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A Study Of Marine Terrace Formation Along The California Central Coast, Mary C. Devlin 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

A Study Of Marine Terrace Formation Along The California Central Coast, Mary C. Devlin

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

Marine terrace formation is in many instances attributed to wave action, and shore platforms are often called “wave-cut”. However, alternative models for marine terrace formation suggest that other types of physical and chemical weathering have a more central role in the formation of marine terraces than is widely acknowledged. Roering and Retallack (2012) concluded that the roles of subaerial physical and chemical weathering are significant, and played a major role in the formation of the terraces. In this study, weathering of beach cliffs and shore platforms associated with marine terraces at eight sites in two different locations along the central ...


Technical Note: A Minimally-Invasive Experimental System For Pco2 Manipulation In Plankton Cultures Using Passive Gas Exchange (Atmospheric Carbon Control Simulator), Brooke Love, M. Brady Olson, Tristen Wuori 2017 Western Washington University, USA

Technical Note: A Minimally-Invasive Experimental System For Pco2 Manipulation In Plankton Cultures Using Passive Gas Exchange (Atmospheric Carbon Control Simulator), Brooke Love, M. Brady Olson, Tristen Wuori

Brooke Love

As research into the biotic effects of ocean acidification has increased, the methods for simulating these environmental changes in the laboratory have multiplied. Here we describe the atmospheric carbon control simulator (ACCS) for the maintenance of plankton under controlled pCO2 conditions, designed for species sensitive to the physical disturbance introduced by the bubbling of cultures and for studies involving trophic interaction. The system consists of gas mixing and equilibration components coupled with large volume atmospheric simulation chambers. These chambers allow gas exchange to counteract the changes in carbonate chemistry induced by the metabolic activity of the organisms. The system is ...


A Synergistic Approach For Evaluating Climate Model Output For Ecological Applications, Rachel D. Cavanagh, Eugene J. Murphy, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, John Turner, Cheryl A. Knowland, Stuart P. Corney, Walker O. Smith Jr., Claire M. Waluda, Nadine M. Johnston, Richard G. J. Bellerby, Eileen E. Hofmann 2017 Old Dominion University

A Synergistic Approach For Evaluating Climate Model Output For Ecological Applications, Rachel D. Cavanagh, Eugene J. Murphy, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, John Turner, Cheryl A. Knowland, Stuart P. Corney, Walker O. Smith Jr., Claire M. Waluda, Nadine M. Johnston, Richard G. J. Bellerby, Eileen E. Hofmann

CCPO Publications

Increasing concern about the impacts of climate change on ecosystems is prompting ecologists and ecosystem managers to seek reliable projections of physical drivers of change. The use of global climate models in ecology is growing, although drawing ecologically meaningful conclusions can be problematic. The expertise required to access and interpret output from climate and earth system models is hampering progress in utilizing them most effectively to determine the wider implications of climate change. To address this issue, we present a joint approach between climate scientists and ecologists that explores key challenges and opportunities for progress. As an exemplar, our focus ...


Numerical Simulations Of The Biogeochemical Impact Of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition On Surface Waters Of The Western North Atlantic, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Numerical Simulations Of The Biogeochemical Impact Of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition On Surface Waters Of The Western North Atlantic, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs

Data

The impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the chlorophyll and nitrogen dynamics of surface waters in the western North Atlantic (25-45N, 65-80W) were examined with a biogeochemical ocean model forced with a regional atmospheric chemistry model. The model simulations cover the period 2004 to 2008 and are fully described in the following reference: St-Laurent, P., et al., Impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on surface waters of the western North Atlantic mitigated by multiple feedbacks, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, vol.122, doi:10.1002/2017jc013072.


Vertical And Cross-Shore Distributions Of Barnacle Larvae In La Jolla, Ca Nearshore Waters: Implications For Larval Transport Processes, Malloree Lynn Hagerty 2017 University of San Diego

Vertical And Cross-Shore Distributions Of Barnacle Larvae In La Jolla, Ca Nearshore Waters: Implications For Larval Transport Processes, Malloree Lynn Hagerty

Theses

Many marine organisms begin their lives as tiny larvae that are at the mercy of ocean currents. Understanding the transport and subsequent dispersal of larvae is crucial, as it drives population connectivity in the ocean. Larval transport is a complex process involving both physical motions of the water and larval behavior. Vertical positioning is especially important because currents vary throughout the water column, and larvae at different depths will be advected differently. With swimming speeds insufficient to swim against currents, marine larvae can mediate cross-shore transport by controlling their depth distributions. Thus, the overall objective of this study was to ...


Volcanic Eruptions At East Pacific Rise Near 9°50'N, James P. Cowen, Brooke Love, Brian Glazier, Daniel J. Fornari, Timothy M. Shank, S. Adam Soule, Alexander Treusch, Kyle R. Pomranig, R. Chadwick Holmes, Maya Tolstoy 2017 Western Washington University, USA

Volcanic Eruptions At East Pacific Rise Near 9°50'N, James P. Cowen, Brooke Love, Brian Glazier, Daniel J. Fornari, Timothy M. Shank, S. Adam Soule, Alexander Treusch, Kyle R. Pomranig, R. Chadwick Holmes, Maya Tolstoy

Brooke Love

Evidence for recent volcanic eruptions along the fast spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) crest near 9°50'N spanning about 4 to 5 months of activity was discovered in April and May 2006 as a result of studies related to the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Ridge2000 (R2K) program. In April, during routine recovery and redeployment of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) at the EPR R2K Integrated Study Site (ISS) near 9°50'N, eight of 12 OBS could not be recovered [Tolstoy et al, 2006]. Anomalous turbidity and temperature structure in the water column along the ridge axis confirmed ...


Data From: Observing System Simulation Experiments For An Array Of Autonomous Biogeochemical Profiling Floats In The Southern Ocean, Igor Kamenkovich, Angelique Haza, Alison R. Gray, Carolina O. Dufour, Zulema Garraffo 2017 RSMAS, University of Miami

Data From: Observing System Simulation Experiments For An Array Of Autonomous Biogeochemical Profiling Floats In The Southern Ocean, Igor Kamenkovich, Angelique Haza, Alison R. Gray, Carolina O. Dufour, Zulema Garraffo

Supplementary Data and Tools

Data in this collection is from Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) that were carried in support of the SOCCOM program. Synthetic profiles were extracted from model-simulated dissolved oxygen and inorganic carbon. Full maps were then reconstructed from these sparse datasets, using objective mapping. For description of the model and reconstruction method please see Kamenkovich, I., A. Haza, A. Gray, C. Dufour, and Z. Garraffo: "Observing System Simulation Experiments for an array of autonomous biogeochemical profiling floats in the Southern Ocean", Journal of Geophysical Research, DOI: 10.1002/2017JC012819


Oyster Aquaculture Site Selection Using Landsat 8-Derived Sea Surface Temperature, Turbidity, And Chlorophyll A., Jordan Snyder 2017 University of Maine, Orono

Oyster Aquaculture Site Selection Using Landsat 8-Derived Sea Surface Temperature, Turbidity, And Chlorophyll A., Jordan Snyder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Remote sensing data is useful for selection of aquaculture sites because it can provide water-quality products mapped with no cost to users. However, the spatial resolution of most ocean color satellites is too coarse to provide usable data within many estuaries. The more recently launched Landsat 8 satellite has both the spatial resolution and the necessary signal to noise ratio to provide temperature, as well as ocean color derived products along complex coastlines. The state of Maine (USA) has an abundance of estuarine indentations (~3,500 miles of tidal shoreline within 220 miles of coast), and an expanding aquaculture industry ...


Environmentally-Driven Variation In The Population Dynamics Of Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia Patronus), Grant D. Adams 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Environmentally-Driven Variation In The Population Dynamics Of Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia Patronus), Grant D. Adams

Master's Theses

Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) is an abundant forage fish distributed throughout the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). Gulf Menhaden support the second largest fishery, by weight, in the United States and represent a key linkage between upper and lower trophic levels. Variation in the population dynamics can, therefore, pose consequences for the ecology and economy in the NGOM. Here we aim to understand variation in the individual and population dynamics of Gulf Menhaden throughout ontogeny and how such variation relates to environmental processes. We utilized a suite of fishery-dependent and –independent, remote sensing, modeled, and in situ data to explicitly ...


Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, K. P. ManiKandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova 2017 Chapman University

Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, K. P. Manikandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

An anomalously high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) event (>2 mg/m3) during June 2015 in the South Central Red Sea (17.5° to 22°N, 37° to 42°E) was observed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. This differs from the low Chl-a values (<0.5 mg/m3) usually encountered over the same region during summertime. To assess this anomaly and possible causes, we used a wide range of oceanographical and meteorological datasets, including Chl-a concentrations, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), mixed layer depth (MLD), ocean current velocity and aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from different sensors and models. Findings confirmed this anomalous behavior in the spatial domain using Hovmöller data analysis techniques, while a time series analysis addressed monthly and daily variability. Our analysis suggests that a combination of factors controlling nutrient supply contributed to the anomalous phytoplankton growth. These factors include horizontal transfer of upwelling water through eddy circulation and possible mineral fertilization from atmospheric dust deposition. Coral reefs might have provided extra nutrient supply, yet this is out of the scope of our analysis. We thought that dust deposition from a coastal dust jet event in late June, coinciding with the phytoplankton blooms in the area under investigation, might have also contributed as shown by our AOD findings. However, a lag cross correlation showed a two- month lag between strong dust outbreak and the high Chl-a anomaly. The high Chl-a concentration at the edge of the eddy emphasizes the importance of horizontal advection in fertilizing oligotrophic (nutrient poor) Red Sea waters.


Estimation Of Bubble-Mediated Air–Sea Gas Exchange From Concurrent Dms And Co2 Transfer Velocities At Intermediate–High Wind Speeds, Thomas G. Bell, Sebastian Landwehr, Scott D. Miller, Warren J. De Bruyn, Adrian H. Callaghan, Brian Scanlon, Brian Ward, Mingxi Yang, Eric S. Saltzman 2017 Plymouth Marine Laboratory

Estimation Of Bubble-Mediated Air–Sea Gas Exchange From Concurrent Dms And Co2 Transfer Velocities At Intermediate–High Wind Speeds, Thomas G. Bell, Sebastian Landwehr, Scott D. Miller, Warren J. De Bruyn, Adrian H. Callaghan, Brian Scanlon, Brian Ward, Mingxi Yang, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Simultaneous air–sea fluxes and concentration differences of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and carbon dioxide (CO2/ were measured during a summertime North Atlantic cruise in 2011. This data set reveals significant differences between the gas transfer velocities of these two gases (1kw/ over a range of wind speeds up to 21ms􀀀1. These differences occur at and above the approximate wind speed threshold when waves begin breaking. Whitecap fraction (a proxy for bubbles) was also measured and has a positive relationship with 1kw, consistent with enhanced bubble-mediated transfer of the less soluble CO2 relative to that of the more soluble DMS. However ...


Investigating Physical Processes Associated With Chesapeake Bay And Changjiang Estuary, Arash Niroomandi 2017 Old Dominion University

Investigating Physical Processes Associated With Chesapeake Bay And Changjiang Estuary, Arash Niroomandi

Civil & Environmental Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Coastal and estuaries are landforms that not only have great impacts on large marine ecosystem, but also play a significant role in moderating or aggravating natural hazards and erosion risks that are expected to increase with climate change. This dissertation explores some of the concerns associated with coasts and coastal systems. In the second chapter, a thirty seven year wave hindcast (1979-2015) in Chesapeake Bay using NCEP's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) wind is presented. The long-term significant wave heights are generated by the third-generation nearshore wave model SWAN, which is validated using the wave height measurements at buoy ...


Analysis Of Virginia Barrier Island Shoreline Movement And Correlations To Sea Level, Wave Height Changes, And Teleconnection Patterns, James Daniel Haluska 2017 Old Dominion University

Analysis Of Virginia Barrier Island Shoreline Movement And Correlations To Sea Level, Wave Height Changes, And Teleconnection Patterns, James Daniel Haluska

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

The Virginia barrier islands stretch from Assateague Island in the north to Fisherman’s Island in the south. This string of islands is subject to frequent North Atlantic extra-tropical storm and hurricane influence. In addition, sea level rise has the potential to cause continued shoreline loss and inlet widening for this island group. This dissertation describes the effect of sea level rise, changes in wave height, and teleconnection pattern (AO, NAO, and MEI) correlations to shoreline location changes to the islands and inlet location and width changes. Locations of island shorelines were determined from satellite and aircraft images using ArcGIS ...


Influence Of Tides And Mesoscale Eddies In The Ross Sea, Stefanie Lynn Mack 2017 Old Dominion University

Influence Of Tides And Mesoscale Eddies In The Ross Sea, Stefanie Lynn Mack

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

The Ross Sea is the most biologically productive region in the Southern Ocean. Primary production is controlled by dissolved iron (dFe), a limiting micronutrient. The main focus of this thesis, motivated by the PRISM-RS project, is to investigate how tides and mesoscale eddies affect the pathways of dFe to the surface ocean.

A regional ocean model with four hindcast simulations are used. Tidal forcing is added to simulations and mesoscale eddies are resolved by changing the horizontal grid resolution from 5 to 1.5 km. Simulations cover 1.5 years, ending at the time of the PRISM-RS cruise in early ...


Methane, Manganese, And Helium In Hydrothermal Plumes Following Volcanic Eruptions On The East Pacific Rise Near9°500n, Brooke A. Love, Joseph A. Resing, James P. Cowen, John E. Lupton, Daniel J. Fornari, Timothy M. Shank, Dondra Biller 2017 Western Washington University

Methane, Manganese, And Helium In Hydrothermal Plumes Following Volcanic Eruptions On The East Pacific Rise Near9°500n, Brooke A. Love, Joseph A. Resing, James P. Cowen, John E. Lupton, Daniel J. Fornari, Timothy M. Shank, Dondra Biller

Brooke Love

As part of a rapid response cruise in May 2006, we surveyed water column hydrothermal plumes and bottom conditions on the East Pacific Rise between 9°46.0'N and 9°57.6'N, where recent seafloor volcanic activity was suspected. Real-time measurements included temperature, light transmission, and salinity. Samples of the plume waters were analyzed for methane, manganese, helium concentrations, and the δ13C of methane. These data allow us to examine the effects of the 2005–2006 volcanic eruption(s) on plume chemistry. Methane and manganese are sensitive tracers of hydrothermal plumes, and both were present in high concentrations ...


Micro-Spi Sediment Profile Imaging Micro-Inspector, Andrew P. Corvin, Caleb T. Davies, Matt R. Ferrari 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Micro-Spi Sediment Profile Imaging Micro-Inspector, Andrew P. Corvin, Caleb T. Davies, Matt R. Ferrari

Mechanical Engineering

This project was proposed by Dr. Brian Paavo through a desire to more easily study the benthic sediment layers of the ocean. To do so, he asked us to build a simple and compact machine for use in sediment profile imagery (SPI). Although devices like this already exist, they are all large scale devices that require a ship with a crane to deploy, which is expensive and time consuming. Instead, he desired a “micro” SPI, which is capable of being deployed from a small vessel that can easily navigate shallow waters. Our interpretation of these requirements was as follows: a ...


Technical Note: A Minimally-Invasive Experimental System For Pco2 Manipulation In Plankton Cultures Using Passive Gas Exchange (Atmospheric Carbon Control Simulator), Brooke Love, M. Brady Olson, Tristen Wuori 2017 Western Washington University, USA

Technical Note: A Minimally-Invasive Experimental System For Pco2 Manipulation In Plankton Cultures Using Passive Gas Exchange (Atmospheric Carbon Control Simulator), Brooke Love, M. Brady Olson, Tristen Wuori

Environmental Sciences Faculty Publications

As research into the biotic effects of ocean acidification has increased, the methods for simulating these environmental changes in the laboratory have multiplied. Here we describe the atmospheric carbon control simulator (ACCS) for the maintenance of plankton under controlled pCO2 conditions, designed for species sensitive to the physical disturbance introduced by the bubbling of cultures and for studies involving trophic interaction. The system consists of gas mixing and equilibration components coupled with large volume atmospheric simulation chambers. These chambers allow gas exchange to counteract the changes in carbonate chemistry induced by the metabolic activity of the organisms. The system is ...


The Effect Of Watershed Runoff And Sediment Resuspension On Turbidity And Sediment Deposition In St. John, Us Virgin Islands: Implications For Watershed And Marine Development And Restoration In Bays With Coral Reefs, Stephen E. Campbell 2017 University of San Diego

The Effect Of Watershed Runoff And Sediment Resuspension On Turbidity And Sediment Deposition In St. John, Us Virgin Islands: Implications For Watershed And Marine Development And Restoration In Bays With Coral Reefs, Stephen E. Campbell

Theses

In the US Virgin Islands (USVI), land-based (terrigenous) sedimentation has been identified as a major cause of coral stress. Development, such as the building of unpaved roads in steep coastal watersheds, has increased sediment yields and marine terrigenous sedimentation by up to an order of magnitude above background levels. When activated during storm events, ephemeral streams transport sediment from the watershed to coastal waters. Once deposited on the seafloor, resuspension of benthic sediments can further increase turbidity and deposition. However, isolating the relative contributions of runoff and resuspension to turbidity and deposition using conventional sediment trap monitoring has been challenging ...


Larval Rockfish Diversity Abundance Dynamics In Association With A Marine Protected Area In The Southern California Bight, Dustin Chen 2017 University of San Diego

Larval Rockfish Diversity Abundance Dynamics In Association With A Marine Protected Area In The Southern California Bight, Dustin Chen

Theses

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are areas aimed at protecting natural and cultural resources that are often proposed as a way to alleviate the effects of overfishing on populations of targeted species; these areas have varying degrees of fishing and recreational use restrictions. In order to assess MPA efficacy, it is important to determine the mechanisms by which the presence of MPAs affect reproductive output within and potentially even beyond their boundaries. I attempted to address this through studying the responses of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) larval abundances to the presence of the Cowcod Conservation Areas (CCAs) located within the Southern California ...


Revisiting Ocean Color Algorithms For Chlorophyll A And Particulate Organic Carbon In The Southern Ocean Using Biogeochemical Floats, Nils Haëntjens 2017 University of Maine

Revisiting Ocean Color Algorithms For Chlorophyll A And Particulate Organic Carbon In The Southern Ocean Using Biogeochemical Floats, Nils Haëntjens

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Southern Ocean (SO, oceans south of 30 oS) ecosystem plays a key role in global carbon cycles by sinking a major part (43 %) of the anthropogenic CO2, and being an important source of nutrients for primary producers. However, undersampling of SO biogeochemical properties limits our understanding of the mechanisms taking place in this remote area. The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observing and Modeling project (SOCCOM) has been deploying a large number of autonomous biogeochemical floats to study the SO (as of December 2016, 74 floats out of 200 have been deployed). SOCCOM floats measurements can be ...


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