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Spatial And Temporal Characteristics Of Historical Surface Climate Over The Northwest Territories, Canada, Bhaleka D. Persaud 2023 Wilfrid Laurier University

Spatial And Temporal Characteristics Of Historical Surface Climate Over The Northwest Territories, Canada, Bhaleka D. Persaud

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Climate change is putting many of the Northwest Territories (NWT) ecosystems, its people and animal populations at risk due to accelerated warming, permafrost thaw, and changing precipitation regimes. As the NWT continues to warm, at disproportionately higher rates when compared to the rest of Canada, threats to the stability of NWT’s ecosystems are expected to increase. Consequently, understanding how climate warming has changed historically and its implications on natural ecosystems requires point-to-region-specific, long-term climatic data to elucidate important drivers of observed changes relevant to decision makers at community, Indigenous, Territorial and Federal government levels. However, in situ climate data are …


Relative Importance Of Radar Variables For Nowcasting Heavy Rainfall: A Machine Learning Approach, Yi Victor Wang, Seung Hee Kim, Geunsu Lyu, Choeng-Lyong Lee, Gyuwon Lee, Ki-Hong Min, Menas C. Kafatos 2022 Chapman University

Relative Importance Of Radar Variables For Nowcasting Heavy Rainfall: A Machine Learning Approach, Yi Victor Wang, Seung Hee Kim, Geunsu Lyu, Choeng-Lyong Lee, Gyuwon Lee, Ki-Hong Min, Menas C. Kafatos

Institute for ECHO Articles and Research

Highly short-term forecasting, or nowcasting, of heavy rainfall due to rapidly evolving mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) is particularly challenging for traditional numerical weather prediction models. To overcome such a challenge, a growing number of studies have shown significant advantages of using machine learning (ML) modeling techniques with remote sensing data, especially weather radar data, for high-resolution rainfall nowcasting. To improve ML model performance, it is essential first and foremost to quantify the importance of radar variables and identify pertinent predictors of rainfall that can also be associated with domain knowledge. In this study, a set of MCS types consisting of …


From The Sky To The Smartphone: Communicating Weather Information In A Digital Age, Cole M. Vaughn 2022 Mississippi State University

From The Sky To The Smartphone: Communicating Weather Information In A Digital Age, Cole M. Vaughn

Theses and Dissertations

As new technology has emerged in the digital era, the public can now choose from a variety of new media from which to get weather information. Weather applications (apps) and social media have emerged as some of the popular new media. This study sought to understand the extent to which these new media are used, how weather apps are perceived, how the news media used Twitter during Hurricane Irma, and how the public engaged with the news media’s tweets. A survey and dataset of tweets were used to evaluate the research questions and hypotheses of this research. The study found …


Resource Document On The Nexus Between Animal Welfare, The Environment, And Sustainable Development, WellBeing International 2022 WellBeing International

Resource Document On The Nexus Between Animal Welfare, The Environment, And Sustainable Development, Wellbeing International

Nexus – UNEP – Animal Welfare, Environment, Sustainable Development

This Resource Document has been developed to explore the Nexus (links) between Animal Welfare, the Environment, and Sustainable Development. The document includes relevant citations and reports addressing the topics encompassed by the Nexus. It will be maintained as a “living document” (subject to revision) in the WellBeing International Studies Repository. The original document and subsequent revisions will be kept in the Repository to provide a record of the changes.


Estimation Of Economic Risk From Coastal Natural Hazards In Louisiana, Rubayet Bin Mostafiz 2022 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

Estimation Of Economic Risk From Coastal Natural Hazards In Louisiana, Rubayet Bin Mostafiz

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Louisiana, U.S.A., is among the most vulnerable areas globally to coastal natural hazards, with risk vulnerability likely increasing. The risks associated with non-tropical-cyclone hazards in Louisiana’s coastal zone have been understudied. This research enhances present and future (i.e., 2050) Louisiana risk assessment using locally-weighted, model-based hazard frequency/intensity and population projections.

Results suggest that property risks associated with extreme cold temperature and tornado are and will remain costlier than those for hail and lightning. Property risks of extreme cold temperature and hail are projected to decrease with the expected warming temperatures, with those of all four of these hazards peaking in …


Polarimetric Radar And Vhf Lightning Observations In A Significantly Tornadic Supercell, Jacob Bruss 2022 Purdue University

Polarimetric Radar And Vhf Lightning Observations In A Significantly Tornadic Supercell, Jacob Bruss

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Airflow Dynamics In Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Do Barometric Caves Breathe?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch 2022 Ruhr-Universitat Bochum

Airflow Dynamics In Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Do Barometric Caves Breathe?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch

International Journal of Speleology

Recent research on air pressure propagation through barometric caves has revealed various speleoclimatological processes, which cause a more complex relationship between surface air pressure changes and resulting pressure gradients between cave and surface air than previously assumed. So far, however, studies on barometric cave airflow have only been based on surface air pressure measurements. Thus, this study investigates and compares airflow at the openings of Wind Cave and Jewel Cave – two major barometric cave systems in South Dakota, USA – as a response to surface air pressure changes and air pressure gradients. Based on high-resolution long-term air pressure measurements …


A Demonstration Of A Simple Methodology Of Flood Prediction For A Coastal City Under Threat Of Sea Level Rise: The Case Of Norfolk, Va, Usa, Tal Ezer 2022 Old Dominion University

A Demonstration Of A Simple Methodology Of Flood Prediction For A Coastal City Under Threat Of Sea Level Rise: The Case Of Norfolk, Va, Usa, Tal Ezer

CCPO Publications

Many coastal cities around the world are at risk of increased flooding due to sea level rise (SLR), so here a simple flood prediction method is demonstrated for one city at risk, Norfolk, VA, on the U.S. East Coast. The probability of future flooding is estimated by extending observed hourly water level for 1927–2021 into hourly estimates until 2100. Unlike most other flood prediction methods, the approach here does not use any predetermined probability distribution function of extreme events, and instead a random sampling of past data represents tides and storm surges. The probability of flooding for 3 different flood …


Validated Question Bank For Assessing Pilot Knowledge Of Aviation Weather Appendix: Weather Product Interpretation Questions, Robert Thomas, Cassandra Dommingo, John Kleber, Jackie McSorely, Amber Cole, Thomas Guinn, Elizabeth Blickensderfer 2022 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Validated Question Bank For Assessing Pilot Knowledge Of Aviation Weather Appendix: Weather Product Interpretation Questions, Robert Thomas, Cassandra Dommingo, John Kleber, Jackie Mcsorely, Amber Cole, Thomas Guinn, Elizabeth Blickensderfer

General Aviation Weather Display Interpretation

This appendix supplements the Thomas et al. (2022) paper titled “Validated Question Bank for Assessing Pilot Knowledge of Aviation Weather ” which validates a set of weather product interpretation questions that can be used to measure a pilot’s understanding of weather. The assessment consists of 15 weather product interpretation topics which can be administered as a single 65-question survey or, as in the Thomas et al. (2022) study, two assessments of 33 and 32 questions each separated by topic. The set of 65 questions can be found in this appendix along with a table which demonstrates how to separate the …


Impacts Of Physical Parameterization Schemes And Soil Moisture Initialization On Boundary Layer Evolution In The Weather Research And Forecasting (Wrf) Model, Grace Cutting 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Impacts Of Physical Parameterization Schemes And Soil Moisture Initialization On Boundary Layer Evolution In The Weather Research And Forecasting (Wrf) Model, Grace Cutting

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models have become a necessary addition to the atmospheric research community over the last several decades, and atmospheric modeling has been used internationally for numerous operational and research purposes. NWP models contain a vast number of combinations of physical and dynamical parameterization schemes; however, they are not always accurate in forecasting weather phenomena at a particular location, as different combinations of parameterization schemes represent differing conditions. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations were run to explore which of the commonly used planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes best represented upper-air data (as well as PBL evolution) …


Using Remote And In Situ Observations From Torus To Investigate A Preexisting Airmass Boundary And Its Influence On A Tornadic Supercell On 28 May 2019, Kristen Axon 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Using Remote And In Situ Observations From Torus To Investigate A Preexisting Airmass Boundary And Its Influence On A Tornadic Supercell On 28 May 2019, Kristen Axon

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

During the 2019 field phase of Targeted Observation by Radars and UAS of Supercells (TORUS), a preexisting airmass boundary was sampled on 28 May 2019 in north-central Kansas in close proximity to a tornadic supercell. This work hypothesized that the preexisting airmass boundary was associated with a mesoscale air mass with high theta-E (MAHTE) that favorably interacted with the tornadic supercell to increase the likelihood of tornadogenesis. Observations from TORUS including mobile mesonets, unoccupied aerial vehicles, soundings, and ground-based mobile radar were used along with GOES-16 visible satellite imagery, Kansas mesonet surface stations, and KUEX WSR-88D data to investigate this …


Nashville-Basin Tornadoes: Using Storm Types To Elucidate The Local Climatology And Forecasting Challenges, Morgan Steckler, Kelsey Ellis 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Nashville-Basin Tornadoes: Using Storm Types To Elucidate The Local Climatology And Forecasting Challenges, Morgan Steckler, Kelsey Ellis

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at The University of Tennessee

Early 3 March 2020 was a devastating night for many middle Tennessee residents. A strong EF-3 tornado tore through Nashville at 65 mph, and another EF-4 killed 18 in Baxter and Cookeville alone. Residents of the Southeastern United States are particularly vulnerable to tornadoes. This study aims to better understand local forecasting challenges by looking at the types of storms that produce tornadoes. Storm types, also known as convective modes, divide tornado-producing storms into categories by length, shape, multiplicity, and intensity. Distinguishing storms by these modes allows for a broader understanding of their occurrences and impacts. This study specifically evaluates …


Inland Tropical Cyclone Intensity Decay In The Continental United States, Yijie Zhu 2022 University of South Florida

Inland Tropical Cyclone Intensity Decay In The Continental United States, Yijie Zhu

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Tropical cyclone (TC) hazard preparation is mostly focused on coastal cities with less attention typically paid to inland regions. The impact of TCs that propagate far inland is often underestimated and can cause unexpected loss of life and economic loss. This dissertation aims to understand the decay process of TCs during the post-landfall stage by answering three main research questions: (1) What are the general patterns of inland tropical cyclones, including spatial variations, decay rates, and translation speeds? (2) Are there temporal changes in the intensity decay from inland moving hurricanes? (3) How is the hurricane post-landfall dissipation related to …


Understanding Coastal And Inland Hydrometeorological Hazards Produced By Extratropical And Tropical Cyclones Along The East Coast Of The United States, Katherine Towey 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Understanding Coastal And Inland Hydrometeorological Hazards Produced By Extratropical And Tropical Cyclones Along The East Coast Of The United States, Katherine Towey

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As global temperatures continue to rise, the effects of anthropogenic climate change will impact the magnitude and frequency of pluvial, fluvial, and coastal flooding events. If we want to accurately predict changes in these flooding events, we need to fully understand them in the current climate. As such, this research examines the relationship between hydrometeorological hazards and the characteristics of the storm types, such as extratropical cyclones (ETCs) and tropical cyclones (TCs), that produce such hazards. Through the use of observational and reanalysis data, the work herein utilizes a cyclone-hazard association algorithm and extreme value analysis to assess the extent, …


Feasibility Of Obtaining Surface Layer Moisture Flux Using An Ir Thermometer, Steven T. Fiorino, Lance Todorowski, Jaclyn Schmidt, Yogendra Raut, Jacob Margraf 2022 Air Force Institute of Technology

Feasibility Of Obtaining Surface Layer Moisture Flux Using An Ir Thermometer, Steven T. Fiorino, Lance Todorowski, Jaclyn Schmidt, Yogendra Raut, Jacob Margraf

Faculty Publications

This paper evaluates the feasibility of a method using a single hand-held infrared (IR) thermometer and a mini tower of wet and dry paper towels to psychometrically obtain surface layer temperature and moisture gradients and fluxes. Sling Psychrometers have long been standard measuring devices for quantifying the thermodynamics of near-surface atmospheric gas–vapor mixtures, specifically moisture parameters. However, these devices are generally only used to measure temperature and humidity at one near-surface level. Multiple self-aspirating psychrometers can be used in a vertical configuration to measure temperature and moisture gradients and fluxes in the first 1–2 m of the surface layer. This …


Changes In Heat Metrics Following A Major Hurricane And Implications On Heat Stress, Cade Reesman 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Changes In Heat Metrics Following A Major Hurricane And Implications On Heat Stress, Cade Reesman

LSU Master's Theses

Tropical cyclones modify surface-atmosphere interactions in several ways, including the destruction of patches of tree canopy, increasing the direct and diffuse (shortwave) radiation reaching the surface. This addition of radiation at the surface impacts the sensible, latent, and substrate heat (energy) fluxes, generating heat anomalies along the hurricane’s track, which, among other effects, contributes to the higher post-hurricane surface air temperatures. This study consists of a case study on Hurricane Laura (2020) to examine hurricane defoliation impacts on heat stress metrics. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) identified the spatial extent of defoliation …


Comparing Composite Severe Weather Indices Of Thunderstorm Activity On Sea-Breeze And Non-Sea-Breeze Days In The Mobile, Alabama Area, Elizabeth Seiler 2022 University of South Alabama

Comparing Composite Severe Weather Indices Of Thunderstorm Activity On Sea-Breeze And Non-Sea-Breeze Days In The Mobile, Alabama Area, Elizabeth Seiler

Undergraduate Theses

Sea breezes (SB) occur frequently from May through October along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coast. One reason why SBs interest forecasters is their ability to spawn summertime thunderstorms, which can cause flash flooding, lightning, and hail. However, forecasting the exact timing and location of SB-driven convection can be challenging. This thesis will focus on Mobile and Baldwin Counties in southwest Alabama, which experience two types of phenomena – SBs along the Gulf of Mexico Coast and bay breezes on either side of Mobile Bay. Over the past years, multiple undergraduate students have analyzed Mobile, Alabama radar imagery of past …


Comparing Composite Severe Weather Indices Of Thunderstorm Activity On Sea-Breeze And Non-Sea-Breeze Days In The Mobile, Alabama Area, Elizabeth Seiler 2022 University of South Alabama

Comparing Composite Severe Weather Indices Of Thunderstorm Activity On Sea-Breeze And Non-Sea-Breeze Days In The Mobile, Alabama Area, Elizabeth Seiler

Poster Presentations

Poster for the Honors Thesis project.

Sea breezes (SB) occur frequently from May through October along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coast. One reason why SBs interest forecasters is their ability to spawn summertime thunderstorms, which can cause flash flooding, lightning, and hail. However, forecasting the exact timing and location of SB-driven convection can be challenging. This thesis will focus on Mobile and Baldwin Counties in southwest Alabama, which experience two types of phenomena – SBs along the Gulf of Mexico Coast and bay breezes on either side of Mobile Bay. Over the past years, multiple undergraduate students have analyzed …


A Mesonet-Based Analysis Of Severe Convective Winds In West Texas., Quint Long 2022 University of Louisville

A Mesonet-Based Analysis Of Severe Convective Winds In West Texas., Quint Long

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multiple studies have investigated the occurrence of severe convective-related winds and have increased our understanding of the forces driving severe winds and their spatial and temporal patterns. Data for these studies have come from airport stations maintained by the National Weather Service. Their standardization across the United States makes them ideal for research, but they are limited in their distribution. This study aims to create a similar climatology of severe surface level winds using a mesoscale network (“mesonet”). Like their ASOS (Automated Surface Observing System) and AWOS (Automated Weather Observing System) counterparts, these stations are standardized and well maintained. This …


The Impact Of Sea-Level Rise In Numerically Modeled Landfalling Hurricanes: Katrina And The Gulf Coast., Serenity Nadirah Mercuri 2022 University of Louisville

The Impact Of Sea-Level Rise In Numerically Modeled Landfalling Hurricanes: Katrina And The Gulf Coast., Serenity Nadirah Mercuri

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With climate change, landfalling hurricanes become an increasing threat to coastal regions. However, the interactions between the coastal landscape and landfalling hurricanes are often overlooked when addressing sea-level rise outside of inundation and independent of sea surface temperature. This study analyzed the potential impacts regarding structure and intensity as a result of sea-level rise in the Gulf of Mexico using the WRF-ARW numerical model coupled with a 1D ocean model. Analysis showed that 10 m windspeed from landfall forward was higher in modified coastlines, and minimum sea-level pressure post-landfall was consistently lower for modified runs where storms maintain a higher …


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