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Sea Surface Temperature Rises Shift Migration Patterns Due To Ecosystem Changes, Alexia Skrbic, Hesham el-Askary 2016 Chapman University

Sea Surface Temperature Rises Shift Migration Patterns Due To Ecosystem Changes, Alexia Skrbic, Hesham El-Askary

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The continuing climate change is negatively impacting ecosystems, specifically oceans which are declining and food webs are being altered by the increase of greenhouse gases. The increase of the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is increasing sea surface temperature of the world’s oceans. Certain organisms lower on the food chain like phytoplankton and zooplankton are directly affected by the warming which alters how they process nutrients and their productivity. The limited amount of these primary producers in the oceans and specifically the location they inhabit directly affects all the organisms above them on the food chain. Several marine ...


Modern Fair-Weather And Storm Sediment Transport Around Ship Island, Mississippi: Implications For Coastal Habitats And Restoration Efforts, Eve Rettew Eisemann 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Modern Fair-Weather And Storm Sediment Transport Around Ship Island, Mississippi: Implications For Coastal Habitats And Restoration Efforts, Eve Rettew Eisemann

Master's Theses

The Mississippi – Alabama barrier island chain is experiencing accelerated sea level rise, decreased sediment supply, and frequent hurricane impacts. These three factors drive unprecedented rates of morphology change and ecosystem reduction. All islands in the chain have experienced land loss on the order of hectares per year since records began in the 1840s. In 1969, Hurricane Camille impacted as a Category 5, breaching Ship Island, and significantly reduced viable seagrass habitat. Hurricane Katrina impacted as a Category 3 in 2005, further widening Camille Cut. To better understand the sustainability of these important islands and the ecosystems they support, sediment transport ...


Using Rare Earth Elements To Constrain Particulate Organic Carbon Flux In The East China Sea, Chin-Chang Hung, Ya-Feng Chen, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Kui Wang, Jianfang Chen, David J. Burdige 2016 Old Dominion University

Using Rare Earth Elements To Constrain Particulate Organic Carbon Flux In The East China Sea, Chin-Chang Hung, Ya-Feng Chen, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Kui Wang, Jianfang Chen, David J. Burdige

OEAS Faculty Publications

Fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the East China Sea (ECS) have been reported to decrease from the inner continental shelf towards the outer continental shelf. Recent research has shown that POC fluxes in the ECS may be overestimated due to active sediment resuspension. To better characterize the effect of sediment resuspension on particle fluxes in the ECS, rare earth elements (REEs) and organic carbon (OC) were used in separate two-member mixing models to evaluate trap-collected POC fluxes. The ratio of resuspended particles from sediments to total trap-collected particles in the ECS ranged from 82-94% using the OC mixing ...


Vision And Bioluminescence In Deep-Sea Crustaceans, Tamara Frank 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Vision And Bioluminescence In Deep-Sea Crustaceans, Tamara Frank

Tamara Frank

Adaptations of the visual systems of deep-sea crustaceans to dim light environments are driven not only by environmental light, but also biologically produced light, or bioluminescence. In the pelagic zone, the relationship is driven, at least in part, by intrinsic bioluminescence. The unusual possession of UV sensitivity, in additional to the expected blue sensitivity, in several species of deep-sea crustaceans appears to be linked to their two modes of bioluminescence. In the benthic zone, the relationship is not so clear. On several NOAA-OER funded research expeditions, electrophysiological studies were conducted on a number of species of decapod crustaceans collected with ...


Size As A Trait For Understanding The Role Of Zooplankton In The Biological Carbon Pump, Karen Stamieszkin 2016 University of Maine

Size As A Trait For Understanding The Role Of Zooplankton In The Biological Carbon Pump, Karen Stamieszkin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Living organisms impact carbon transport between the atmosphere and the ocean through the biological carbon pump. Some plankton communities augment carbon export from the ocean’s surface, and are thought to have a major role in global climate. These export communities are often characterized by larger organisms that sink to depths where the carbon they contain is sequestered from the atmosphere. Zooplankton can enhance export by aggregating prey into larger sinking fecal pellets; however fecal pellet flux is a highly variable component of the biological carbon pump. Relating plankton trophic dynamics to changes in particulate carbon flux is an important ...


Sediment Accumulations Patterns In The Damariscotta River Estuary, Emily A. Chandler 2016 University of Maine

Sediment Accumulations Patterns In The Damariscotta River Estuary, Emily A. Chandler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The tidally dominated Damariscotta River estuary is located on the south-central Maine coast. The elongate, north-south orientation of the estuary is characteristic of the indented shoreline in this region and a consequence of the bedrock structural framework, comprised of Paleozoic high-grade metasedimentary rocks. Pegmatite sills form bedrock constriction points that divide the estuary into seven distinct basins. The narrow, bending geometry and sill and basin morphology impact the distribution of sediment within the estuary and the hydrodynamics of the system. This study employs multibeam bathymetry surveys, sediment grab samples and radionuclide analysis (210Pb and 137Cs) of sediment cores ...


A 200 Year Record Of Carbon-13 And Carbon-14 Variations In A Bermuda Coral, Y. Nozaki, D. M. Rye, K. K. Turekian, Richard E. Dodge 2016 Yale University

A 200 Year Record Of Carbon-13 And Carbon-14 Variations In A Bermuda Coral, Y. Nozaki, D. M. Rye, K. K. Turekian, Richard E. Dodge

Richard Dodge

A 200 year old brain coral, captured in Bermuda in 1976 was slabbed and x-rayed. Using the annual growth bands sequential, dated samples were taken over the entire growth period of the coral and analyzed for Δ14C, δ13C and δ18O. During the past 80 years atmospheric variations in Δ14C and δ13C due to human effects, such as release of bomb C-14 and dilution of both C-14 and C-13 by fossil fuel burning, are closely tracked by the coral. Prior to 1900 divergences between the coral and tree Δ14C ...


Why Was There A Harmful Algal Bloom In 2015: The Relative Growth Of Toxic And Non-Toxic Diatoms As A Function Of Temperature, Ariana M. Jensen, Meagan P. Beley-Finnemore, Christopher E. Ikeda, William P. Cochlan 2016 California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, 1 Grand Avenue, San Luis Obispo, California 93407

Why Was There A Harmful Algal Bloom In 2015: The Relative Growth Of Toxic And Non-Toxic Diatoms As A Function Of Temperature, Ariana M. Jensen, Meagan P. Beley-Finnemore, Christopher E. Ikeda, William P. Cochlan

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

A coastwide bloom of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia in 2015 resulted in the largest recorded outbreak and unprecedented levels of the neurotoxin, domoic acid (DA), along the North American west coast. The scientific community has suggested that warmer ocean temperatures were the main cause of this harmful algal bloom (HAB), but little scientific evidence to support the relationship between temperature, and the growth and toxicity of Pseudo-nitzschia has been provided for local isolates of these diatoms. To gain insight into bloom dynamics, a laboratory study was conducted to examine the growth of toxic and non-toxic phytoplankton species at a range ...


Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy

Master's Theses

The northern Gulf of Mexico has been devastated by recent intense storms. Camille (1969) and Katrina (2005) are two notable hurricanes that made landfall in virtually the same location in Mississippi. However, fully understanding the risks and processes associated with hurricane impacts is impeded by a short and fragmented instrumental record. Paleotempestology could potentially use modern analogues from intense storms in this region to extend the hurricane record back to pre-observational time. Existing empirically based models can back-calculate surge heights over coastal systems as a function of transport distance, particle settling velocity, and gravitational acceleration. We collected cores in a ...


Abundance And Diversity Of Deep-Sea Crustaceans Of Bear Seamount, New England Seamount Chain, Valerie Miranda 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Abundance And Diversity Of Deep-Sea Crustaceans Of Bear Seamount, New England Seamount Chain, Valerie Miranda

HCNSO Ocean Science Jamboree

Bear Seamount (39° 55’ N; 67° 30’ W) is the westernmost peak of extinct undersea volcanoes in the New England Seamount Chain (Moore et al., 2003). It is located on the continental slope off Georges Bank, and is governed by unique environmental factors and currents that may be unlike those of the other seamounts (Moore et al., 2003). Previous cruises to this seamount have been successful in capturing abundant fishes, cephalopods and invertebrates (Moore et al., 2003; Moore et al., 2004; Moore et al., 2008), but only the distribution patterns of the fishes and cephalopods have been examined, leaving a ...


Vision And Bioluminescence In Deep-Sea Crustaceans, Tamara Frank 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Vision And Bioluminescence In Deep-Sea Crustaceans, Tamara Frank

HCNSO Ocean Science Jamboree

Adaptations of the visual systems of deep-sea crustaceans to dim light environments are driven not only by environmental light, but also biologically produced light, or bioluminescence. In the pelagic zone, the relationship is driven, at least in part, by intrinsic bioluminescence. The unusual possession of UV sensitivity, in additional to the expected blue sensitivity, in several species of deep-sea crustaceans appears to be linked to their two modes of bioluminescence. In the benthic zone, the relationship is not so clear. On several NOAA-OER funded research expeditions, electrophysiological studies were conducted on a number of species of decapod crustaceans collected with ...


Monitoring A Problem: Evaluating The Ecological Status Of The Invasive Nile Monitor In Florida And Forecasting Population Expansion Using Computational Gis, Noah Cohen 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Monitoring A Problem: Evaluating The Ecological Status Of The Invasive Nile Monitor In Florida And Forecasting Population Expansion Using Computational Gis, Noah Cohen

HCNSO Ocean Science Jamboree

The state of Florida is an epicenter for the introduction of exotic terrestrial and marine species, often which are attributed to the pet industry. Identifying the threats posed by exotics that may become invasive is critical to manage and protect indigenous species and habitats. One such exotic that is now invasive in Florida is the Nile Monitor (Varanus niloticus). The Nile monitor is a large, predatory lizard native to central and southern Africa that is thought to have been introduced to Florida via both intentional and unintentional releases associated with the exotic pet trade. Since their introduction, Nile monitors have ...


Genomic Assembly Analyses Of Asian Teleost Species Seabass (Lates Calcarifer) And Arowana (Scleropages Formosus), Stephen O'Brien 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Genomic Assembly Analyses Of Asian Teleost Species Seabass (Lates Calcarifer) And Arowana (Scleropages Formosus), Stephen O'Brien

HCNSO Ocean Science Jamboree

The genome assembly and annotation of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) , a marine teleost with aquaculture relevance will be described, an initiative of Genome 10K . Though > 500 eukaryotic genome sequences are available in public repositories, the majority are highly fragmented with incomplete assemblies, so considerable effort and resources are often spent to improve their quality. In the present study, PacBio long read sequencing , genetic and optical mapping, and syntenic inference were combined to build a chromosome-length assembly with a contig N50 size over 1 Mb and scaffold N50 size over 25 Mb that span ~90% of the genome was achieved.

The ...


If You Build It, Will They Come? Exploring Enhancements To Artificial Structure For Use In Restoration And Mitigation Applications In The Mexican Caribbean, Kirk Kilfoyle 2016 Nova Southeastern University

If You Build It, Will They Come? Exploring Enhancements To Artificial Structure For Use In Restoration And Mitigation Applications In The Mexican Caribbean, Kirk Kilfoyle

HCNSO Ocean Science Jamboree

A study involving standardized artificial reef modules (ReefballsTM) was conducted in Puerto Morelos, Mexico. The purpose was to explore the use of artificial structure in restoration and mitigation projects in a Caribbean coral reef environment similar to South Florida by applying select experimental treatments hypothesized to accelerate their acquisition of a natural coral reef assemblage. Multiple hypotheses on the progression and interaction between artificial structure and the resulting fish, coral, algal, and non-coral invertebrate assemblages were examined. Each of 40 reefball modules received one of 4 treatments (10 modules/treatment): invertebrate substrate pads, coral transplants, settlement plates, or control. Following ...


On The Variability Of Pacific Ocean Tides At Seasonal To Decadal Time Scales: Observed Vs Modelled, Adam Thomas Devlin 2016 Portland State University

On The Variability Of Pacific Ocean Tides At Seasonal To Decadal Time Scales: Observed Vs Modelled, Adam Thomas Devlin

Dissertations and Theses

Ocean tides worldwide have exhibited secular changes in the past century, simultaneous with a global secular rise in mean sea level (MSL). The combination of these two factors contributes to higher water levels, and may increase threats to coastal regions and populations over the next century. Equally as important as these long-term changes are the short-term fluctuations in sea levels and tidal properties. These fluctuations may interact to yield locally extreme water level events, especially when combined with storm surge. This study, presented in three parts, examines the relationships between tidal anomalies and MSL anomalies on yearly and monthly timescales ...


A Hydrodynamic-Sediment Transport Numerical Model For The Waipaoa Shelf, New Zealand: Model Archive, Julia Moriarty, Courtney K. Harris, Mark G. Hadfield 2016 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

A Hydrodynamic-Sediment Transport Numerical Model For The Waipaoa Shelf, New Zealand: Model Archive, Julia Moriarty, Courtney K. Harris, Mark G. Hadfield

VIMS Data

No abstract provided.


West Florida Shelf Connectivity: An Exploratory Study, Amanda Sue Reinert 2016 University of South Florida

West Florida Shelf Connectivity: An Exploratory Study, Amanda Sue Reinert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This Thesis explores the connectiveness of the West Florida Shelf’s various areas of economic and ecological importance by considering five case studies of varying dynamic forcing influences and time. The advection of water about the shelf moves nutrients and has a direct impact on the shelf’s ecology and the determination of whether or not the shelf will be oligotrophic at any given time or location. The case studies are analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively after quasi-isopycnal particle trajectory calculations are completed for each. The findings support a combination of local and deep-ocean forcing being ideal for the maximum ...


Variability In The Carbon Storage Of Seagrass Habitats And Its Implications For Global Estimates Of Blue Carbon Ecosystem Service [Dataset], Paul S. Lavery, Miguel-Angel Mateo, Oscar Serrano, Mohammad Rozaimi 2016 Edith Cowan University

Variability In The Carbon Storage Of Seagrass Habitats And Its Implications For Global Estimates Of Blue Carbon Ecosystem Service [Dataset], Paul S. Lavery, Miguel-Angel Mateo, Oscar Serrano, Mohammad Rozaimi

Research Datasets

The database compiles published data (in Lavery et al. 2013, PLoS ONE 8(9): e73748. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073748) on biogeochemical variables (organic matter, organic carbon and CO3 contents, and stable carbon isotope signatures of the organic carbon) in sediment core from seagrass meadows in Australia. The cores studied were up to 29 cm long, and ecompass tropical, subtropical and temperate seagrass meadows in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Enquiries about the dataset may be sent to Paul Lavery p.lavery@ecu.edu.au.


Impact Of Mooring Activities On Carbon Stocks In Seagrass Meadows [Dataset], Oscar Serrano, Radhiyah Ruhon, Paul S. Lavery, Gary A. Kendrick, Sharyn Hickey, Pere Masque, Ariane Arias-Ortiz, Andy Steven, Carlos M. Duarte 2016 Edith Cowan University

Impact Of Mooring Activities On Carbon Stocks In Seagrass Meadows [Dataset], Oscar Serrano, Radhiyah Ruhon, Paul S. Lavery, Gary A. Kendrick, Sharyn Hickey, Pere Masque, Ariane Arias-Ortiz, Andy Steven, Carlos M. Duarte

Research Datasets

The database compiles published data (in Serrano et al. 2016, Scientific Reports, in press) on biogeochemical characteristics (density, organic carbon, calcium carbonate, stable carbon isotopes and sediment grain size) of sediments underneath seagrass meadows and adjacent un-vegetated patches after mooring disturbances in Rottnest Island (Perth, Western Australia). The dataset compiles data on biogeochemical sediment characteristics for a total of 16 cores, 50 cm-long (4 cores from seagrass meadows and 4 cores from adjacent bare sediments at Thompson Bay, and 4 cores from seagrass meadows and 4 cores from adjacent bare sediments at Stark Bay). Enquiries about the dataset may be ...


Are We Missing Important Areas In Pelagic Marine Conservation? Redefining Conservation Hotspots In The Ocean, Dana K. Briscoe, Sara M. Maxwell, Raphael Kudela, Larry B. Crowder 2016 Old Dominion University

Are We Missing Important Areas In Pelagic Marine Conservation? Redefining Conservation Hotspots In The Ocean, Dana K. Briscoe, Sara M. Maxwell, Raphael Kudela, Larry B. Crowder

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The protection of biodiversity is one of the most important goals in terrestrial and marine conservation. Marine conservation approaches have traditionally followed the example of terrestrial initiatives. However, patterns, processes, habitats, and threats differ greatly between the 2 systems - and even within the marine environment. As a result, there is still a lack of congruence as to how to best identify and prioritize conservation approaches moving from the static terrestrial and nearshore realm into a more fluid, 3-dimensional pelagic realm. To address this problem, we investigate how the conservation science literature has been used to inform and guide management strategies ...


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