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Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, K. P. ManiKandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova 2017 Chapman University

Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, K. P. Manikandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

An anomalously high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) event (>2 mg/m3) during June 2015 in the South Central Red Sea (17.5° to 22°N, 37° to 42°E) was observed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. This differs from the low Chl-a values (<0.5 mg/m3) usually encountered over the same region during summertime. To assess this anomaly and possible causes, we used a wide range of oceanographical and meteorological datasets, including Chl-a concentrations, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), mixed layer depth (MLD), ocean current velocity and aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from different sensors and models. Findings confirmed this anomalous behavior in the spatial domain using Hovmöller data analysis techniques, while a time series analysis addressed monthly and daily variability. Our analysis suggests that a combination of factors controlling nutrient supply contributed to the anomalous phytoplankton growth. These factors include horizontal transfer of upwelling water through eddy circulation and possible mineral fertilization from atmospheric dust deposition. Coral reefs might have provided extra nutrient supply, yet this is out of the scope of our analysis. We thought that dust deposition from a coastal dust jet event in late June, coinciding with the phytoplankton blooms in the area under investigation, might have also contributed as shown by our AOD findings. However, a lag cross correlation showed a two- month lag between strong dust outbreak and the high Chl-a anomaly. The high Chl-a concentration at the edge of the eddy emphasizes the importance of horizontal advection in fertilizing oligotrophic (nutrient poor) Red Sea waters.


Regional Extreme Monthly Precipitation Simulated By Narccap Rcms, William Gutowski, Raymond W. Arritt, Sho Kawazoe, David M. Flory, Eugene S. Takle, Sébastien Biner, Daniel Caya, Richard G. Jones, René Laprise, L. Ruby Leung, Linda O. Mearns, Wilfran Moufouma-Okia, Ana M. B. Nunes, Yun Qian, John O. Roads, Lisa C. Sloan, Mark A. Snyder 2017 Iowa State University

Regional Extreme Monthly Precipitation Simulated By Narccap Rcms, William Gutowski, Raymond W. Arritt, Sho Kawazoe, David M. Flory, Eugene S. Takle, Sébastien Biner, Daniel Caya, Richard G. Jones, René Laprise, L. Ruby Leung, Linda O. Mearns, Wilfran Moufouma-Okia, Ana M. B. Nunes, Yun Qian, John O. Roads, Lisa C. Sloan, Mark A. Snyder

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

This paper analyzes the ability of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) ensemble of regional climate models to simulate extreme monthly precipitation and its supporting circulation for regions of North America, comparing 18 years of simulations driven by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)–Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis with observations. The analysis focuses on the wettest 10% of months during the cold half of the year (October–March), when it is assumed that resolved synoptic circulation governs precipitation. For a coastal California region where the precipitation is largely topographic, the models individually and collectively replicate ...


A Wrf Ensemble For Improved Wind Speed Forecasts At Turbine Height, Adam J. Deppe, William A. Gallus Jr., Eugene S. Takle 2017 Iowa State University

A Wrf Ensemble For Improved Wind Speed Forecasts At Turbine Height, Adam J. Deppe, William A. Gallus Jr., Eugene S. Takle

William A. Gallus Jr.

The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) with 10-km horizontal grid spacing was used to explore improvements in wind speed forecasts at a typical wind turbine hub height (80 m). An ensemble consisting of WRF model simulations with different planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes showed little spread among the individual ensemble members for forecasting wind speed. A second configuration using three random perturbations of the Global Forecast System model produced more spread in the wind speed forecasts, but the ensemble mean possessed a higher mean absolute error (MAE). A third ensemble of different initialization times showed larger model spread, but ...


Storm Chasing Across The Plains: An Experience Portfolio, Isaac Bowers 2017 Western Kentucky University

Storm Chasing Across The Plains: An Experience Portfolio, Isaac Bowers

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The opportunity to predict and document severe weather across the Plains is not available to many, but it is a vital experience for those who hope to truly excel in meteorology. The ability to travel alongside one of the professors that has guided you through the program, apply the knowledge gained from that professor and many others, and view nature’s breathtaking power in person is truly a capstone experience for any meteorology major. Luckily, the B.S. Meteorology Program at WKU offers a select group of students this opportunity annually. This portfolio report will consist of documentation I recorded ...


It Was A Cold Day In Iowa, But Did The Soybean Aphids Freeze Out?, Marlin E. Rice, Matthew E. O'Neal 2017 Iowa State University

It Was A Cold Day In Iowa, But Did The Soybean Aphids Freeze Out?, Marlin E. Rice, Matthew E. O'Neal

Matthew E. O'Neal

February was cold--really cold. The Climatology Bureau of the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship reports that "February began very cold with below normal temperatures recorded on 16 of the first 18 days of the month. Decorah reported the lowest official temperature of the month with a -26º reading on the morning of the 5th while Estherville had the lowest wind chill reading with -36º on the morning of the 15th. Temperatures averaged 15.8º or 8.4º below normal. This ranks as the 14th coldest and 15th wettest February among 135 years of state records. This was also ...


Hot, Dry Weather Mite Be A Problem: Two-Spotted Spider Mites Infesting Soybeans, Matthew E. O'Neal 2017 Iowa State University

Hot, Dry Weather Mite Be A Problem: Two-Spotted Spider Mites Infesting Soybeans, Matthew E. O'Neal

Matthew E. O'Neal

Adding insult to injury, the dry conditions that many growers are experiencing in eastern Iowa and Illinois are bringing additional problems: two-spotted spider mites. These eight-legged arthropods feed on a variety of plants and are typically not a pest of soybeans during cool, humid summers. Under these conditions, the mites are kept in low numbers by fungi that attack arthropods. When this control is disrupted, spider mites are capable of reproducing quickly in large numbers.


Precipitation Data, M. Knapp 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Precipitation Data, M. Knapp

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Precipitation data for Kansas agricultural experiment stations, 2015-2016.


Adaptive Monte Carlo Sampling For Cloud And Microphysics Calculations, Thomas Franz-Peter Roessler 2017 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Adaptive Monte Carlo Sampling For Cloud And Microphysics Calculations, Thomas Franz-Peter Roessler

Theses and Dissertations

An important problem in large-scale modeling of the atmosphere is the parametrization of clouds and microphysics on subgrid scales. The framework Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) was developed to improve the parametrization of subgrid variability. Monte Carlo sampling is used to couple the different physical processes, which improves the grid average of subgrid tendencies.

In this Thesis we develop an adaptive Monte Carlo sampling algorithm that re-uses sample points of the previous time step by re-weighting them according to the change of the underlying distribution. This process is called 'what-if sampling' and is an application of importance sampling. An ...


A Study Of Aviation Weather Hazards, Taylor Trask, Lourdes Aviles 2017 Plymouth State University

A Study Of Aviation Weather Hazards, Taylor Trask, Lourdes Aviles

Student Showcase of Excellence

The aviation industry is continuously constrained by weather hazards that affect the safety of personnel on aircraft as well as the efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Wind, visibility, and turbulence are among the most common weather hazards involved in aviation accidents, and air traffic delays and closures. The collaborations between the Aviation Weather Center (AWC) and Center Weather Service Units (CWSUs) are essential to creating and providing accurate forecasts pertaining to aircraft safety. This study examines weather related aviation accidents that occurred in 13 states across the northeast US and vicinity for two time periods: 2000-2001 and 2014-2015 ...


Preferred Atmospheric Patterns For Vernal And Autumnal Nocturnal Bird Migration Using The Plymouth, New Hampshire Noaa-Esrl Snow Level Radar, Andrea LaRocca, CareyAnne Howlett, Parker Bradley, Jesse Carlson 2017 Applied Meteorology

Preferred Atmospheric Patterns For Vernal And Autumnal Nocturnal Bird Migration Using The Plymouth, New Hampshire Noaa-Esrl Snow Level Radar, Andrea Larocca, Careyanne Howlett, Parker Bradley, Jesse Carlson

Student Showcase of Excellence

Radar technology can be a useful tool in tracking trends in bird migration. The NOAA-ESRL Snow Level Radar (SLR), located in Plymouth, New Hampshire, is primarily used to monitor the Bright-Band Height (BBH) of falling precipitation, or the level at which snow melts to water. Using data collected from November 2014 to November 2016, preferential atmospheric conditions over Plymouth, New Hampshire were analyzed during peak migration events for both autumn and spring migration seasons.


A Different Perspective On The 2016 Louisiana Flood, Brandon Mitchell 2017 Meteorology

A Different Perspective On The 2016 Louisiana Flood, Brandon Mitchell

Student Showcase of Excellence

The August 2016 Louisiana Flood caused historic flooding across southern central areas of the state and was the worst natural disaster in the U.S. since Superstorm Sandy in 2012. On August 12, 2016, a Mesoscale Convective System formed along the coast of Louisiana and remained quasi-stationary across the region until August 14, 2016. The prolonged duration of heavy rainfall resulted in areas around Baton Rouge receiving over 30 inches of rain, leading to the historic flooding that lasted for two weeks. This study puts some perspective on the event by comparing similar prolonged precipitation events. Using daily precipitation totals ...


Spatial Thinking And Cognitive Processing In Meteorology, Peggy McNeal 2017 Western Michigan University

Spatial Thinking And Cognitive Processing In Meteorology, Peggy Mcneal

Research and Creative Activities Poster Day

Evidence suggests that spatial skills are highly malleable and that training in spatial thinking is effective, durable, and transferrable1. Understanding how meteorologists employ spatial skills in the forecasting process has implications for operational weather forecasting and meteorology education. This study began with exploratory research that identified mental animation and disembedding as key spatial skills used in weather forecasting. A follow-on pilot study tested the instruments, collected think-aloud data and found a correlation between spatial skills and forecasting. The complete study, in progress, is investigating the effect of spatial thinking, working memory and expertise on forecast task performance.


Weather Variability And The Tourism Industry: A Panel Data Analysis, Carmela Coppola 2017 Bryant University

Weather Variability And The Tourism Industry: A Panel Data Analysis, Carmela Coppola

Honors Projects in Economics

Increasing weather variability around the world has led to many researchers examining the impacts of weather variability on vulnerable industries. For example, the tourism industry can make up a large portion of an economy’s growth, with some of the most dependent countries relying on tourism for over 40% of GDP (World Travel & Tourism Council 2014). In an attempt to better understand the relationship between weather variability and the tourism industry at the country level, this study employs a series of fixed effects panel regression models to analyze the impact of rainfall and temperature on tourism levels and growth rates ...


Effects Of Graphical Weather Information Versus Textual Weather Information On Situation Awareness In Meteorology, Stefan Melendez 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Effects Of Graphical Weather Information Versus Textual Weather Information On Situation Awareness In Meteorology, Stefan Melendez

Dissertations and Theses

Prior to a flight, pilots gather meteorological information to assess the weather conditions pertaining to their flight and to make decisions based on it. This information can come in various formats, such as text and graphical weather information. Research has shown that people have varying learning preferences and that most people prefer visual learning to verbal learning (i.e., graphical over text). It is hypothesized that this difference in learning preference can affect the way pilots interpret and apply the information they obtain prior to their flight. The researcher hypothesizes that graphical weather information has a greater, more positive impact ...


Cirrus Cloud Microphysics Over Darwin, Australia, Dorothea Ivanova, Matthew Johnson 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Cirrus Cloud Microphysics Over Darwin, Australia, Dorothea Ivanova, Matthew Johnson

Publications

Ice clouds, crucial to the understanding of both short - and long - term climate trends, are poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs). Cirrus clouds, one of the largest uncertainties in the global radiation budget, have been inadequately studied at low latitudes. Parameterizations exist for mid - latitude and tropical cirrus ( Ivanova et al. 2001; McFarquhar et al. 1997). Due to climate sensitivity in the GCM with respect to cloud input, without robust parameterizations of cirrus clouds, the GCM is inaccurate over most output fields, including radiative forcing, temperature, albedo, and heat flux (Yao and Del Genio 1999).

Studies of the microphysical ...


Latitudinal Position And Trends Of The Intertropical Convergence Zone (Itcz) And Its Relationship With Upwelling In The Southern Caribbean Sea And Global Climate Indices, Kaitlyn E. Colna 2017 University of South Florida

Latitudinal Position And Trends Of The Intertropical Convergence Zone (Itcz) And Its Relationship With Upwelling In The Southern Caribbean Sea And Global Climate Indices, Kaitlyn E. Colna

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a feature that results from the ocean-atmosphere interactions in the tropics around the world. The ITCZ is characterized by surface wind convergence, tall storm clouds, and it forms a belt of high time-averaged precipitation around the globe. The ITCZ undergoes seasonal migrations between 5°S and 15°N roughly following the subsolar point on Earth with the seasons, with a mean annual position located slightly above the Equator, between 2° and 5°N.

This study tested the hypothesis that there was a northward shift in the median position of the ITCZ in the first ...


P16. Ralmo Rotational Raman Temperature Retrieval: First Steps Towards The Application Of Optimal Estimation Method (Oem), Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele 2017 Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada

P16. Ralmo Rotational Raman Temperature Retrieval: First Steps Towards The Application Of Optimal Estimation Method (Oem), Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele

Western Research Forum

Background:

Temperature is an important atmospheric parameter that plays an extensive role in the fields of atmospheric dynamics, climatology, meteorology, and chemistry. Light detection and ranging (lidar), is a remote sensing technology that can be used for atmospheric temperature profiling. A lidar transmits short laser pulses into the atmosphere and the light scattered by the particles in the atmosphere is collected and measured using a telescope. The atmospheric temperatures can be retrieved by analysing the Pure Rotational Raman (PRR) scatter measurements from the nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the atmosphere.

Methods:

In this study use the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM ...


Wiggle 3d Displays Of Weather Data, Frederick R. Mosher 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Wiggle 3d Displays Of Weather Data, Frederick R. Mosher

Publications

Weather is a time varying 3-dimensional phenomena, but the displays of weather data are inherently 2-dimensional. Since weather phenomena at one level can impact the weather at another level, it would be desirable to view weather on a 3D volume type of display. Initially weather displays were on paper and currently weather information is displayed on computer screens. The human mind can interpret 3D volume information in a number of ways. Having two eyes, the brain can detect the parallax differences between the images for the left eye being slightly different from the right eye. Objects that are closer to ...


Broadening Traditional Aviation Meteorology Education To Support Spaceflight Operations, Thomas A. Guinn, Nicholas J. Stapleton, Katherine A. Winters, Bradley M. Muller, Debbie M. Schaum 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Broadening Traditional Aviation Meteorology Education To Support Spaceflight Operations, Thomas A. Guinn, Nicholas J. Stapleton, Katherine A. Winters, Bradley M. Muller, Debbie M. Schaum

Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research

The purpose of this paper is to examine the expansion of traditional aviation meteorology education necessary to support the growing commercial space-operations industry. While spaceflight meteorological considerations do overlap with those of traditional aviation operations, there are notable differences schools must address for appropriate education and training of both meteorologists and operators. These include knowledge of increased weather sensitivities, space-weather impacts, triggered lightning, triboelectrification, and high-resolution vertical wind-profile analyses. An added challenge in the educational process is the more limited amount of publicly available weather and space-weather products necessary to support spaceflight education. Furthermore, in comparison with traditional aviation meteorology ...


Forecasting The Air Race Classic: Lessons In Interdisciplinary Aviation Weather Support And Decision-Making, Shawn M. Milrad, Debbie Schaum 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Forecasting The Air Race Classic: Lessons In Interdisciplinary Aviation Weather Support And Decision-Making, Shawn M. Milrad, Debbie Schaum

Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research

The Air Race Classic (ARC) is an all-female Visual Flight Rules air race held each June. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Daytona Beach (ERAU-DB) has had primarily student race teams participate and frequently place strongly in the ARC since 1996. The ERAU-DB Meteorology Program has provided successful weather support to ERAU-DB race team(s) for the past decade, including as the terminus host institution in 2016. In 2014, the weather support was formalized as a three-credit interdisciplinary summer course, incorporating a mix of aeronautical science (pilot), dispatch, and meteorology students. Using concepts of service and experiential learning, the ARC course has successfully ...


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