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Exploring Crisis Communication And Information Dissemination On Social Media: Social Network Analysis Of Hurricane Irma Tweets, Xianlin JIn 2020 University of Kentucky

Exploring Crisis Communication And Information Dissemination On Social Media: Social Network Analysis Of Hurricane Irma Tweets, Xianlin Jin

Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research

This study utilized social network analysis to identify the top 10 Twitter influentials during the Hurricane Irma crisis period and examined the relationship between social media attributes and the bridge influence of controlling information flow. The number of a user’s followers and tweets significantly predicted one’s control of information. Crisis information tended to be shared in scattered subgroups. Social network boundaries impeded information diffusion, and the communication pattern was largely one-way. The findings partially supported the opinion leader argument while indicating that influentials can directly generate information, which is consistent with the social-mediated crisis communication model. Such findings ...


Large Scale Upper-Level Precursors For Dust Storm Formation Over North Africa And Poleward Transport To The Iberian Peninsula. Part I: An Observational Analysis, J.A. G. Orza, Michael L. Kaplan, S. Dhital, S. Fiedler 2020 Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche

Large Scale Upper-Level Precursors For Dust Storm Formation Over North Africa And Poleward Transport To The Iberian Peninsula. Part I: An Observational Analysis, J.A. G. Orza, Michael L. Kaplan, S. Dhital, S. Fiedler

Publications

The analysis of three extreme African dust outbreaks over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) shows that a double Rossby wave breaking (RWB) process in the polar jet (PJ) creates the conditions for dust storm formation over subtropical deserts in North Africa and the restructuring of upper-level air flows critical for the dust transport poleward after ablation. Two consecutive anticyclonic RWBs initiate over the IP and the adjacent Atlantic, the first commencing 10 days before dust reaches the IP and the second three to five days later. The first RWB becomes quasi-stationary over the eastern Mediterranean when the second RWB develops. In ...


The Effect Of Urbanization On The Intensity Of Heavy Rainfall In The Midwestern United States, Adrianna Kremer 2020 State University of New York College at Brockport

The Effect Of Urbanization On The Intensity Of Heavy Rainfall In The Midwestern United States, Adrianna Kremer

Senior Honors Theses

In recent years, the global population has become more concentrated in cities and this urbanization has influenced a number of changes in climate and land use. While some studies have examined how urbanization impacts precipitation, most of these studies have examined precipitation patterns rather than intensity. Increases in the intensity of precipitation can increase the risk of flooding and flash floods, which can have devastating impacts. Stage IV multi-sensor precipitation data was used to examine heavy rainfall events during the warm-season (May-September) from 2003-2017 in Midwestern cities to examine how urbanization influences rainfall intensity. NCEI precipitation data was also used ...


Influence Of Atmospheric Circulation On Severe Flooding In The Atacama Desert, Jonathan DeGraw 2020 Purdue University

Influence Of Atmospheric Circulation On Severe Flooding In The Atacama Desert, Jonathan Degraw

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


High Wind Alerts: A System Created With Observations From The X-Band Teaching And Research Radar, Lauren Warner 2020 Purdue University

High Wind Alerts: A System Created With Observations From The X-Band Teaching And Research Radar, Lauren Warner

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Following the August 13, 2011, Indiana State Fair stage collapse tragedy, caused by a wind gust from an approaching thunderstorm, Purdue University enforced a wind speed restriction of 30 mph (13 m s-1) for tents at outdoor events. During these events, volunteers stand outside with handheld anemometers, measuring and reporting when the wind speeds exceed this limit. In this study, we report testing of a new system to automate high-wind alerts based on observations from a Doppler radar, the X-band Teaching and Research Radar (XTRRA), near Purdue’s campus. XTRRA scans over campus at low elevations approximately every 5 minutes ...


Understanding Physical Processes Represented By The Monin–Obukhov Bulk Formula For Momentum Transfer, Jielun Sun, Eugene S. Takle, Otávio C. Acevedo 2020 NorthWest Research Associates

Understanding Physical Processes Represented By The Monin–Obukhov Bulk Formula For Momentum Transfer, Jielun Sun, Eugene S. Takle, Otávio C. Acevedo

Agronomy Publications

Physical processes represented by the Monin–Obukhov bulk formula for momentum are investigated with field observations. We discuss important differences between turbulent mixing by the most energetic non-local, large, coherent turbulence eddies and local turbulent mixing as traditionally represented by K-theory (analog to molecular diffusion), especially in consideration of developing surface-layer stratification. The study indicates that the neutral state in a horizontally homogeneous surface layer described in the Monin–Obukhov bulk formula represents a special neutrality regardless of wind speed, for example, the surface layer with no surface heating/cooling. Under this situation, the Monin–Obukhov bulk formula agrees well ...


Use Of Lidar Data To Investigate The Influence Of Bottom Friction Coefficients For Storm Surge Modeling Of Hurricane Michael In The Florida Panhandle, Sky Comarsh White 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Use Of Lidar Data To Investigate The Influence Of Bottom Friction Coefficients For Storm Surge Modeling Of Hurricane Michael In The Florida Panhandle, Sky Comarsh White

Dissertations and Theses

Current storm surge modeling typically uses local land use land cover (LULC) maps coupled with lookup tables to parameterize surface roughness because the process is defensible and easily automated at the regional scale. However, this is not a truly accurate method since LULC data is generalized for an area and often contains misclassifications. Intra-class variability is also a concern as variations in obstacle density within LULC classifications are prominent at typical storm surge model resolution scales ranging from 20-meters to 200-meters in the floodplain. Using lidar data, topography and the 3-dimensional structure of above-ground obstructions can be more accurately characterized ...


An Aviation Weather Preflight Decision Support Tool To Improve Ga Pilots Preflight And Inflight Performance, Jayde M. King 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

An Aviation Weather Preflight Decision Support Tool To Improve Ga Pilots Preflight And Inflight Performance, Jayde M. King

Dissertations and Theses

Low hour, inexperienced General Aviation (GA) pilots account for the majority of weather-related incidents, which often result in fatalities. Previous research identifies poor preflight planning practices and a lack of aviation weather knowledge as key contributing factors to the high novice private pilot accident and fatality rate. Research invested into resolving these issues often attempt to introduce new inflight weather technology to assist pilots with weather avoidance. However, these interventions usually result in pilots using the information to strategically navigate closer to degraded weather conditions (Beringer & Ball, 2004; Burgess & Thomas, 2004). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect ...


Data For Paper "Agile Adaptive Radar Sampling Of Fast-Evolving Atmospheric Phenomena Guided By Satellite Imagery And Surface Cameras", Mariko Oue, Pavlos Kollias, Edward Luke, Katia Lamer 2020 SoMAS

Data For Paper "Agile Adaptive Radar Sampling Of Fast-Evolving Atmospheric Phenomena Guided By Satellite Imagery And Surface Cameras", Mariko Oue, Pavlos Kollias, Edward Luke, Katia Lamer

SoMAS Research Data

The data include:

  • Stony Brook University phased array radar (SKYLER) data collected on August 21, 2019 and September 2, 2019.
  • Stony Brook University Ka-band scanning polarimetric cloud radar (KASPR) data collected on August 21, 2019, August 25, 2019, and September 2, 2019.

Those data were used in the paper "Agile adaptive radar sampling of fast-evolving atmospheric phenomena guided by satellite imagery and surface cameras" submitted to Geophysical Research Letters.


A Hydrometeorological Assessment Of The Historic 2019 Flood Of Nebraska, Iowa, And South Dakota, Paul Xavier Flanagan, Rezaul Mahmood, Natalie Umphlett, Erin M.K. Haacker, Chittaranjan Ray, Bill Sorensen, Martha Shulski, Crystal J. Stiles, David Pearson, Paul Fajman 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Hydrometeorological Assessment Of The Historic 2019 Flood Of Nebraska, Iowa, And South Dakota, Paul Xavier Flanagan, Rezaul Mahmood, Natalie Umphlett, Erin M.K. Haacker, Chittaranjan Ray, Bill Sorensen, Martha Shulski, Crystal J. Stiles, David Pearson, Paul Fajman

HPRCC Personnel Publications

During early 2019, a series of events set the stage for devastating floods in eastern Nebraska, western Iowa, and southeastern South Dakota. When the floodwaters hit, dams and levees failed, cutting off towns, while destroying roads, bridges, and rail lines, further exacerbating the crisis. Lives were lost and thousands of cattle were stranded. Estimates indicate that the cost of the flooding has topped $3 billion as of August 2019, with this number expected to rise.

After a warm and wet start to winter, eastern Nebraska, western Iowa, and southeastern South Dakota endured anomalously low temperatures and record-breaking snowfall. By March ...


Conceptual Design Of A South Pole Carrier Pigeon Uav, Kendrick M. Dlima 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Conceptual Design Of A South Pole Carrier Pigeon Uav, Kendrick M. Dlima

Master's Theses

Currently, the South Pole has a large data problem. It is estimated that 1.2 TB of data is being produced every day, but less than 500 GB of that data is being uploaded via aging satellites to researchers in other parts of the world. This requires those at the South Pole to analyze the data and carefully select the parts to send, possibly missing out on vital scientific information. The South Pole Carrier Pigeon will look to bridge this data gap.

The Carrier Pigeon will be a small unmanned aerial vehicle that will carry a 30 TB solid-state hard ...


What Is The U.S. Drought Monitor?, National Drought Mitigation Center 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

What Is The U.S. Drought Monitor?, National Drought Mitigation Center

Publications of the National Drought Mitigation Center

The USDA uses the map as a trigger for programs that help agricultural producers recover from drought and other natural disasters:

Livestock Forage Disaster Program (LFP)

Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm Raised Fish Program (ELAP)

Fast-Track Secretarial Disaster Declarations

Emergency Loans Program


The U.S. Drought Monitor Network: Improving Drought Early Warning, THE U.S. DROUGHT MONITOR NETWORK 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The U.S. Drought Monitor Network: Improving Drought Early Warning, The U.S. Drought Monitor Network

Publications of the National Drought Mitigation Center

WHAT IS THE U.S. DROUGHT MONITOR NETWORK?

WHO ARE THE OBSERVERS?

WHAT BENEFITS?

The network in action

HOW DOES IT WORK?

WHO CREATES THE MAP?


Estimating Global Mean Sea-Level Rise And Its Uncertainties By 2100 And 2300 From An Expert Survey, Benjamin P. Horton, Nicole S. Khan, Niamh Cahill, Janice S.H. Lee, Timothy A. Shaw, Andra J. Garner, Andrew C. Kemp, Simon E. Engelhart, Stefan Rahmstorf 2020 Rowan University

Estimating Global Mean Sea-Level Rise And Its Uncertainties By 2100 And 2300 From An Expert Survey, Benjamin P. Horton, Nicole S. Khan, Niamh Cahill, Janice S.H. Lee, Timothy A. Shaw, Andra J. Garner, Andrew C. Kemp, Simon E. Engelhart, Stefan Rahmstorf

School of Earth & Environment Faculty Scholarship

Sea-level rise projections and knowledge of their uncertainties are vital to make informed mitigation and adaptation decisions. To elicit projections from members of the scientific community regarding future global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise, we repeated a survey originally conducted five years ago. Under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6, 106 experts projected a likely (central 66% probability) GMSL rise of 0.30–0.65 m by 2100, and 0.54–2.15 m by 2300, relative to 1986–2005. Under RCP 8.5, the same experts projected a likely GMSL rise of 0.63–1.32 m by 2100, and ...


Machine Learning Modeling Of Horizontal Photovoltaics Using Weather And Location Data, Christil Pasion, Torrey J. Wagner, Clay Koschnick, Steven J. Schuldt, Jada B. Williams, Kevin Hallinan 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Machine Learning Modeling Of Horizontal Photovoltaics Using Weather And Location Data, Christil Pasion, Torrey J. Wagner, Clay Koschnick, Steven J. Schuldt, Jada B. Williams, Kevin Hallinan

Faculty Publications

Solar energy is a key renewable energy source; however, its intermittent nature and potential for use in distributed systems make power prediction an important aspect of grid integration. This research analyzed a variety of machine learning techniques to predict power output for horizontal solar panels using 14 months of data collected from 12 northern-hemisphere locations. We performed our data collection and analysis in the absence of irradiation data—an approach not commonly found in prior literature. Using latitude, month, hour, ambient temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed, and cloud ceiling as independent variables, a distributed random forest regression algorithm modeled the ...


Building Adaptive Capacity In Tribal Communities Of The Missouri River Basin To Manage Drought And Climate Extremes: A Case Study From The Wind River Indian Reservation, Crystal J. Stiles, Natalie Umphlett, Mitch Cottenoir 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Building Adaptive Capacity In Tribal Communities Of The Missouri River Basin To Manage Drought And Climate Extremes: A Case Study From The Wind River Indian Reservation, Crystal J. Stiles, Natalie Umphlett, Mitch Cottenoir

HPRCC Personnel Publications

Native American peoples of the Northern and Central Plains have long endured harsh climate conditions, such as floods and droughts, and they possess valuable traditional knowledges that have enhanced their resilience to these extreme events. However, in recent times, limited capacity to adapt to a rapidly changing climate combined with a lack of resources have increased tribes’ vulnerability to climate extremes and their associated impacts. In response, a number of projects have been developed to assist tribes with their self-identified climate- and drought-related needs, particularly in the context of on-reservation decision-making. In this case study, we present an engagement strategy ...


Impacts Of 1.5 °C And 2 °C Global Warming On Net Primary Productivity And Carbon Balance In China’S Terrestrial Ecosystems, Li Yu, Fengxue Gu, Mei Huang, Bo Tao, Man Hao, Zhaosheng Wang 2020 China Meteorological Administration, China

Impacts Of 1.5 °C And 2 °C Global Warming On Net Primary Productivity And Carbon Balance In China’S Terrestrial Ecosystems, Li Yu, Fengxue Gu, Mei Huang, Bo Tao, Man Hao, Zhaosheng Wang

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Assessing potential impacts of 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming and identifying the risks of further 0.5 °C warming are crucial for climate adaptation and disaster risk management. Four earth system models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and a process-based ecosystem model are used in this study to assess the impacts and potential risks of the two warming targets on the carbon cycle of China’s terrestrial ecosystems. Results show that warming generally stimulates the increase of net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) under both representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4 ...


Cave Airflow Mechanism Of A Crevice-Type Cave: A Case Study From Czechia, Martin Kašing, Jan Lenart 2020 VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava

Cave Airflow Mechanism Of A Crevice-Type Cave: A Case Study From Czechia, Martin Kašing, Jan Lenart

International Journal of Speleology

At present, crevice-type caves are investigated mainly by means of geomorphic and geophysical methods. Microclimatic research of this type of caves is underrepresented and is often limited to temperature and humidity measurement only. Yet, microclimatic research of such caves can significantly help in the management and conservation of caves, speleological exploration or analysis of speleothems. Being the first ever research of ventilation within a crevice-type cave, a complex analysis of cave ventilation was performed within the Velká Ondrášova Cave, a crevice-type cave in the Outer Western Carpathians, Czechia. Long-term temperature recording, airflow tracing within the cave, and a total of ...


The Temporal And Spatial Distribution Of Wind Factor In Iraq, Azhaar Mishaal, Sura Nassir, Ahmed Badr Khamees, Mudar Abdulsattar 2020 Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq

The Temporal And Spatial Distribution Of Wind Factor In Iraq, Azhaar Mishaal, Sura Nassir, Ahmed Badr Khamees, Mudar Abdulsattar

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

This work aims to study wind factor 10 m above the ground level for different stations in Iraq for determining the promising regions in the field of wind energy. For this purpose, the use of data (Wind Speed) for 25 years is performed. Missing data may occur within the time series of processing. Calculations are performed by using the statistical model (ARIMA model). The analysis of data is performed by using the Geographic Information System Program (Arc map). The temporal and spatial distribution of wind speed shows that the high value during the summer and the autumn in the southern ...


An Analysis Of A Lighting Prediction Threshold For 45th Weather Squadron Electric Field Mill Data, Charles A. Skrovan 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

An Analysis Of A Lighting Prediction Threshold For 45th Weather Squadron Electric Field Mill Data, Charles A. Skrovan

Theses and Dissertations

The mission of the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) is to “exploit the weather to assure safe access to air and space” for Patrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in support of various operations (United States Air Force, n.d.). To support that mission the 45 WS hosts a suite of weather detection instruments that include a lightning warning system that consists of an array of 31 electric field mills (EFM) and a lightning detection and ranging system (Department of the Air Force, 1976). Electric field mills at Cape Canaveral continuously ...


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