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Technical Note: A Minimally-Invasive Experimental System For Pco2 Manipulation In Plankton Cultures Using Passive Gas Exchange (Atmospheric Carbon Control Simulator), Brooke Love, M. Brady Olson, Tristen Wuori 2017 Western Washington University, USA

Technical Note: A Minimally-Invasive Experimental System For Pco2 Manipulation In Plankton Cultures Using Passive Gas Exchange (Atmospheric Carbon Control Simulator), Brooke Love, M. Brady Olson, Tristen Wuori

Brooke Love

As research into the biotic effects of ocean acidification has increased, the methods for simulating these environmental changes in the laboratory have multiplied. Here we describe the atmospheric carbon control simulator (ACCS) for the maintenance of plankton under controlled pCO2 conditions, designed for species sensitive to the physical disturbance introduced by the bubbling of cultures and for studies involving trophic interaction. The system consists of gas mixing and equilibration components coupled with large volume atmospheric simulation chambers. These chambers allow gas exchange to counteract the changes in carbonate chemistry induced by the metabolic activity of the organisms. The system is ...


Volcanic Eruptions At East Pacific Rise Near 9°50'N, James P. Cowen, Brooke Love, Brian Glazier, Daniel J. Fornari, Timothy M. Shank, S. Adam Soule, Alexander Treusch, Kyle R. Pomranig, R. Chadwick Holmes, Maya Tolstoy 2017 Western Washington University, USA

Volcanic Eruptions At East Pacific Rise Near 9°50'N, James P. Cowen, Brooke Love, Brian Glazier, Daniel J. Fornari, Timothy M. Shank, S. Adam Soule, Alexander Treusch, Kyle R. Pomranig, R. Chadwick Holmes, Maya Tolstoy

Brooke Love

Evidence for recent volcanic eruptions along the fast spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) crest near 9°50'N spanning about 4 to 5 months of activity was discovered in April and May 2006 as a result of studies related to the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Ridge2000 (R2K) program. In April, during routine recovery and redeployment of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) at the EPR R2K Integrated Study Site (ISS) near 9°50'N, eight of 12 OBS could not be recovered [Tolstoy et al, 2006]. Anomalous turbidity and temperature structure in the water column along the ridge axis confirmed ...


Data From: Observing System Simulation Experiments For An Array Of Autonomous Biogeochemical Profiling Floats In The Southern Ocean, Igor Kamenkovich, Angelique Haza, Alison R. Gray, Carolina O. Dufour, Zulema Garraffo 2017 RSMAS, University of Miami

Data From: Observing System Simulation Experiments For An Array Of Autonomous Biogeochemical Profiling Floats In The Southern Ocean, Igor Kamenkovich, Angelique Haza, Alison R. Gray, Carolina O. Dufour, Zulema Garraffo

Supplementary Data and Tools

Data in this collection is from Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) that were carried in support of the SOCCOM program. Synthetic profiles were extracted from model-simulated dissolved oxygen and inorganic carbon. Full maps were then reconstructed from these sparse datasets, using objective mapping. For description of the model and reconstruction method please see Kamenkovich, I., A. Haza, A. Gray, C. Dufour, and Z. Garraffo: "Observing System Simulation Experiments for an array of autonomous biogeochemical profiling floats in the Southern Ocean", Journal of Geophysical Research, DOI: 10.1002/2017JC012819


Oyster Aquaculture Site Selection Using Landsat 8-Derived Sea Surface Temperature, Turbidity, And Chlorophyll A., Jordan Snyder 2017 University of Maine, Orono

Oyster Aquaculture Site Selection Using Landsat 8-Derived Sea Surface Temperature, Turbidity, And Chlorophyll A., Jordan Snyder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Remote sensing data is useful for selection of aquaculture sites because it can provide water-quality products mapped with no cost to users. However, the spatial resolution of most ocean color satellites is too coarse to provide usable data within many estuaries. The more recently launched Landsat 8 satellite has both the spatial resolution and the necessary signal to noise ratio to provide temperature, as well as ocean color derived products along complex coastlines. The state of Maine (USA) has an abundance of estuarine indentations (~3,500 miles of tidal shoreline within 220 miles of coast), and an expanding aquaculture industry ...


Environmentally-Driven Variation In The Population Dynamics Of Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia Patronus), Grant D. Adams 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Environmentally-Driven Variation In The Population Dynamics Of Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia Patronus), Grant D. Adams

Master's Theses

Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) is an abundant forage fish distributed throughout the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). Gulf Menhaden support the second largest fishery, by weight, in the United States and represent a key linkage between upper and lower trophic levels. Variation in the population dynamics can, therefore, pose consequences for the ecology and economy in the NGOM. Here we aim to understand variation in the individual and population dynamics of Gulf Menhaden throughout ontogeny and how such variation relates to environmental processes. We utilized a suite of fishery-dependent and –independent, remote sensing, modeled, and in situ data to explicitly ...


Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, K. P. ManiKandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova 2017 Chapman University

Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, K. P. Manikandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

An anomalously high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) event (>2 mg/m3) during June 2015 in the South Central Red Sea (17.5° to 22°N, 37° to 42°E) was observed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. This differs from the low Chl-a values (<0.5 mg/m3) usually encountered over the same region during summertime. To assess this anomaly and possible causes, we used a wide range of oceanographical and meteorological datasets, including Chl-a concentrations, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), mixed layer depth (MLD), ocean current velocity and aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from different sensors and models. Findings confirmed this anomalous behavior in the spatial domain using Hovmöller data analysis techniques, while a time series analysis addressed monthly and daily variability. Our analysis suggests that a combination of factors controlling nutrient supply contributed to the anomalous phytoplankton growth. These factors include horizontal transfer of upwelling water through eddy circulation and possible mineral fertilization from atmospheric dust deposition. Coral reefs might have provided extra nutrient supply, yet this is out of the scope of our analysis. We thought that dust deposition from a coastal dust jet event in late June, coinciding with the phytoplankton blooms in the area under investigation, might have also contributed as shown by our AOD findings. However, a lag cross correlation showed a two- month lag between strong dust outbreak and the high Chl-a anomaly. The high Chl-a concentration at the edge of the eddy emphasizes the importance of horizontal advection in fertilizing oligotrophic (nutrient poor) Red Sea waters.


Estimation Of Bubble-Mediated Air–Sea Gas Exchange From Concurrent Dms And Co2 Transfer Velocities At Intermediate–High Wind Speeds, Thomas G. Bell, Sebastian Landwehr, Scott D. Miller, Warren J. De Bruyn, Adrian H. Callaghan, Brian Scanlon, Brian Ward, Mingxi Yang, Eric S. Saltzman 2017 Plymouth Marine Laboratory

Estimation Of Bubble-Mediated Air–Sea Gas Exchange From Concurrent Dms And Co2 Transfer Velocities At Intermediate–High Wind Speeds, Thomas G. Bell, Sebastian Landwehr, Scott D. Miller, Warren J. De Bruyn, Adrian H. Callaghan, Brian Scanlon, Brian Ward, Mingxi Yang, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Simultaneous air–sea fluxes and concentration differences of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and carbon dioxide (CO2/ were measured during a summertime North Atlantic cruise in 2011. This data set reveals significant differences between the gas transfer velocities of these two gases (1kw/ over a range of wind speeds up to 21ms􀀀1. These differences occur at and above the approximate wind speed threshold when waves begin breaking. Whitecap fraction (a proxy for bubbles) was also measured and has a positive relationship with 1kw, consistent with enhanced bubble-mediated transfer of the less soluble CO2 relative to that of the more soluble DMS. However ...


Methane, Manganese, And Helium In Hydrothermal Plumes Following Volcanic Eruptions On The East Pacific Rise Near9°500n, Brooke A. Love, Joseph A. Resing, James P. Cowen, John E. Lupton, Daniel J. Fornari, Timothy M. Shank, Dondra Biller 2017 Western Washington University

Methane, Manganese, And Helium In Hydrothermal Plumes Following Volcanic Eruptions On The East Pacific Rise Near9°500n, Brooke A. Love, Joseph A. Resing, James P. Cowen, John E. Lupton, Daniel J. Fornari, Timothy M. Shank, Dondra Biller

Brooke Love

As part of a rapid response cruise in May 2006, we surveyed water column hydrothermal plumes and bottom conditions on the East Pacific Rise between 9°46.0'N and 9°57.6'N, where recent seafloor volcanic activity was suspected. Real-time measurements included temperature, light transmission, and salinity. Samples of the plume waters were analyzed for methane, manganese, helium concentrations, and the δ13C of methane. These data allow us to examine the effects of the 2005–2006 volcanic eruption(s) on plume chemistry. Methane and manganese are sensitive tracers of hydrothermal plumes, and both were present in high concentrations ...


Micro-Spi Sediment Profile Imaging Micro-Inspector, Andrew P. Corvin, Caleb T. Davies, Matt R. Ferrari 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Micro-Spi Sediment Profile Imaging Micro-Inspector, Andrew P. Corvin, Caleb T. Davies, Matt R. Ferrari

Mechanical Engineering

This project was proposed by Dr. Brian Paavo through a desire to more easily study the benthic sediment layers of the ocean. To do so, he asked us to build a simple and compact machine for use in sediment profile imagery (SPI). Although devices like this already exist, they are all large scale devices that require a ship with a crane to deploy, which is expensive and time consuming. Instead, he desired a “micro” SPI, which is capable of being deployed from a small vessel that can easily navigate shallow waters. Our interpretation of these requirements was as follows: a ...


Technical Note: A Minimally-Invasive Experimental System For Pco2 Manipulation In Plankton Cultures Using Passive Gas Exchange (Atmospheric Carbon Control Simulator), Brooke Love, M. Brady Olson, Tristen Wuori 2017 Western Washington University, USA

Technical Note: A Minimally-Invasive Experimental System For Pco2 Manipulation In Plankton Cultures Using Passive Gas Exchange (Atmospheric Carbon Control Simulator), Brooke Love, M. Brady Olson, Tristen Wuori

Environmental Sciences Faculty Publications

As research into the biotic effects of ocean acidification has increased, the methods for simulating these environmental changes in the laboratory have multiplied. Here we describe the atmospheric carbon control simulator (ACCS) for the maintenance of plankton under controlled pCO2 conditions, designed for species sensitive to the physical disturbance introduced by the bubbling of cultures and for studies involving trophic interaction. The system consists of gas mixing and equilibration components coupled with large volume atmospheric simulation chambers. These chambers allow gas exchange to counteract the changes in carbonate chemistry induced by the metabolic activity of the organisms. The system is ...


The Effect Of Watershed Runoff And Sediment Resuspension On Turbidity And Sediment Deposition In St. John, Us Virgin Islands: Implications For Watershed And Marine Development And Restoration In Bays With Coral Reefs, Stephen E. Campbell 2017 University of San Diego

The Effect Of Watershed Runoff And Sediment Resuspension On Turbidity And Sediment Deposition In St. John, Us Virgin Islands: Implications For Watershed And Marine Development And Restoration In Bays With Coral Reefs, Stephen E. Campbell

Theses

In the US Virgin Islands (USVI), land-based (terrigenous) sedimentation has been identified as a major cause of coral stress. Development, such as the building of unpaved roads in steep coastal watersheds, has increased sediment yields and marine terrigenous sedimentation by up to an order of magnitude above background levels. When activated during storm events, ephemeral streams transport sediment from the watershed to coastal waters. Once deposited on the seafloor, resuspension of benthic sediments can further increase turbidity and deposition. However, isolating the relative contributions of runoff and resuspension to turbidity and deposition using conventional sediment trap monitoring has been challenging ...


Larval Rockfish Diversity Abundance Dynamics In Association With A Marine Protected Area In The Southern California Bight, Dustin Chen 2017 University of San Diego

Larval Rockfish Diversity Abundance Dynamics In Association With A Marine Protected Area In The Southern California Bight, Dustin Chen

Theses

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are areas aimed at protecting natural and cultural resources that are often proposed as a way to alleviate the effects of overfishing on populations of targeted species; these areas have varying degrees of fishing and recreational use restrictions. In order to assess MPA efficacy, it is important to determine the mechanisms by which the presence of MPAs affect reproductive output within and potentially even beyond their boundaries. I attempted to address this through studying the responses of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) larval abundances to the presence of the Cowcod Conservation Areas (CCAs) located within the Southern California ...


Revisiting Ocean Color Algorithms For Chlorophyll A And Particulate Organic Carbon In The Southern Ocean Using Biogeochemical Floats, Nils Haëntjens 2017 University of Maine

Revisiting Ocean Color Algorithms For Chlorophyll A And Particulate Organic Carbon In The Southern Ocean Using Biogeochemical Floats, Nils Haëntjens

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Southern Ocean (SO, oceans south of 30 oS) ecosystem plays a key role in global carbon cycles by sinking a major part (43 %) of the anthropogenic CO2, and being an important source of nutrients for primary producers. However, undersampling of SO biogeochemical properties limits our understanding of the mechanisms taking place in this remote area. The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observing and Modeling project (SOCCOM) has been deploying a large number of autonomous biogeochemical floats to study the SO (as of December 2016, 74 floats out of 200 have been deployed). SOCCOM floats measurements can be ...


Do Halogenated Natural Products Bioaccumulate In Narragansett Bay?, Christine Gardiner, Anna Robuck, Rainer Lohmann 2017 University of Rhode Island

Do Halogenated Natural Products Bioaccumulate In Narragansett Bay?, Christine Gardiner, Anna Robuck, Rainer Lohmann

Senior Honors Projects

In recent decades, a new family of chemical compounds has begun to garner research attention—halogenated natural products, or HNPs. These chemicals are produced by algae, bacteria, worms, and sponges, and many are structurally similar to harmful manmade compounds, such as polychlorinated diphenyls (PCBs), or brominated flame retardants (PBDEs), which are known to cause cancer, reproduction issues, endocrine disruption, and death. While HNPs are produced naturally, they are still considered pollutants because of their bioaccumulative behavior and apparent toxicity.

Currently, there is limited research on their presence and effects, with a few studies from Europe and the Pacific highlighting their ...


Age, Growth, And Reproduction Of Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites Aurorubens) In The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Trevor Dalton Moncrief 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Age, Growth, And Reproduction Of Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites Aurorubens) In The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Trevor Dalton Moncrief

Master's Theses

Vermilion Snapper is a commonly harvested species of reef fish in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). It supports both a large commercial and popular recreational fishery, however knowledge of this fish’s life history is limited spatially. Non-linear curve fitting was used to estimate growth parameters and Akaike information criteria (AIC) was used to determine relative model fit. The 2-parameter von Bertalanffy growth function provided the best model fit and lowest AIC score. Histological examination indicated that Vermilion Snapper are batch spawners with asynchronous oocyte development. Additionally, 17% of Vermilion Snapper in the actively spawning phase containing 24 hour ...


Assessment Of A 3d Unstructured-Grid Model For The Chesapeake Bay And Adjacent Shelf: Supplemental Materials, Fei Ye, Yinglong J. Zhang, Harry V. Wang, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Isaac D. Irby, Arnaldo Valle-Levinson, Zhengui Wang, Hai Huang, Jian Shen, Jiabi Du 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Assessment Of A 3d Unstructured-Grid Model For The Chesapeake Bay And Adjacent Shelf: Supplemental Materials, Fei Ye, Yinglong J. Zhang, Harry V. Wang, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Isaac D. Irby, Arnaldo Valle-Levinson, Zhengui Wang, Hai Huang, Jian Shen, Jiabi Du

Data

No abstract provided.


Separating Decadal Global Water Cycle Variability From Sea Level Rise, B. D. Hamlington, J. T. Reager, M.-H. Lo, K. B. Karnauskas, R. R. Leben 2017 Old Dominion University

Separating Decadal Global Water Cycle Variability From Sea Level Rise, B. D. Hamlington, J. T. Reager, M.-H. Lo, K. B. Karnauskas, R. R. Leben

CCPO Publications

Under a warming climate, amplification of the water cycle and changes in precipitation patterns over land are expected to occur, subsequently impacting the terrestrial water balance. On global scales, such changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) will be reflected in the water contained in the ocean and can manifest as global sea level variations. Naturally occurring climate-driven TWS variability can temporarily obscure the long-term trend in sea level rise, in addition to modulating the impacts of sea level rise through natural periodic undulation in regional and global sea level. The internal variability of the global water cycle, therefore, confounds both ...


Groundwater And Tidal Controls On Wetland Hydrology, Julie J. Metz Wetland Mitigation Bank, Woodbridge, Virginia, Benjamin Stuart Hiza 2017 Old Dominion University

Groundwater And Tidal Controls On Wetland Hydrology, Julie J. Metz Wetland Mitigation Bank, Woodbridge, Virginia, Benjamin Stuart Hiza

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Julie J. Metz Wetlands Mitigation Bank, a 92-hectare freshwater wetland located in Woodbridge, Virginia, borders the tidally-influenced Neabsco Creek. Seven pods separated by earthen berms were built by Wetland Studies and Solutions Inc. (WSSI) in 1995 and 1997 by removing the toe of small sandy alluvial fans and covering the underlying coarse gravel bed with a low permeability cap. The basal Quaternary gravels were deposited in a creek valley incised into a thick sand-and-clay Cretaceous delta. The alluvial-fan apron developed at the base of steep slopes along the sides of the valley. Pressure transducer data from five monitoring wells along ...


Dollars From The Sea: Jacksonville And The Ocean Business, Committee of 100 Jacksonville Area Chamber of Commerce 2017 University of North Florida

Dollars From The Sea: Jacksonville And The Ocean Business, Committee Of 100 Jacksonville Area Chamber Of Commerce

City and Regional Planning—Florida

Book details Jacksonville's oceanographic history 1967-1974


A Two-Layer Model Of The North Atlantic Thermocline, P. P. Niiler, Edward R. Simco, R. Larue 2017 Nova Southeastern University

A Two-Layer Model Of The North Atlantic Thermocline, P. P. Niiler, Edward R. Simco, R. Larue

Edward Simco

A two-layer model of mid-oceanic thermocline is developed, and a comparison of the depth and temperature of the thermocline in this model is made with a root-mean-square description of the hydrographic structure of the North Atlantic. It is shown that the Sverdrup balance is maintained within the rms errors, and the entire estimated heat flux from the atmosphere is used to produce the observed density changes along the path of persistent flow.


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