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Role Of Iron And Organic Carbon In Mass-Specific Light Absorption By Particulate Matter From Louisiana Coastal Waters, Meg Estapa, Emmanuel E. Boss, Mayer M. Lawrence, Roesler S. Collin 2017 Skidmore College

Role Of Iron And Organic Carbon In Mass-Specific Light Absorption By Particulate Matter From Louisiana Coastal Waters, Meg Estapa, Emmanuel E. Boss, Mayer M. Lawrence, Roesler S. Collin

Meg Estapa

We investigated the influences of organic content and mineralogical composition on light absorption by mostly mineral suspended particles in aquatic and coastal marine systems. Mass-specific absorption spectra of suspended particles and surface sediments from coastal Louisiana and the lower Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers were measured with a centered sample-mount integrating sphere and analyzed in conjunction with organic carbon (OC), hydrochloric acid– (HCl-) extractable iron, and dithionite-extractable iron contents. Compositions and absorption properties were comparable to published values for similar particles. Dithionite-extractable iron was strongly correlated with absorption at ultraviolet (UV) and blue wavelengths, while OC and HCl-extractable iron were weakly ...


Effect Of Small-Scale Continental Shelf Bathymetry On Storm Surge Generation, Sunni A. Siqueira 2016 University of New Orleans

Effect Of Small-Scale Continental Shelf Bathymetry On Storm Surge Generation, Sunni A. Siqueira

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Idealized bathymetries were subjected to idealized cyclones in order to measure the storm surge response to a range of bathymetry features, under various storm conditions. Ten bathymetries were considered, including eight shoals, one pit, and a featureless reference domain. Six storms (two different sizes/intensities and three different landfall directions) were used as meteorological forcing. The bathymetry features influenced local surge response during pre- and post-peak surge conditions. However, peak surge and surge at the coast were not meaningfully affected by the presence of the bathymetry features considered. The effect of three bathymetry feature parameters on surge response was analyzed ...


Roles Of Siphon Flows In Suspension Feeding, Kevin Du Clos 2016 University of Maine - Main

Roles Of Siphon Flows In Suspension Feeding, Kevin Du Clos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Benthic marine suspension feeders provide an important link between benthic and pelagic ecosystems. The strength of this link is determined by suspension-feeding rates. Many studies have measured suspension-feeding rates using indirect clearance-rate methods, which are based on the depletion of suspended particles. Direct methods that measure the flow of water itself are less common, but they can be more broadly applied because clearance-rate measurements are affected by properties of the cleared particles. We present pumping rates for three species of suspension feeders, the clams Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, calculated using a direct method based ...


Sea Surface Temperature Rises Shift Migration Patterns Due To Ecosystem Changes, Alexia Skrbic, Hesham el-Askary 2016 Chapman University

Sea Surface Temperature Rises Shift Migration Patterns Due To Ecosystem Changes, Alexia Skrbic, Hesham El-Askary

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The continuing climate change is negatively impacting ecosystems, specifically oceans which are declining and food webs are being altered by the increase of greenhouse gases. The increase of the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is increasing sea surface temperature of the world’s oceans. Certain organisms lower on the food chain like phytoplankton and zooplankton are directly affected by the warming which alters how they process nutrients and their productivity. The limited amount of these primary producers in the oceans and specifically the location they inhabit directly affects all the organisms above them on the food chain. Several marine ...


Modern Fair-Weather And Storm Sediment Transport Around Ship Island, Mississippi: Implications For Coastal Habitats And Restoration Efforts, Eve Rettew Eisemann 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Modern Fair-Weather And Storm Sediment Transport Around Ship Island, Mississippi: Implications For Coastal Habitats And Restoration Efforts, Eve Rettew Eisemann

Master's Theses

The Mississippi – Alabama barrier island chain is experiencing accelerated sea level rise, decreased sediment supply, and frequent hurricane impacts. These three factors drive unprecedented rates of morphology change and ecosystem reduction. All islands in the chain have experienced land loss on the order of hectares per year since records began in the 1840s. In 1969, Hurricane Camille impacted as a Category 5, breaching Ship Island, and significantly reduced viable seagrass habitat. Hurricane Katrina impacted as a Category 3 in 2005, further widening Camille Cut. To better understand the sustainability of these important islands and the ecosystems they support, sediment transport ...


Declining Dissolved Oxygen In The Central California Current Region, Alice Ren 2016 University of Maine

Declining Dissolved Oxygen In The Central California Current Region, Alice Ren

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A potential consequence of climate change is a global decrease in dissolved oxygen at depth due to changes in the balance of ventilation, mixing, respiration, and photosynthesis in the oceans. Regionally, the California Current has experienced dissolved oxygen declines since the late 1980s with observations from Oregon and the Southern California Bight. Here, we present observations of declining dissolved oxygen along CalCOFI Line 67 off of Monterey Bay, in the Central California Current region, and investigate likely mechanisms. The hydrographic cruises obtained dissolved oxygen measurements 50-300 km from shore between 1998 and 2013, with quasi-seasonal sampling resolution. Dissolved oxygen decreased ...


Evaluation Of Search And Rescue Planning Tools On The West Florida Shelf, Benjamin O'loughlin 2016 University of South Florida

Evaluation Of Search And Rescue Planning Tools On The West Florida Shelf, Benjamin O'Loughlin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Coast Guard conducts over 20,000 search and rescue cases a year with approximately 5% of them occurring within the coastal waters of the West Florida Shelf (WFS). Each search effort is planned using the Coast Guard’s Search and Rescue Optimal Planning System (SAROPS) which uses model inputs to create composite probability distributions based on the results of Monte Carlo projections of thousands of particle trajectories. However, SAROPS is limited by the quality of model inputs and their associated errors. This study utilizes observations from three surface drifter deployments on the WFS to evaluate the effectiveness of available ...


Street-Level Inundation Modeling Of Hurricanes Matthew And Hermine And Emerging Flood Monitoring Methods In Hampton Roads, J. D. Loftis, H. V. Wang, D R. Forrest 2016 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Street-Level Inundation Modeling Of Hurricanes Matthew And Hermine And Emerging Flood Monitoring Methods In Hampton Roads, J. D. Loftis, H. V. Wang, D R. Forrest

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Using Rare Earth Elements To Constrain Particulate Organic Carbon Flux In The East China Sea, Chin-Chang Hung, Ya-Feng Chen, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Kui Wang, Jianfang Chen, David J. Burdige 2016 Old Dominion University

Using Rare Earth Elements To Constrain Particulate Organic Carbon Flux In The East China Sea, Chin-Chang Hung, Ya-Feng Chen, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Kui Wang, Jianfang Chen, David J. Burdige

OEAS Faculty Publications

Fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the East China Sea (ECS) have been reported to decrease from the inner continental shelf towards the outer continental shelf. Recent research has shown that POC fluxes in the ECS may be overestimated due to active sediment resuspension. To better characterize the effect of sediment resuspension on particle fluxes in the ECS, rare earth elements (REEs) and organic carbon (OC) were used in separate two-member mixing models to evaluate trap-collected POC fluxes. The ratio of resuspended particles from sediments to total trap-collected particles in the ECS ranged from 82-94% using the OC mixing ...


Vision And Bioluminescence In Deep-Sea Crustaceans, Tamara Frank 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Vision And Bioluminescence In Deep-Sea Crustaceans, Tamara Frank

Tamara Frank

Adaptations of the visual systems of deep-sea crustaceans to dim light environments are driven not only by environmental light, but also biologically produced light, or bioluminescence. In the pelagic zone, the relationship is driven, at least in part, by intrinsic bioluminescence. The unusual possession of UV sensitivity, in additional to the expected blue sensitivity, in several species of deep-sea crustaceans appears to be linked to their two modes of bioluminescence. In the benthic zone, the relationship is not so clear. On several NOAA-OER funded research expeditions, electrophysiological studies were conducted on a number of species of decapod crustaceans collected with ...


Sediment Accumulations Patterns In The Damariscotta River Estuary, Emily A. Chandler 2016 University of Maine

Sediment Accumulations Patterns In The Damariscotta River Estuary, Emily A. Chandler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The tidally dominated Damariscotta River estuary is located on the south-central Maine coast. The elongate, north-south orientation of the estuary is characteristic of the indented shoreline in this region and a consequence of the bedrock structural framework, comprised of Paleozoic high-grade metasedimentary rocks. Pegmatite sills form bedrock constriction points that divide the estuary into seven distinct basins. The narrow, bending geometry and sill and basin morphology impact the distribution of sediment within the estuary and the hydrodynamics of the system. This study employs multibeam bathymetry surveys, sediment grab samples and radionuclide analysis (210Pb and 137Cs) of sediment cores ...


Size As A Trait For Understanding The Role Of Zooplankton In The Biological Carbon Pump, Karen Stamieszkin 2016 University of Maine

Size As A Trait For Understanding The Role Of Zooplankton In The Biological Carbon Pump, Karen Stamieszkin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Living organisms impact carbon transport between the atmosphere and the ocean through the biological carbon pump. Some plankton communities augment carbon export from the ocean’s surface, and are thought to have a major role in global climate. These export communities are often characterized by larger organisms that sink to depths where the carbon they contain is sequestered from the atmosphere. Zooplankton can enhance export by aggregating prey into larger sinking fecal pellets; however fecal pellet flux is a highly variable component of the biological carbon pump. Relating plankton trophic dynamics to changes in particulate carbon flux is an important ...


A 200 Year Record Of Carbon-13 And Carbon-14 Variations In A Bermuda Coral, Y. Nozaki, D. M. Rye, K. K. Turekian, Richard E. Dodge 2016 Yale University

A 200 Year Record Of Carbon-13 And Carbon-14 Variations In A Bermuda Coral, Y. Nozaki, D. M. Rye, K. K. Turekian, Richard E. Dodge

Richard Dodge

A 200 year old brain coral, captured in Bermuda in 1976 was slabbed and x-rayed. Using the annual growth bands sequential, dated samples were taken over the entire growth period of the coral and analyzed for Δ14C, δ13C and δ18O. During the past 80 years atmospheric variations in Δ14C and δ13C due to human effects, such as release of bomb C-14 and dilution of both C-14 and C-13 by fossil fuel burning, are closely tracked by the coral. Prior to 1900 divergences between the coral and tree Δ14C ...


Why Was There A Harmful Algal Bloom In 2015: The Relative Growth Of Toxic And Non-Toxic Diatoms As A Function Of Temperature, Ariana M. Jensen, Meagan P. Beley-Finnemore, Christopher E. Ikeda, William P. Cochlan 2016 California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, 1 Grand Avenue, San Luis Obispo, California 93407

Why Was There A Harmful Algal Bloom In 2015: The Relative Growth Of Toxic And Non-Toxic Diatoms As A Function Of Temperature, Ariana M. Jensen, Meagan P. Beley-Finnemore, Christopher E. Ikeda, William P. Cochlan

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

A coastwide bloom of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia in 2015 resulted in the largest recorded outbreak and unprecedented levels of the neurotoxin, domoic acid (DA), along the North American west coast. The scientific community has suggested that warmer ocean temperatures were the main cause of this harmful algal bloom (HAB), but little scientific evidence to support the relationship between temperature, and the growth and toxicity of Pseudo-nitzschia has been provided for local isolates of these diatoms. To gain insight into bloom dynamics, a laboratory study was conducted to examine the growth of toxic and non-toxic phytoplankton species at a range ...


Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy

Master's Theses

The northern Gulf of Mexico has been devastated by recent intense storms. Camille (1969) and Katrina (2005) are two notable hurricanes that made landfall in virtually the same location in Mississippi. However, fully understanding the risks and processes associated with hurricane impacts is impeded by a short and fragmented instrumental record. Paleotempestology could potentially use modern analogues from intense storms in this region to extend the hurricane record back to pre-observational time. Existing empirically based models can back-calculate surge heights over coastal systems as a function of transport distance, particle settling velocity, and gravitational acceleration. We collected cores in a ...


Abundance And Diversity Of Deep-Sea Crustaceans Of Bear Seamount, New England Seamount Chain, Valerie Miranda 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Abundance And Diversity Of Deep-Sea Crustaceans Of Bear Seamount, New England Seamount Chain, Valerie Miranda

HCNSO Ocean Science Jamboree

Bear Seamount (39° 55’ N; 67° 30’ W) is the westernmost peak of extinct undersea volcanoes in the New England Seamount Chain (Moore et al., 2003). It is located on the continental slope off Georges Bank, and is governed by unique environmental factors and currents that may be unlike those of the other seamounts (Moore et al., 2003). Previous cruises to this seamount have been successful in capturing abundant fishes, cephalopods and invertebrates (Moore et al., 2003; Moore et al., 2004; Moore et al., 2008), but only the distribution patterns of the fishes and cephalopods have been examined, leaving a ...


Vision And Bioluminescence In Deep-Sea Crustaceans, Tamara Frank 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Vision And Bioluminescence In Deep-Sea Crustaceans, Tamara Frank

HCNSO Ocean Science Jamboree

Adaptations of the visual systems of deep-sea crustaceans to dim light environments are driven not only by environmental light, but also biologically produced light, or bioluminescence. In the pelagic zone, the relationship is driven, at least in part, by intrinsic bioluminescence. The unusual possession of UV sensitivity, in additional to the expected blue sensitivity, in several species of deep-sea crustaceans appears to be linked to their two modes of bioluminescence. In the benthic zone, the relationship is not so clear. On several NOAA-OER funded research expeditions, electrophysiological studies were conducted on a number of species of decapod crustaceans collected with ...


Monitoring A Problem: Evaluating The Ecological Status Of The Invasive Nile Monitor In Florida And Forecasting Population Expansion Using Computational Gis, Noah Cohen 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Monitoring A Problem: Evaluating The Ecological Status Of The Invasive Nile Monitor In Florida And Forecasting Population Expansion Using Computational Gis, Noah Cohen

HCNSO Ocean Science Jamboree

The state of Florida is an epicenter for the introduction of exotic terrestrial and marine species, often which are attributed to the pet industry. Identifying the threats posed by exotics that may become invasive is critical to manage and protect indigenous species and habitats. One such exotic that is now invasive in Florida is the Nile Monitor (Varanus niloticus). The Nile monitor is a large, predatory lizard native to central and southern Africa that is thought to have been introduced to Florida via both intentional and unintentional releases associated with the exotic pet trade. Since their introduction, Nile monitors have ...


Genomic Assembly Analyses Of Asian Teleost Species Seabass (Lates Calcarifer) And Arowana (Scleropages Formosus), Stephen O'Brien 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Genomic Assembly Analyses Of Asian Teleost Species Seabass (Lates Calcarifer) And Arowana (Scleropages Formosus), Stephen O'Brien

HCNSO Ocean Science Jamboree

The genome assembly and annotation of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) , a marine teleost with aquaculture relevance will be described, an initiative of Genome 10K . Though > 500 eukaryotic genome sequences are available in public repositories, the majority are highly fragmented with incomplete assemblies, so considerable effort and resources are often spent to improve their quality. In the present study, PacBio long read sequencing , genetic and optical mapping, and syntenic inference were combined to build a chromosome-length assembly with a contig N50 size over 1 Mb and scaffold N50 size over 25 Mb that span ~90% of the genome was achieved.

The ...


If You Build It, Will They Come? Exploring Enhancements To Artificial Structure For Use In Restoration And Mitigation Applications In The Mexican Caribbean, Kirk Kilfoyle 2016 Nova Southeastern University

If You Build It, Will They Come? Exploring Enhancements To Artificial Structure For Use In Restoration And Mitigation Applications In The Mexican Caribbean, Kirk Kilfoyle

HCNSO Ocean Science Jamboree

A study involving standardized artificial reef modules (ReefballsTM) was conducted in Puerto Morelos, Mexico. The purpose was to explore the use of artificial structure in restoration and mitigation projects in a Caribbean coral reef environment similar to South Florida by applying select experimental treatments hypothesized to accelerate their acquisition of a natural coral reef assemblage. Multiple hypotheses on the progression and interaction between artificial structure and the resulting fish, coral, algal, and non-coral invertebrate assemblages were examined. Each of 40 reefball modules received one of 4 treatments (10 modules/treatment): invertebrate substrate pads, coral transplants, settlement plates, or control. Following ...


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