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The Source Detection Of 28 September 2018 Sulawesi Tsunami By Using Ionospheric Gnss Total Electron Content Disturbance, Jann-Yenq Liu, Chi-Yen Lin, Yuh-Ing Chen, Tso-Ren Wu, Meng-Ju Chung, Tien-Chi Liu, Yu-Lin Tsai, Loren C. Chang, Chi-Kuang Chao, Dimitar Ouzounov, Katsumi Hattori 2020 National Central University

The Source Detection Of 28 September 2018 Sulawesi Tsunami By Using Ionospheric Gnss Total Electron Content Disturbance, Jann-Yenq Liu, Chi-Yen Lin, Yuh-Ing Chen, Tso-Ren Wu, Meng-Ju Chung, Tien-Chi Liu, Yu-Lin Tsai, Loren C. Chang, Chi-Kuang Chao, Dimitar Ouzounov, Katsumi Hattori

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The 28 September 2018 magnitude Mw7.8 Palu, Indonesia earthquake (0.178° S, 119.840° E, depth 13 km) occurred at 10:02 UTC. The major earthquake triggered catastrophic liquefaction, landslides, and a near-field tsunami. The ionospheric total electron content (TEC) derived from records of 5 ground-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers is employed to detect tsunami traveling ionospheric disturbances (TTIDs). In total, 15 TTIDs have been detected. The ray-tracing and beamforming techniques are then used to find the TTID source location. The bootstrap method is applied in order to further explore the possible location of the tsunami source ...


Data-Driven, Multi-Model Workflow Suggests Strong Influence From Hurricanes On The Generation Of Turbidity Currents In The Gulf Of Mexico, Courtney K. Harris, Jaia Syvitski, H. G. Arango, et al 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science-William & Mary

Data-Driven, Multi-Model Workflow Suggests Strong Influence From Hurricanes On The Generation Of Turbidity Currents In The Gulf Of Mexico, Courtney K. Harris, Jaia Syvitski, H. G. Arango, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Turbidity currents deliver sediment rapidly from the continental shelf to the slope and beyond; and can be triggered by processes such as shelf resuspension during oceanic storms; mass failure of slope deposits due to sediment- and wave-pressure loadings; and localized events that grow into sustained currents via self-amplifying ignition. Because these operate over multiple spatial and temporal scales, ranging from the eddy-scale to continental-scale; coupled numerical models that represent the full transport pathway have proved elusive though individual models have been developed to describe each of these processes. Toward a more holistic tool, a numerical workflow was developed to address ...


Algal Coverage Detection And Classification Using Envi: Correlation With Dissolved Oxygen Levels In Elkhorn Slough, Ca, Jason Dawson 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Algal Coverage Detection And Classification Using Envi: Correlation With Dissolved Oxygen Levels In Elkhorn Slough, Ca, Jason Dawson

All HCAS Student Theses, Dissertations, and Capstones

Estuaries are exposed to varying stressors, whether they be physical, chemical, or environmental. The most notable of stressors is eutrophication of coastal and inland ecosystems. This is a result of increased supply of nutrients fueling production within the system. One outcome of this increased nutrient load to the system is that of algal blooms. These blooms can impact the aesthetic appearance and degrade the quality of health of the system. Many of these coastal zones and waterways are critical habitats for many biological (some endangered) species and serve as recreational areas for human populations. Elkhorn Slough, California is one of ...


Bonnet Carré Spillway Freshwater Transport And Corresponding Biochemical Properties In The Mississippi Bight, Sabrina M. Parra, Virginie Sanial, Adam D. Boyette, M. Kemal Cambazoglu, Inia M. Soto, Adam T. Greer, Luciano M. Chiaverano, Angie Hoover, Michael S. Dinniman 2020 Old Dominion University

Bonnet Carré Spillway Freshwater Transport And Corresponding Biochemical Properties In The Mississippi Bight, Sabrina M. Parra, Virginie Sanial, Adam D. Boyette, M. Kemal Cambazoglu, Inia M. Soto, Adam T. Greer, Luciano M. Chiaverano, Angie Hoover, Michael S. Dinniman

CCPO Publications

Large freshwater pulses to coastal ecosystems change local hydrologic regimes and alter biogeochemical processes. The Mississippi Bight coastal ecosystem, located in the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf, is influenced by extensive freshwater inputs: the Mississippi River (MSR) and several smaller rivers to the east. Under river flood conditions, MSR waters flow through the Bonnet Carré Spillway (BCS) to relieve pressure on levees in New Orleans, Louisiana. In 2015, mild wintertime temperatures and heavy rainfall throughout the MSR watershed led to extreme flooding and prompted an unusually early BCS opening on January 10, 2016 for 23 days. This study examines the ...


Relative Impacts Of Global Changes And Regional Watershed Changes On The Inorganic Carbon Balance Of The Chesapeake Bay, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Raymond G. Najjar, Elizabeth Shadwick, Hanquin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Relative Impacts Of Global Changes And Regional Watershed Changes On The Inorganic Carbon Balance Of The Chesapeake Bay, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Raymond G. Najjar, Elizabeth Shadwick, Hanquin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao

VIMS Articles

The Chesapeake Bay is a large coastal-plain estuary that has experienced considerable anthropogenic changeover the past century. At the regional scale, land-use change has doubled the nutrient input from rivers and led to an increase in riverine carbon and alkalinity. The bay has also experienced global changes, including the rise of atmospheric temperature and CO2. Here we seek to understand the relative impact of these changes on the inorganic carbon balance of the bay between the early 1900s and the early 2000s. We use a linked land–estuarine–ocean modeling system that includes both inorganic and organic carbon and nitrogen ...


Challenges In Quantifying Air‐Water Carbon Dioxide Flux Using Estuarine Water Quality Data: Case Study For Chesapeake Bay, Marie Herrmann, Raymond G. Najjar, Fei Da, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Sreece Goldberger, Alana Menendez, Elizabeth Shadwick, Pierre St-Laurent 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Challenges In Quantifying Air‐Water Carbon Dioxide Flux Using Estuarine Water Quality Data: Case Study For Chesapeake Bay, Marie Herrmann, Raymond G. Najjar, Fei Da, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Sreece Goldberger, Alana Menendez, Elizabeth Shadwick, Pierre St-Laurent

VIMS Articles

Estuaries play an uncertain but potentially important role in the global carbon cycle via CO2 outgassing. The uncertainty mainly stems from the paucity of studies that document the full spatial and temporal variability of estuarine surface water partial pressure of carbon dioxide ( p CO2). Here, we explore the potential of utilizing the abundance of pH data from historical water quality monitoring programs to fill the data void via a case study of the mainstem Chesapeake Bay (eastern United States). We calculate p CO2 and the air‐water CO2 flux at monthly resolution from 1998 to 2018 ...


Associated Dataset: Relative Impacts Of Global Changes And Regional Watershed Changes On The Inorganic Carbon Balance Of The Chesapeake Bay, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Associated Dataset: Relative Impacts Of Global Changes And Regional Watershed Changes On The Inorganic Carbon Balance Of The Chesapeake Bay, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs

Data

The dataset is a permanent archive of the results presented in the associated publication (St-Laurent et al. 2020, Biogeosciences).

This study used a biogeochemical module embedded in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to examine the relative impacts of global changes and regional watershed changes on the inorganic carbon balance of the Chesapeake Bay over the past century. The numerical experiments contrast the periods 1900-1914 and 2000-2014 and the results are fully described in the associated publication.


Studies Of Quaternary Depositional Systems Of The Coastal Plain And Inner Continental Shelf Along The Georgia Bight: South Carolina And Georgia, U.S.A., Joshua H. Long 2020 Coastal Carolina University

Studies Of Quaternary Depositional Systems Of The Coastal Plain And Inner Continental Shelf Along The Georgia Bight: South Carolina And Georgia, U.S.A., Joshua H. Long

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Quaternary stratigraphy of the continental shelf offshore of South Carolina consists of stratigraphic units deposited in coastal plain, shallow marine, and shelfal environments bound by composite erosional surfaces that developed in response to numerous glacioeustatic cycles and overprinted by regional uplift. These units are commonly distributed laterally rather than stacked vertically, a function of the long-term, low shelf gradient and the resulting lack of accommodation. This study integrates high-resolution geological and geophysical data sets acquired offshore and onshore with existing data onshore into a comprehensive conceptual model describing the Quaternary geologic evolution of the coastal plain and continental shelf ...


Author Correction: Estimating Global Mean Sea-Level Rise And Its Uncertainties By 2100 And 2300 From An Expert Survey, Benjamin P. Horton, Nicole S. Khan, Niamh Cahill, Janice S.H. Lee, Timothy A. Shaw, Andra J. Garner, Andrew C. Kemp, Simon E. Engelhart, Stefan Rahmstorf 2020 Rowan University

Author Correction: Estimating Global Mean Sea-Level Rise And Its Uncertainties By 2100 And 2300 From An Expert Survey, Benjamin P. Horton, Nicole S. Khan, Niamh Cahill, Janice S.H. Lee, Timothy A. Shaw, Andra J. Garner, Andrew C. Kemp, Simon E. Engelhart, Stefan Rahmstorf

School of Earth & Environment Faculty Scholarship

Correction to: NPJ Climate and Atmospheric Science https://doi.org/10.1038/s41612-020-0121-5, published online 08 May 2020


Temperature And Salinity Distributions And Flushing Time Estimates In A Low-Inflow California Estuary, Sydney N. Wewerka 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Temperature And Salinity Distributions And Flushing Time Estimates In A Low-Inflow California Estuary, Sydney N. Wewerka

Physics

This study examines the temperature and salinity distributions in Morro Bay, a small, seasonally LIE located on the central coast of California. In Morro Bay, eelgrass (Zostera marina; a temperate seagrass), like all seagrasses, is a critical habitat-forming species that supports a large variety of invertebrate, fish, and bird species in the estuary (MBNEP, 2018). Since 2007, eelgrass in the estuary has declined by over 90%, with most losses occurring in the back regions (i.e., head) of the estuary (MBNEP, 2018). Near the mouth, eelgrass meadows have remained resilient, indicating that gradients in environmental conditions throughout the bay may ...


Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling For Estimating Net Primary Productivity In The Red Sea With Vgpm, Eppley-Vgpm, And Cbpm Models Intercomparison, Wenzhao Li, Surya Prakash Tiwari, Hesham el-Askary, Mohamed Ali Qurban, Vassilis Amiridis, K. P. Manikandan, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Thomas C. Piechota, Daniele C. Struppa 2020 Chapman University

Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling For Estimating Net Primary Productivity In The Red Sea With Vgpm, Eppley-Vgpm, And Cbpm Models Intercomparison, Wenzhao Li, Surya Prakash Tiwari, Hesham El-Askary, Mohamed Ali Qurban, Vassilis Amiridis, K. P. Manikandan, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Thomas C. Piechota, Daniele C. Struppa

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Primary productivity (PP) has been recently investigated using remote sensing-based models over quite limited geographical areas of the Red Sea. This work sheds light on how phytoplankton and primary production would react to the effects of global warming in the extreme environment of the Red Sea and, hence, illuminates how similar regions may behave in the context of climate variability. study focuses on using satellite observations to conduct an intercomparison of three net primary production (NPP) models--the vertically generalized production model (VGPM), the Eppley-VGPM, and the carbon-based production model (CbPM)--produced over the Red Sea domain for the 1998-2018 time ...


Law School News: Dennis W. Nixon: Doctor Of Laws, Honoris Causa 05-09-2020, Roger Williams University School of Law 2020 Roger Williams University

Law School News: Dennis W. Nixon: Doctor Of Laws, Honoris Causa 05-09-2020, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Estimating Global Mean Sea-Level Rise And Its Uncertainties By 2100 And 2300 From An Expert Survey, Benjamin P. Horton, Nicole S. Khan, Niamh Cahill, Janice S.H. Lee, Timothy A. Shaw, Andra J. Garner, Andrew C. Kemp, Simon E. Engelhart, Stefan Rahmstorf 2020 Rowan University

Estimating Global Mean Sea-Level Rise And Its Uncertainties By 2100 And 2300 From An Expert Survey, Benjamin P. Horton, Nicole S. Khan, Niamh Cahill, Janice S.H. Lee, Timothy A. Shaw, Andra J. Garner, Andrew C. Kemp, Simon E. Engelhart, Stefan Rahmstorf

School of Earth & Environment Faculty Scholarship

Sea-level rise projections and knowledge of their uncertainties are vital to make informed mitigation and adaptation decisions. To elicit projections from members of the scientific community regarding future global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise, we repeated a survey originally conducted five years ago. Under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6, 106 experts projected a likely (central 66% probability) GMSL rise of 0.30–0.65 m by 2100, and 0.54–2.15 m by 2300, relative to 1986–2005. Under RCP 8.5, the same experts projected a likely GMSL rise of 0.63–1.32 m by 2100, and ...


A Biogeographical Assessment Of Arctic Marine Fungi, Bentley E. Simpson 2020 University of Maine

A Biogeographical Assessment Of Arctic Marine Fungi, Bentley E. Simpson

Honors College

Marine fungi play a crucial role in recycling nutrients and channeling energy to higher trophic levels in the world oceans. Despite their critical role, their distributions and community composition, particularly in the Arctic, are largely unknown. This study reveals depth-related trends of abundance, diversity, and community composition of Arctic marine fungi through analysis of data obtained in the Tara Oceans expedition. With samples from surface (0-50 m), deep chlorophyll max (50-200 m), and mesopelagic (200-1000 m) depths, relative abundance, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, and diversity were found to increase as a function of depth. Basidiomycota and Ascomycota were found ...


Phytoplankton Community Composition In The Surface Ocean: Methods For Detection Using Optical Measurements, Pigment Concentrations, And Flow Cytometry, Alison P. Chase 2020 University of Maine

Phytoplankton Community Composition In The Surface Ocean: Methods For Detection Using Optical Measurements, Pigment Concentrations, And Flow Cytometry, Alison P. Chase

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Phytoplankton are microscopic photoautotrophs living in the surface ocean waters and help support all life on earth via photosynthetic production of oxygen. Thousands of species make up the bulk phytoplankton community, and the spatial and temporal distribution of different types of phytoplankton has relevance for many ocean ecosystem questions including marine food web dynamics, and carbon flux and sequestration. Methods to detect phytoplankton community composition (PCC) on the vast scale of the global ocean require estimates of PCC from remote platforms, namely earth-observing satellites. The use of satellite data to observe and interpret PCC in the surface ocean requires significant ...


Providential Tides: The Double Low Water Of Narragansett Bay, D. G. Bowers, J. M. Brubaker 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Providential Tides: The Double Low Water Of Narragansett Bay, D. G. Bowers, J. M. Brubaker

VIMS Articles

We investigate a mechanism for producing double-lows and double-highs in the semi-diurnal tide by selective amplification of higher harmonics in a resonant gulf. A double low water is observed at Providence, RI, near the head of Narragansett Bay on days when there is a flattening of the low water tidal curve at Newport, at the mouth of the bay. The flattening is caused by an unusually large quarter-diurnal component to the tide at Newport. The quarter diurnal component has the right phase (a maximum close to the time of the minimum in the semi-diurnal tide) to produce a prolonged flattening ...


Vims 2019 York River Estuary Data In Support Of: Improved Penetrometer Performance In Stratified Sediment For Cost-Effective Characterization, Monitoring And Management Of Submerged Munitions Sites (Serdp Project: Mr18-1233), Grace M. Massey, Cristin L. Wright, Carl T. Friedrichs, Nina Stark, Dennis Kiptoo 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Vims 2019 York River Estuary Data In Support Of: Improved Penetrometer Performance In Stratified Sediment For Cost-Effective Characterization, Monitoring And Management Of Submerged Munitions Sites (Serdp Project: Mr18-1233), Grace M. Massey, Cristin L. Wright, Carl T. Friedrichs, Nina Stark, Dennis Kiptoo

Data

This work complements the efforts by the Virginia Tech Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering in SERDP MR18-1233, as described in the project’s final report (Stark et al, 2020) and in the Master’s thesis by Dennis Kiptoo (Kiptoo, 2020). One of the objectives of the project was to improve calibration of the Bluedrop free fall penetrometer (FFP) with high resolution sampling of a variety of sediment types. To accomplish this, a series of 9 stations over 12 cruises were visited along the York River, an estuary in the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay, and in the Pamunkey River ...


Vims 2019 Potomac River Estuary Data In Support Of: Improved Penetrometer Performance In Stratified Sediment For Cost-Effective Characterization, Monitoring And Management Of Submerged Munitions Sites (Serdp Project: Mr18-1233), Grace M. Massey, Cristin L. Wright, Carl T. Friedrichs, Nina Stark, Dennis Kiptoo 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Vims 2019 Potomac River Estuary Data In Support Of: Improved Penetrometer Performance In Stratified Sediment For Cost-Effective Characterization, Monitoring And Management Of Submerged Munitions Sites (Serdp Project: Mr18-1233), Grace M. Massey, Cristin L. Wright, Carl T. Friedrichs, Nina Stark, Dennis Kiptoo

Data

This work complements the efforts by the Virginia Tech Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering in SERDP MR18-1233, as described in the project’s final report (Stark et al, 2020) and in the Master’s thesis by Dennis Kiptoo (Kiptoo, 2020). Previous work on this project, conducted in the York River during 2018-2918 worked to improve calibration of the Bluedrop free fall penetrometer (FFP) with high resolution sampling of a variety of sediment types (Massey et al, 2020a). Calibration methods developed (Kiptoo, 2020) were used to rapidly identify different sediment types from a grid of 59 Bluedrop PPF stations sampled on ...


The Effect Of Radium Partitioning On Hydrothermal Fluid Flow Determination Across Guaymas Basin, Charlotte R. Kollman 2020 Coastal Carolina University

The Effect Of Radium Partitioning On Hydrothermal Fluid Flow Determination Across Guaymas Basin, Charlotte R. Kollman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Analysis of the distribution of radium through sedimentary porewater profiles is a promising method for constraining diffuse discharge/recharge flow rates in hydrothermal settings; these parameters are critical for evaluating hydrothermal circulation and its chemical and biological implications. The short-lived 224Ra (T1/2 = 3.54 days) is an effective tracer due to its behavior in marine environments and changes in activity due to ingrowth/decay. However, the distribution of radium may be influenced by its varying solid:aqueous partitioning coefficients (Kd) and is critical to understand for any study utilizing radium as a tracer. This project explores Kd across the ...


Investigating Dorsal Fin Hydrodynamic Function Of The Lemon Shark, Negaprion Brevirostris, Vivian Lynn Turner 2020 Coastal Carolina University

Investigating Dorsal Fin Hydrodynamic Function Of The Lemon Shark, Negaprion Brevirostris, Vivian Lynn Turner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many sharks are considered highly efficient swimmers. Their swimming efficiency is partially governed by their morphological features such as dorsal fins, which play a role in their hydrodynamics. Most sharks feature two dorsal fins that can vary in size and location over the body. The first dorsal fin has been shown to improve stabilization, maneuverability, and increase thrust production during swimming, whilst the hydrodynamic role of the second dorsal fin is largely unknown. An understanding of the hydrodynamic function of the dorsal fins can be utilized in engineering applications, e.g., to replicate fins on underwater autonomous vehicles to increase ...


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