodic events including tropical storms and the opening of the ...


Using Local Fishery Monitoring To Understand Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries In Tanzania, Matthew Robertson 2018 Louisiana State University

Using Local Fishery Monitoring To Understand Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries In Tanzania, Matthew Robertson

LSU Master's Theses

Nearshore marine fisheries provide the main source of protein for nearly 9 million people in the coastal villages of Tanzania, yet for decades the fisheries have shown signs of overexploitation. These fisheries are small-scale and co-managed by local coastal communities in groups known as Beach Management Units (BMUs). BMUs monitor individual fishing trip data (e.g. gear, vessel, taxa); however, these data have only been analyzed in nationally aggregated statistics and to our knowledge, are not presently used in management decision making. The present thesis aimed to identify the forms of data and information that local fishery monitoring can record ...


Next Generation Sequencing Methods For Coastal Zone Water Quality Monitoring, Catherine Iskrenko 2018 Nova Southeastern University

Next Generation Sequencing Methods For Coastal Zone Water Quality Monitoring, Catherine Iskrenko

HCNSO Student Capstones

When analyzing the water quality of the coastal zone, culture-based techniques have been utilized most often to identify Fecal Indicator Bacteria in samples. Since the advent of the Sanger Method for DNA sequencing, other techniques have arisen that provide significantly more information on the microorganisms in sample, but they are still not the mainstream for water quality analysis. This capstone reviews and compares culture-based techniques, DNA sequencing, RNA sequencing, qPCR for biomarker, and 16S rDNA sequencing to highlight their merits and shortcomings for analyzing environmental water samples. The technique presented that provides the broadest range of information (including the identification ...


The Feasibility Of Using Inherent Optical Properties And The Apparent Optical Property Remote Sensing Reflectance To Estimate Suspended Particulate Matter, Particularly For Use In Airborne Hydrographic Surveys, Sarah Epps 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Feasibility Of Using Inherent Optical Properties And The Apparent Optical Property Remote Sensing Reflectance To Estimate Suspended Particulate Matter, Particularly For Use In Airborne Hydrographic Surveys, Sarah Epps

Dissertations

Airborne hydrographic surveys are routinely used to create and update nautical charts around the world. This research is intended to assist in maximizing the utility of the data products made available from those surveys in accordance with the current survey–once, use–many–times initiatives. Specifically, this project evaluates the feasibility of using the data available airborne hydrographic systems that utilize bathymetric lasers and hyperspectral sensors to estimate the concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM). SPM is sometimes also called suspended sediment. The ability to chart spatial distributions of SPM utilizing hydrographic survey systems already in operation will assist researchers ...


Seasonal Occurrence, Relative Abundance, And Migratory Movements Of Juvenile Sandbar Sharks, Carcharhinus Plumbeus, In Winyah Bay, South Carolina, Caroline Collatos 2018 Coastal Carolina University

Seasonal Occurrence, Relative Abundance, And Migratory Movements Of Juvenile Sandbar Sharks, Carcharhinus Plumbeus, In Winyah Bay, South Carolina, Caroline Collatos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Winyah Bay, located on the coast of South Carolina, is the fourth largest U.S. estuary by discharge rate (Voulgaris et al. 2002), and provides an annually used habitat for juvenile C. plumbeus (Abel et al. 2006, Gary 2009). From May to September 2016 and 2017, we set a total of 303 bottom longlines in middle and lower Winyah Bay to assess sex ratios, size distributions, and catch per unit effort (CPUE), as well as the potential influence of abiotic parameters on CPUE. A subset of eleven juvenile C. plumbeus was tagged with VEMCO (V16-4H) acoustic transmitters to analyze seasonal ...


Semi-Quantitative Assessment On Winyah Bay's Microplastic Contamination Levels, Samantha Ladewig 2018 Coastal Carolina University

Semi-Quantitative Assessment On Winyah Bay's Microplastic Contamination Levels, Samantha Ladewig

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Although there is much concern globally regarding microplastic contamination in aquatic environments, there is little documentation on microplastic contamination concentrations within South Carolina inland waters and coastal areas. Specifically, Winyah Bay, SC should be of high priority for microplastic contamination evaluations as it is the third largest drainage basin (47,060 km2) and the second largest (157 km2) estuarine system on the east coast of the United States. Today, the general influencing physical factors on microplastic transport are mostly known by the scientific community, however, transport and deposition patterns of microplastics heavily vary by location depending on various physical, chemical ...


Hydrodynamic Drivers Of Dissolved Oxygen Variability Within A Highly Developed Tidal Creek In Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, Douglas Matthew Pastore 2018 Coastal Carolina University

Hydrodynamic Drivers Of Dissolved Oxygen Variability Within A Highly Developed Tidal Creek In Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, Douglas Matthew Pastore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Erosion and water quality degradation have been observed in Singleton Swash in Myrtle Beach, SC, and have been hypothesized to be related to migration of the beach-face channel. Dredging this channel temporarily fixes erosional threats to nearby infrastructure but the effects on water quality are not well understood. It is hypothesized that variations in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration (used here as a proxy for water quality) within the water column are related to changes in vertical mixing and transport due to oceanic tidal forcing. This study utilizes current meters, pressure sensors, and optical DO probes to measure and study the ...


Circulation, Cross-Shelf Exchange, And Blue Mussel (Mytilus Edulis) Population Connectivity In A Complex, Tidally Driven System, LeAnn M. Conlon 2018 University of Maine

Circulation, Cross-Shelf Exchange, And Blue Mussel (Mytilus Edulis) Population Connectivity In A Complex, Tidally Driven System, Leann M. Conlon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Because many marine species have a planktonic larval phase, an understanding of population connectivity (the exchange of individuals among populations) is critical for better understanding their adult populations. However, connectivity depends on both circulation patterns and any interacting biological factors. Of particular importance to organisms originating nearshore is the amount of cross-shelf exchange, as larvae within the slower moving coastal boundary layer experience shorter dispersal distances. I investigated circulation patterns and cross-shelf exchange along the Eastern Maine coast, a region with strong tidal currents and a complex coastline bounded in the offshore direction by a faster moving coastal current. I ...


Ocean Impacts On Australian Interannual To Decadal Precipitation Variability, Zachary F. Johnson, Yoshimitsu Chikamoto, Jing-Jia Luo, Takashi Mochizuki 2018 Utah State University

Ocean Impacts On Australian Interannual To Decadal Precipitation Variability, Zachary F. Johnson, Yoshimitsu Chikamoto, Jing-Jia Luo, Takashi Mochizuki

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

In Australia, successful seasonal predictions of wet and dry conditions are achieved by utilizing the remote impact of sea surface temperature (SST) variability in tropical oceans, particularly the Pacific Ocean, on the seasonal timescale. Beyond seasonal timescales, however, it is still unclear which processes and oceans contribute to interannual-to-decadal wet/dry conditions in Australia. This research examines the interannual-to-decadal relationship between global SST anomalies (SSTAs) and Australian wet/dry variability by analyzing observational data and global climate model experiments conducted with the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC). A 10-member ensemble ...


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