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P16. Ralmo Rotational Raman Temperature Retrieval: First Steps Towards The Application Of Optimal Estimation Method (Oem), Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele 2017 Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada

P16. Ralmo Rotational Raman Temperature Retrieval: First Steps Towards The Application Of Optimal Estimation Method (Oem), Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele

Western Research Forum

Background:

Temperature is an important atmospheric parameter that plays an extensive role in the fields of atmospheric dynamics, climatology, meteorology, and chemistry. Light detection and ranging (lidar), is a remote sensing technology that can be used for atmospheric temperature profiling. A lidar transmits short laser pulses into the atmosphere and the light scattered by the particles in the atmosphere is collected and measured using a telescope. The atmospheric temperatures can be retrieved by analysing the Pure Rotational Raman (PRR) scatter measurements from the nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the atmosphere.

Methods:

In this study use the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM ...


On The Propagation Of Atmospheric Gravity Waves In A Non-Uniform Wind Field: Introducing A Modified Acoustic-Gravity Wave Equation, Ahmad Talaei 2016 Utah State University

On The Propagation Of Atmospheric Gravity Waves In A Non-Uniform Wind Field: Introducing A Modified Acoustic-Gravity Wave Equation, Ahmad Talaei

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Atmospheric gravity waves play fundamental roles in a broad-range of dynamical processes extending throughout the Earth’s neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. In this paper, we present a modified form for the acoustic-gravity wave equation and its dispersion relationships for a compressible and non-stationary atmosphere in hydrostatic balance. Importantly, the solutions have been achieved without the use of the well-known Boussinesq approximation which have been used extensively in previous studies.

We utilize the complete set of governing equations for a compressible atmosphere with non-uniform airflows to determine an equation for vertical velocity of possible atmospheric waves. This intricate wave equation is ...


Parameterizing A Water-Balance Model For Predicting Stormwater Runoff From Green Roofs, Olyssa Starry, John Lea-Cox, Andrew Ristvey, Steven Cohan 2016 Portland State Uinversity

Parameterizing A Water-Balance Model For Predicting Stormwater Runoff From Green Roofs, Olyssa Starry, John Lea-Cox, Andrew Ristvey, Steven Cohan

University Honors College Faculty Publication and Presentations

Crop coefficients (kc) were calculated for three different species of common green roof succulents from March to November in 2011, to parameterize the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Penman-Monteith equation for use in a mechanistic green roof water-balance model. Seasonally averaged kc values for each species for 2011 were used to predict plant evapotranspiration (ET) in 2012. The adjusted FAO Penman-Monteith equation predicted the total annual ET within 3–13 mm, a substantial improvement over model predictions with kc set to 1, which overpredicted ET by 100 mm or more, depending on the species. The adjusted ...


The Analysis Of Urban Effects On Winter Snowfall In The Saint Louis Metropolitan Area, Kyle Zenner 2016 Iowa State University

The Analysis Of Urban Effects On Winter Snowfall In The Saint Louis Metropolitan Area, Kyle Zenner

Meteorology Senior Theses

Studies were done to further analyze the effects of urbanization, specifically the urban heat island (UHI), on winter snowfall in the Saint Louis Metropolitan area using station data from a climatologically significant year in Saint Louis snowfall. Two sets of data were collected and analyzed. Raw snowfall data over the course of 4 months in 2013 were gathered as well as isolated snowfall data from 4 significant events in 2013. Radar data was also collected and analyzed in order to create a model to use when collecting the raw snowfall data. Both station data and radar data were broken into ...


Radar Detection Of Tornadogenesis, Kristofer S. Tuftedal 2016 Iowa State University

Radar Detection Of Tornadogenesis, Kristofer S. Tuftedal

Meteorology Senior Theses

This research compared the basic and polarimetric radar products of non-tornadic and pre-tornadic supercells with the intent of finding a signature which appears to be indicative of tornadogenesis or a lack thereof. Reflectivity (ZHH), spectrum width (σv), differential reflectivity (ZDR), correlation coefficient (ρhv), and specific differential phase (KDP) were all visually analyzed using GR2Analyst and compared to existing schematics in an attempt to find a signature. Once an apparent signature was found, pooled t-tests were performed on the data to see if the mean value of the pre-tornadic supercell, where the signature was found, had a statistically significant difference with ...


Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor Vs Single Radar Severe Weather Observations, Garrett W. Starr 2016 Iowa State University

Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor Vs Single Radar Severe Weather Observations, Garrett W. Starr

Meteorology Senior Theses

Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) is a fairly new technology when considering how long storm systems have been analyzed by using radio detection and ranging (radar) processes. Unlike what most meteorologists use today, a MRMS system uses data from many surrounding radars along with information from sources such as rain gauges, surface observations, upper level observations, and more. This new system provides many new products for meteorologists to utilize when analyzing severe weather events, for example, tornadic storm cells. Often times when new technology like MRMS is presented, it provides many products not available on any other system; but exactly how useful ...


A Qualitative Analysis Of Public Compliance To Severe Weather And Tornado Warnings, Jan M. Ryherd 2016 Iowa State University

A Qualitative Analysis Of Public Compliance To Severe Weather And Tornado Warnings, Jan M. Ryherd

Meteorology Senior Theses

Society as a whole is becoming more immersed in the age of technology and people are taking severe weather sheltering decisions into their own hands more than ever before. People are going through a complex process when a warning is received, a process that is still not well understood by scientists. In this study, an online survey was used to evaluate various parameters including basic demographics, weather knowledge and experience, and thought-processes during severe weather, to help gain an understanding of this social process and make better connections between why some people choose to seek shelter and why others do ...


An Analysis Of The Evolution Of Physical Processes Producing Daily Widespread Precipitation Extremes In Alaska Using Six Cmip5 Gcms, William Rickhoff 2016 Iowa State University

An Analysis Of The Evolution Of Physical Processes Producing Daily Widespread Precipitation Extremes In Alaska Using Six Cmip5 Gcms, William Rickhoff

Meteorology Senior Theses

The Arctic climate system is warming faster than in any other part of the world due to anthropogenic processes. Products of a warming climate, such as thawing permafrost, flooding, and increases in precipitation can have a negative impact on the Arctic region. In this study, we compared contemporary and future climates over Alaska using six Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) in order to analyze the evolution of physical processes that produce widespread extreme precipitation events in December, January, and February (DJF). We defined a widespread extreme precipitation event as those at or above the ...


Rainfall Estimation From X-Band Polarimetric Radar And Disdrometer Observation Measurements Compared To Nexrad Measurements: An Application Of Rainfall Estimates, Brady E. Newkirk 2016 Iowa State University

Rainfall Estimation From X-Band Polarimetric Radar And Disdrometer Observation Measurements Compared To Nexrad Measurements: An Application Of Rainfall Estimates, Brady E. Newkirk

Meteorology Senior Theses

This paper presents the comparison of rainfall estimation from X-band dual-polarization radar observations and NEXRAD observations to that of rain gauge observations. Data collected from three separate studies are used for X-band and rain gauge observations. NEXRAD observations were collected through the NCEI archived data base. Focus on the Kdp parameter for X-band radars was important for higher accuracy of rainfall estimations. The Unidata IDV was used to evaluate the rainfall estimates of NEXRAD observations. The rainfall estimation models were then evaluated versus gauge data using significance testing. It is shown that the Xband radar has a lower p-value thus ...


Influence Of Wind Turbines On The Vertical Component Of Ambient Atmospheric Turbulence As Measured By W’2, Maria Nelson 2016 Iowa State University

Influence Of Wind Turbines On The Vertical Component Of Ambient Atmospheric Turbulence As Measured By W’2, Maria Nelson

Meteorology Senior Theses

More and more is becoming known about how wind turbines impact the atmosphere and surface around them. Researchers have studied turbulence and its interactions in the boundary layer for many years and how it affects different atmospheric variables. Introducing mechanically-induced turbulence from wind turbines directly influences the atmospheric turbulence, altering the transport of heat, momentum, and moisture fluxes. For this study, multiresolution decomposition was applied to data taken from a wind farm in Central Iowa for the summer months of 2013, with a focus on nighttime events with flow disrupted by several turbines deep in the wind farm (i.e ...


Analysis Of The Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model Using Variations In Precipitation Input, Tyler Morrison 2016 Iowa State University

Analysis Of The Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model Using Variations In Precipitation Input, Tyler Morrison

Meteorology Senior Theses

Flooding is a serious risk for areas of the world that are near rivers and streams. The current operational standard in forecasting the conditions of these rivers and streams is the Sacramento Soil Moisture Assimilation model. For that reason, an accuracy analysis of the streamflow forecasts of the lumped version of the model was conducted. Many previous studies have looked at calibration of individual model components and assimilation methods, but basic accuracy and sensitivity analysis also important to consider. Different precipitation data sets were used to determine model sensitivity to precipitation inputs. Analysis was also conducted to see whether or ...


Two 120-Meter-Tall Meteorological Towers In Central Iowa: A Statistical Overview Of Wind Turbine Influence, Mitchell J. Morehead 2016 Iowa State University

Two 120-Meter-Tall Meteorological Towers In Central Iowa: A Statistical Overview Of Wind Turbine Influence, Mitchell J. Morehead

Meteorology Senior Theses

Tower data from two towers in Central Iowa are used to study tower biases and to observe if there is a wind turbine influence. Using statistical analysis to identify if there is a clear observation of one tower warmer or colder at levels based on conditions of the wind turbine influence. By highlighting outliers of large temperature gradients between the towers, this can identify how the meteorological towers respond to the passages of large frontal passages and other synoptic conditions. Evidence in some cases of turbine influence includes warming of a layer at night, correspondingly a cooling during the day ...


A Preliminary Evaluation Of Meso-Sails Tornadic Debris Signature Detection And Its Use In The Iowa Region, Cameron J. A. Miller 2016 Iowa State University

A Preliminary Evaluation Of Meso-Sails Tornadic Debris Signature Detection And Its Use In The Iowa Region, Cameron J. A. Miller

Meteorology Senior Theses

This study looked at how the Multiple Elevation Scanning Option for the Supplemental Adaptive Intra-Volume Low-Level Scan (MESO-SAILS) radar scanning regime performed with respect to tornadic debris signature (TDS) detection during the 2016 tornado season in the Iowa Region. Results were compared to TDS distribution research done before the implementation of MESO-SAILS. Overall, it was found that the use of MESO-SAILS led to an upward trend in TDS detection and possibly increased the effective range at which TDS’s could be detected. Other TDS radar variable thresholds stayed relatively the same even with the extra sampling that MESO-SAILS provided. In ...


Analyzing The Impact Of Climate Change On Future Wheat Yields, Eric Manges 2016 Iowa State University

Analyzing The Impact Of Climate Change On Future Wheat Yields, Eric Manges

Meteorology Senior Theses

This thesis analyzes the effects of increased carbon dioxide concentrations in the earth’s atmosphere a long with corresponding temperature increases associated with it based on RCP data outputs. Through the manipulation of precipitation variables in the APSIM Model the probability of wheat yields matching the Iowa average yield determined by the USDA is then analyzed. Precipitation variables that are changed include annual rainfall amounts and total available ground moisture of ground layer from 260cm deep. Results show that future carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature changes will result in dramatic probability decreases in reaching Iowa average yield by the year ...


Exploring The Accuracy Of The North American Mesoscale Model During Low-Level Jet Influenced Convection In Iowa, Nickolas V. Lesser 2016 Iowa State University

Exploring The Accuracy Of The North American Mesoscale Model During Low-Level Jet Influenced Convection In Iowa, Nickolas V. Lesser

Meteorology Senior Theses

This study analyzed low-level jet (LLJ) influenced overnight convection cases over Iowa. There are two main regimes for LLJ development over the Great Plains. One is when there is an upper-level trough in the western United States, while the other is dominated by an upper-level anticyclone. The forecasts of the twelve kilometer North American Mesoscale model (NAM) were analyzed for accuracy in both regimes and overall. The variables examined were the LLJ peak magnitude, timing, location, and total rainfall produced in Iowa from 0000UTC-1200UTC the day of an event. Although weak underforecasting was found regarding the magnitude of the LLJ ...


Analysis Of Wind To Determine Electrical Power Output, Henry J. Gronlund 2016 Iowa State University

Analysis Of Wind To Determine Electrical Power Output, Henry J. Gronlund

Meteorology Senior Theses

A study done by using a meteorological wind report from Mason City, IA tall tower, which reports wind speed at 200 meters, 150 meters, 100 meters and 50 meters used to determine power output for a wind turbine. The wind turbine used was a GE 1.5sle wind turbine and it is used in Mason City. This study was created to analyze the yearly, seasonal, monthly and level output of the turbines if they were built at each of the four levels. The data was broken up into total power produced and average power produced. In addition, a calculation of ...


Analysis Of A Sharp Gradient Snow Event In The Upper Midwest, Samuel L. Gabrielli 2016 Iowa State University

Analysis Of A Sharp Gradient Snow Event In The Upper Midwest, Samuel L. Gabrielli

Meteorology Senior Theses

In this study, the 23-24 March 2016 snow event across west central Wisconsin, south central Minnesota, tapering off into northwest Iowa and extreme southeast South Dakota was analyzed to better understand sharp gradient snow events. The focus of this study was to understand why this snow event occurred and what contributed to the sharp contrast in snow accumulations in such a densely populated area of the Minneapolis/St. Paul region. Analyses confirm that the warm, moist air from the south and east at low levels combined with the cold, dry air from the north and west at the upper levels ...


Effects Of Ice Crystal Fall Speed On The Simulations Of Convective Cloud Systems, Justin A. Covert 2016 Iowa State University

Effects Of Ice Crystal Fall Speed On The Simulations Of Convective Cloud Systems, Justin A. Covert

Meteorology Senior Theses

Cloud resolving models are considered one of the best tools that can simulate cloud systems and their growth over time. Within cloud systems, there are many different parameters involving moisture and ice that can have major effects on the overall system. Thus the ice crystal fall speed, is analyzed to see how it affects the cloud system. We hypothesize that cloud systems will increase in size and grow deeper when ice crystal fall speeds are slower, and inversely that cloud systems will decrease in size and become more shallow when ice crystal fall speeds are faster. Observed large-scale forcing was ...


The Occurrence Of Severe Weather Outbreaks Into November And December With Respect To A Retreating 850 Millibar -5°C Line, Leyton S. Briol 2016 Iowa State University

The Occurrence Of Severe Weather Outbreaks Into November And December With Respect To A Retreating 850 Millibar -5°C Line, Leyton S. Briol

Meteorology Senior Theses

Making use of historical reports of severe weather, the months of November and December were reanalyzed using multiple definitions of severe weather outbreaks and how to classify them. Over one hundred different dates over more than 60 years were examined to look for a trend in the number of reported severe weather events; tornadoes, strong damaging winds, and hail, and their severity. These were then compared to their corresponding 850 millibar (mb) temperature maps to identify the location of the -5°C line and its association with the outbreak area.

The individual severe weather events; tornadoes, hail, strong damaging winds ...


Accuracy Of Flight Delays Caused By Low Ceilings And Visibilities At Chicago’S Midway And O’Hare International Airports, Kerry Blodgett 2016 Iowa State University

Accuracy Of Flight Delays Caused By Low Ceilings And Visibilities At Chicago’S Midway And O’Hare International Airports, Kerry Blodgett

Meteorology Senior Theses

In 2013 the Federal Aviation Administration found that over 28,000 flights were delayed out of the Chicago’s Midway and O’Hare International Airports and that 69% of flights are delayed by weather. This paper examines the accuracy of flight delays caused by low ceilings and visibilities from November 2015 to March 2016. Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts were used to determine the cause of delays while Automated Surface Observing System was used to determine the accuracy of each flight delay. It was found that low ceilings and visibilities caused 75% of the flights delayed by weather and that 13% of ...


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