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Abiotic Formation Of Dissolved Organic Sulfur In Anoxic Sediments Of Santa Barbara Basin, Hussain A. Abdulla, David J. Burdige, Tomoko Komada 2020 Old Dominion University

Abiotic Formation Of Dissolved Organic Sulfur In Anoxic Sediments Of Santa Barbara Basin, Hussain A. Abdulla, David J. Burdige, Tomoko Komada

OEAS Faculty Publications

Sulfurization has been found to enhance organic matter preservation and petroleum formation in marine sediments. However, we do not yet have a comprehensive understanding of sulfurization mechanisms. In this study, we investigated several possible mechanisms of dissolved organic sulfur (DOS) formation in the top 4.5 m of anoxic sediments of Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), California Borderland. Using Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICR-MS), we identified chemical formulas of potential dissolved organic matter (DOM) precursors to these DOS compounds. We also examined how the formulas of abiotically formed DOS changed as a function of depth across a major ...


Metabolic Profiling Reveals Biochemical Pathways Responsible For Eelgrass Response To Elevated Co2 And Temperature, Carmen C. Zayas-Santiago, Albert Rivas-Ubach, Li-Jung Kuo, Nicholas D. Ward, Richard C. Zimmerman 2020 Old Dominion University

Metabolic Profiling Reveals Biochemical Pathways Responsible For Eelgrass Response To Elevated Co2 And Temperature, Carmen C. Zayas-Santiago, Albert Rivas-Ubach, Li-Jung Kuo, Nicholas D. Ward, Richard C. Zimmerman

OEAS Faculty Publications

As CO2 levels in Earth’s atmosphere and oceans steadily rise, varying organismal responses may produce ecological losers and winners. Increased ocean CO2 can enhance seagrass productivity and thermal tolerance, providing some compensation for climate warming. However, the metabolic shifts driving the positive response to elevated CO2 by these important ecosystem engineers remain unknown. We analyzed whole-plant performance and metabolic profiles of two geographically distinct eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) populations in response to CO2 enrichment. In addition to enhancing overall plant size, growth and survival, CO2 enrichment increased the abundance of Calvin Cycle and nitrogen ...


An Oceanographic Perspective On Early Human Migrations To The Americas, Thomas C. Royer, Bruce Finney 2020 Old Dominion University

An Oceanographic Perspective On Early Human Migrations To The Americas, Thomas C. Royer, Bruce Finney

OEAS Faculty Publications

Early migrants to the Americas were likely seaworthy. Many archaeologists now agree that the first humans who traveled to the Americas more than 15,000 years before present (yr BP) used a coastal North Pacific route. Their initial migration was from northeastern Asia to Beringia where they settled for thousands to more than ten thousand years. Oceanographic conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum (18,000-24,000 yr BP) would have enhanced their boat journeys along the route from Beringia to the Pacific Northwest because the influx of freshwater that drives the opposing Alaska Coastal Current was small, global sea level ...


Diel Temperature And Ph Variability Scale With Depth Across Diverse Coral Reef Habitats, Tyler Cyronak, Yuichiro Takeshita, Travis A. Courtney, Eric H. DeCarlo, Bradley D. Eyre, David I. Kline, Todd R. Martz, Heather Page, Nichole Price, Jennifer Smith, Laura Stoltenberg, Martin Tresguerres, Andreas J. Andersson 2019 University of California - San Diego; Nova Southeastern University

Diel Temperature And Ph Variability Scale With Depth Across Diverse Coral Reef Habitats, Tyler Cyronak, Yuichiro Takeshita, Travis A. Courtney, Eric H. Decarlo, Bradley D. Eyre, David I. Kline, Todd R. Martz, Heather Page, Nichole Price, Jennifer Smith, Laura Stoltenberg, Martin Tresguerres, Andreas J. Andersson

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Coral reefs are facing intensifying stressors, largely due to global increases in seawater temperature and decreases in pH. However, there is extensive environmental variability within coral reef ecosystems, which can impact how organisms respond to global trends. We deployed spatial arrays of autonomous sensors across distinct shallow coral reef habitats to determine patterns of spatiotemporal variability in seawater physicochemical parameters. Temperature and pH were positively correlated over the course of a day due to solar heating and light‐driven metabolism. The mean temporal and spatial ranges of temperature and pH were positively correlated across all sites, with different regimes of ...


Estimating Carbon Flux From Optically Recording Total Particle Volume At Depths Below The Primary Pycnocline, Alexander B. Bochdansky, Robert B. Dunbar, Dennis A. Hansell, Gerhard J. Herndl 2019 Old Dominion University

Estimating Carbon Flux From Optically Recording Total Particle Volume At Depths Below The Primary Pycnocline, Alexander B. Bochdansky, Robert B. Dunbar, Dennis A. Hansell, Gerhard J. Herndl

OEAS Faculty Publications

Optical instruments can rapidly determine numbers and characteristics of water column particles with high sensitivity. Here we show the usefulness of optically assessed total particle volume below the main pycnocline to estimate carbon export in two systems: the open subarctic North Atlantic and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Both regions exhibit seasonally high phytoplankton production and efficient export (i.e., a strong biological pump). Total particle volumes in the mesopelagic (200-300 m) were significantly correlated with those in the overlying surface mixed layer (50-60 m), indicating that most particles at depth reflect export from the surface. This connectivity, however, is modulated ...


Beavers Alter Stream Macroinvertebrate Communities In Northeastern Utah, Susan E. Washko, Brett Roper, Trisha B. Atwood 2019 Utah State University

Beavers Alter Stream Macroinvertebrate Communities In Northeastern Utah, Susan E. Washko, Brett Roper, Trisha B. Atwood

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

  1. Understanding changes in macroinvertebrate communities is important because they play a large role in stream ecosystem functioning, and they are an important food resource for fish. Beaver‐induced changes to stream morphology could alter macroinvertebrate communities, which in turn could affect food webs and ecosystem function. However, studies investigating the effects of North American beaver activities on macroinvertebrates are rare in the inter‐mountain west, an area with high potential for beaver‐assisted restoration.
  2. The aim of this study was to quantify differences in the macroinvertebrate community between unaltered segments of streams and within beaver ponds in north‐eastern Utah ...


Vintage Report 2019: North Willamette Valley, Gregory V. Jones 2019 Linfield College

Vintage Report 2019: North Willamette Valley, Gregory V. Jones

Linfield College Wine Studies Reports

This report describes the impacts of climate and phenology on vintage for the North Willamette Valley in Oregon in 2019. A relatively mild early winter in 2018 was followed by a cold and wet second half of winter in 2019 and then a wet, but warm, spring. The growing season saw a few mild frosts during late April, but started off warmer than average, moderating through mid-vintage with fewer than average heat spikes. Near-record precipitation amounts during late June and early July brought increased disease pressure to the region. The vintage will be remembered for the early rains in September ...


A Climatology Of Snowpack In The Southern Rocky Mountains And Snow To Liquid Ratio Forecasting Techniques Using Model Generated Soundings From The Rapid Refresh Model, Carson Jones 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Climatology Of Snowpack In The Southern Rocky Mountains And Snow To Liquid Ratio Forecasting Techniques Using Model Generated Soundings From The Rapid Refresh Model, Carson Jones

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Mountainous snowpack represents up to 70% of the total water resources for areas in the western United States. Temperature and precipitation control the accumulation and ablation of the snowpack throughout the cold season, both of which are subject to a changing climate. This study will use a network of snow telemetry (SNOTEL) stations to investigate changes in the snowpack season, snow water equivalent (SWE), and temperature in the southern Rocky Mountain region. Additionally, this study will use model generated soundings from the Rapid Refresh (RAP) model to establish relationships between the depth and cloud proportion of ice crystal growth layers ...


A Risk Analysis Of Microplastic Consumption In Filter Feeders, Sheri Rahman 2019 Nova Southeastern University

A Risk Analysis Of Microplastic Consumption In Filter Feeders, Sheri Rahman

HCNSO Student Capstones

Microplastics (plastic particles < 5 mm) pose a serious threat to marine organisms, as researchers have documented such particles in the gut contents of numerous species. In particular, filter feeders are at risk of consuming microplastics because they may accidentally consume the particulates when feeding or they may prey on species that have already consumed them. The goals of this research were to evaluate the risks that different filter feeders face in regards to microplastic consumption through the analysis of the calculated Microplastic Consumption Rates for numerous species of filter feeders. Factors that could potentially affect this risk were also considered, including ocean basin, environment type, salinity, life stage, IUCN status, and filtration technique. Initial analysis showed that body size greatly impacted a species’ risk of microplastic consumption and further tests were completed to evaluate overall microplastic contamination for each species. Microplastic consumption and microplastic contamination values were evaluated and analyzed to determine which filter feeding species were most at risk of experiencing ecological effects from microplastic pollution. From a resource management perspective, this research highlights the filter feeding species most at risk, contributing to the development of more effective plastic waste management policies.


Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Southeastern Florida's Octocoral Comunity, Alexandra Hiley 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Southeastern Florida's Octocoral Comunity, Alexandra Hiley

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

In the Caribbean, local and global stressors have driven significant declines in scleractinian coral cover up to 80% in only three decades. Following these declines, phase shifts in benthic community composition have been reported. Shifts towards macroalgal dominance has been the most widely observed case, however, shifts towards octocoral and sponge dominance have also been reported. In Florida, USA, the Florida Reef Tract is an extensive barrier reef system that contains diverse assemblages of corals, sponges, fish, and other taxa. The Southeast Florida Reef Tract (SEFRT) within the Southeast Florida Coral Reef Conservation Area is the northern portion of this ...


Weather And Climate Summary And Forecast: December 2019 Report, Gregory V. Jones 2019 Linfield College

Weather And Climate Summary And Forecast: December 2019 Report, Gregory V. Jones

Linfield College Wine Studies Reports

This report provides a summary of the weather and climate forecast for December 2019. It includes forecast information specific to the Pacific Northwest and the western United States, as well as forecast information for other portions of the United States and abroad.


Temporally Consistent Urban-Rural Delineations For Global Urban Heat Island Monitoring, TC Chakraborty 2019 Yale University

Temporally Consistent Urban-Rural Delineations For Global Urban Heat Island Monitoring, Tc Chakraborty

Yale Day of Data

Urbanization leads to local-scale modification of climate, particularly the urban heat island (UHI) effect - the high temperature in cities compared to their surroundings. The UHI effect is generally quantified by measuring the temperature differential between the city and its surrounding rural reference. Choices of both the city and the rural reference are prone to assumptions, which may affect, among other things, temporal variability in UHI intensity. To reduce these uncertainties, I create a global dataset of urban-rural delineations that can be used to better constrain the temporal trends in UHI intensity throughout the globe using the European Space Agency's ...


Barrier Layer Impact On Rapid Intensification Of Hurricanes (2000-2018) In The Atlantic Ocean, J. Gaston Hayworth 2019 Halmos College of Natural Sciences and Oceanography at NSU

Barrier Layer Impact On Rapid Intensification Of Hurricanes (2000-2018) In The Atlantic Ocean, J. Gaston Hayworth

HCNSO Student Capstones

Hurricane prediction is an evolving challenge that has seen much improvement over the years. While hurricane models have improved in predicting the path of storms, forecasts of hurricane intensity are unreliable due to the complexity of environmental data, lack of understanding of how relative humidity, vertical wind shear, hurricane structure and other possible factors affect intensity. Rapid Intensification (RI), which is a wind speed increase of +30 kts over a 24-hr period, can contribute to major destruction and loss of life to coastal communities affected by hurricanes, and is especially difficult to predict. Given the continued development of coastal regions ...


Raman-Scatter Lidar Measurements Of Water Vapor Determined Using An Integrated Microwave Radiometer-Lidar Retrieval, Jeffrey VanKerkhove 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Raman-Scatter Lidar Measurements Of Water Vapor Determined Using An Integrated Microwave Radiometer-Lidar Retrieval, Jeffrey Vankerkhove

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Water vapor plays a crucially important role in many atmospheric processes. However, it is poorly characterized in much of the atmosphere. Vibrational Raman-scattering Lidar has excellent spatial and temporal resolution, but requires an external calibration to correct for instrumental biases. Microwave Radiometers have poorer resolution, but can be calibrated absolutely and can be used to calibrate the Lidar system. I have implemented a new technique, incorporating both instruments to generate a calibrated water vapor mixing ratio profile. This integrated retrieval uses an inverse method which includes a combined forward model, integrating radiative transfer equations (Schroeder and Westwater 1991) and lidar ...


Examining The Effects Of Greenland Ice Sheet Melting And Atlantic Meridional Shutdown On The Climate Of Scandinavia And The British Isles, Tyler Lemburg 2019 University of Nebraska--Lincoln

Examining The Effects Of Greenland Ice Sheet Melting And Atlantic Meridional Shutdown On The Climate Of Scandinavia And The British Isles, Tyler Lemburg

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Earth’s climate has been rapidly changing over the last hundred years, and its global average temperature is rising. However, climate change is far more complicated than a simple increase in temperature. For example, it is theorized that certain regions of Earth, including Scandinavia and the British Isles, could actually become cooler through ongoing climate change processes. Two of these processes are Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) melting, and slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). This research examines if climate change, through GrIS melting and AMOC slowdown, could contribute to cooler, instead of warmer, temperatures in Scandinavia and the ...


The Variability Of High-Frequency Motions And Their Interactions With The Mesoscale On The Mississippi Shelf, Jordan Earls 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

The Variability Of High-Frequency Motions And Their Interactions With The Mesoscale On The Mississippi Shelf, Jordan Earls

Master's Theses

In this study, we examine the spatial and temporal variability of high-frequency and low-frequency motions across the Mississippi Shelf and how the high-frequency motions are modulated by low-frequency mesoscale motions. For this purpose, we use Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements collected at nearshore (23 m), mid-shelf (60 m), and shelf break (88 m) stations. High-frequency motions are defined as motions with periods less than 36 hours, whereas mesoscale motions have larger periods. The collected datasets are analyzed through bandpass filtering, least square harmonic analysis, spectral analysis, and empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). We find that along-shelf barotropic mesoscale motions contain ...


Establishing The Role Of The Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands In Mississippi Sound And Bight Circulation Using Observational Data Analysis And A Coastal Model, Laura Hode 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

Establishing The Role Of The Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands In Mississippi Sound And Bight Circulation Using Observational Data Analysis And A Coastal Model, Laura Hode

Dissertations

The Mississippi-Alabama barrier islands restrict exchange between the Mississippi Sound and Mississippi Bight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The islands also act as storm breaks for tropical cyclones, so their continued existence sustains marine ecosystems and protects coastal communities. However, the chain has undergone extensive segmentation, erosion, and westward migration in the past two hundred years. The islands are now more susceptible to further erosion (Pendleton et al., 2013; Morton, 2007). Additional reduction in island subaerial land extent would alter circulation in the Mississippi Sound and Bight.

Consequently, this study targeted the two most vulnerable barrier islands in the ...


Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Formulated Using Free Chlorine And Monochloramine, Yonas Ghebremedhin 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Formulated Using Free Chlorine And Monochloramine, Yonas Ghebremedhin

Theses and Dissertations

Bioassays have been used extensively to assess various toxicity endpoints of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs), but an emphasis on single compounds prevails. In this research, DBP mixtures were assessed using a cytotoxicity test with Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and an Ames fluctuation test with Salmonella typhimurium TA-98 and TA-100 with and without S9 rat liver homogenate. Seven whole mixture DBP concentrates were formulated using reconstituted natural organic matter (NOM) extracts from the Upper Mississippi River using scaled disinfectant dosing protocols with free chlorine and monochloramine in the presence and absence of added bromide. DBPs were identified by gas ...


Participatory Modeling Of Tidal Circulation On Maine Mudflats To Improve Water Quality Management Of Shellfish Areas, Gabrielle V. Hillyer 2019 University of Maine

Participatory Modeling Of Tidal Circulation On Maine Mudflats To Improve Water Quality Management Of Shellfish Areas, Gabrielle V. Hillyer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over the past decade, researchers have become increasingly aware of the vital role stakeholder knowledge plays in understanding complex social and environmental problems. Incorporating stakeholder knowledge into understanding complex problems allows for greater awareness and identification of community needs and can help build partnerships to support the development of applied research. In this thesis, I demonstrate the value of stakeholder knowledge and research partnerships by focusing on the soft-shell clamming industry in Maine and how a complex collaboration between clammers, municipal officials, representatives from state agencies, researchers, and other partners relied on and build adaptive capacity to address complex water ...


Defining Boat Wake Impacts On Shoreline Stability Toward Management And Policy Solutions, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly M. Mitchell, Jennifer Davis, Julie Herman, Elizabeth Andrews, Angela King, Pamela Mason, Navid Tahvildari, Jana Davis, Rachel L. Dixon 2019 Old Dominion University

Defining Boat Wake Impacts On Shoreline Stability Toward Management And Policy Solutions, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly M. Mitchell, Jennifer Davis, Julie Herman, Elizabeth Andrews, Angela King, Pamela Mason, Navid Tahvildari, Jana Davis, Rachel L. Dixon

Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

Coastal economies are often supported by activities that rely on commercial or recreational vessels to move people or goods, such as shipping, transportation, cruising, and fishing. Unintentionally, frequent or intense vessel traffic can contribute to erosion of coastlines; this can be particularly evident in sheltered systems where shoreline erosion should be minimal in the absence of boat waves. We reviewed the state of the science of known effects of boat waves on shoreline stability, examined data on erosion, turbidity, and shoreline armoring patterns for evidence of a response to boat waves in Chesapeake Bay, and reviewed existing management and policy ...


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