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Pathogen Transmission Techniques And Genotypic Resistance To Disease In The Threatened Coral, Acropora Cervicornis, Megan Bock 2018 Nova Southeastern University

Pathogen Transmission Techniques And Genotypic Resistance To Disease In The Threatened Coral, Acropora Cervicornis, Megan Bock

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Unprecedented population losses of the staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, since the 1970s have been attributed primarily to disease. Although a positive linear relationship between disease prevalence and increased water temperature has been described, the pathogen(s) causing disease and whether they are spread through the water or vectors is still poorly understood. Additionally, an increase in disease outbreaks and severity has provided an urgent need to identify natural genotypic resistance to disease in Caribbean acroporids. Studies to date have explored a variety of pathogen transmission methods, but prior to this study, there has been no examination of differences among common ...


Identifying Disease-Resistant And Thermal-Tolerant Genotypes In The Threatened Staghorn Coral, Acropora Cervicornis, Morgan V. Hightshoe 2018 Nova Southeastern University

Identifying Disease-Resistant And Thermal-Tolerant Genotypes In The Threatened Staghorn Coral, Acropora Cervicornis, Morgan V. Hightshoe

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Since the 1970s, loss of herbivores, coral bleaching, pollution, and disease epidemics have reshaped the ecological framework of coral reefs. Staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, was a major reef-building scleractinian coral found throughout Florida and the Caribbean that experienced unprecedented population declines primarily due to disease and coral bleaching. These two stressors are coupled; the highest coral disease prevalence occurs after periods of thermal stress caused by increased sea surface temperature. Previous research documented three disease-resistant A. cervicornis genotypes in Panama, but it is unknown if disease-resistant genotypes exist in the Florida Keys. Thermal tolerance has been found to be variable ...


Toxicological Effects Of Commercial Sunscreens On Coral Reef Ecosystems: New Protocols For Coral Restoration, Emilie C. Johnsen 2018 Nova Southeastern University

Toxicological Effects Of Commercial Sunscreens On Coral Reef Ecosystems: New Protocols For Coral Restoration, Emilie C. Johnsen

HCNSO Student Capstones

The primary purpose of consumer-grade sunscreen is to protect skin from harmful UVA and UVB rays. This market has grown during the past 80 years, and environmental contamination from increasing amounts of sunscreen compounds have created concern. In particular, impacts on ocean ecosystems have inspired investigations and toxicological research on their effects on marine life. Unfortunately, such studies using marine flora and fauna are scarce, and the impact of chemical exposure to consumer sunscreens is neither adequately measured nor completely understood. In a pilot study by the Coral Restoration Foundation, in situ toxicity exposure to 10 different brands of sunscreens ...


An Assessment Of Atmospheric And Meteorological Factors Regulating Red Sea Phytoplankton Growth, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, Mohamed A. Qurban, Emmanouil Proestakis, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova, Vassilis Amiridis, Antonis Gkikas, Eleni Marinou, Thomas Piechota, K. P. Manikandan 2018 Chapman University

An Assessment Of Atmospheric And Meteorological Factors Regulating Red Sea Phytoplankton Growth, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, Mohamed A. Qurban, Emmanouil Proestakis, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova, Vassilis Amiridis, Antonis Gkikas, Eleni Marinou, Thomas Piechota, K. P. Manikandan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study considers the various factors that regulate nutrients supply in the Red Sea. Multi-sensor observation and reanalysis datasets are used to examine the relationships among dust deposition, sea surface temperature (SST), and wind speed, as they may contribute to anomalous phytoplankton blooms, through time-series and correlation analyses. A positive correlation was found at 0–3 months lag between chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) anomalies and dust anomalies over the Red Sea regions. Dust deposition process was further examined with dust aerosols’ vertical distribution using satellite lidar data. Conversely, a negative correlation was found at 0–3 months lag between SST ...


The Impact Of Past Experience With Tornadoes On Future Decisions, Emily Paltz, Michael Hayes 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Impact Of Past Experience With Tornadoes On Future Decisions, Emily Paltz, Michael Hayes

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Tornadoes are a dangerous threat to public safety. The National Weather Service (NWS), therefore, advises the public to go to an interior room on the lowest level of their houses when a tornado warning is issued for their area. As the NWS Central Region Service Assessment of the Joplin, Missouri Tornado published in July 2011 reveals, however, this is often not the first action taken after learning that there is danger of being hit by a tornado. Rather, people need to seek confirmation from more than one source before following the recommended action. The goal of this research project is ...


Multidecadal Variability In The Subseasonal Peak Of Low-Level Convergence Over The Pacific Warm Pool, Yen-Heng Lin, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang 2018 Utah State University

Multidecadal Variability In The Subseasonal Peak Of Low-Level Convergence Over The Pacific Warm Pool, Yen-Heng Lin, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

In the Western North Pacific (WNP), the atmospheric low-level convergence is one of the main factors that influences the genesis of tropical cyclones (TC). It has been observed that the timing of the seasonal maxima in the low-level convergence and TC genesis has shifted since the mid-1990s from mid-August to late-July, with this shift having also affected the number of TC. A multidecadal frequency of 20 years was revealed in the timing variation of the tropical intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) in the Western Pacific, in which a weak WNP low-level convergence in spring may trigger an advanced ISO phase in summer ...


Construction Of A Pen-Scale Methane Collection System And Dietary Strategies For Methane Mitigation From Growing And Finishing Cattle, Thomas Winders 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Construction Of A Pen-Scale Methane Collection System And Dietary Strategies For Methane Mitigation From Growing And Finishing Cattle, Thomas Winders

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Methane production from ruminants has been researched for many years because it has a global warming potential 25x that of carbon dioxide, meaning that mitigating smaller amounts of methane can have a large environmental impact. Research has focused on individual animal methane measurements, but the literature lack in industry-scale measurements. For that reason, the methane barn was built to evaluate dietary strategies on pens of cattle rather than on individual animals. In order to test the methane barn capabilities, an experiment designed to produce differences in methane production was conducted. Cattle received the same growing diet, at either ad-libitum access ...


Age And Growth Of Hogfish (Lachnolaimus Maximus) In Southeast Florida, Ian A. Towne 2018 Nova Southeastern University

Age And Growth Of Hogfish (Lachnolaimus Maximus) In Southeast Florida, Ian A. Towne

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Hogfish (Lachnolaimus maximus; Walbaum 1792) from Southeast Florida were aged using sectioned otoliths and growth rates were calculated using the von Bertalanffy growth equation. The samples were collected from Broward County (n=209); other regions of Southeast Florida (n=18), the Florida Keys (n=35) and Bahamas (n=43). Growth rates were determined for each of these areas and were then compared to previously reported growth rates from other regions including the eastern Gulf of Mexico and Florida Keys. There was significant separation at the 95% confidence level between growth rates from each reagion. The average maximum fork length increased ...


Scales Of Seafloor Sediment Resuspension In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Arne-R. Diercks, Clayton Dike, Vernon Asper, Steven F. DiMarco, Jeff Chanton, Uta Passow 2018 University of Southern Mississippi

Scales Of Seafloor Sediment Resuspension In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Arne-R. Diercks, Clayton Dike, Vernon Asper, Steven F. Dimarco, Jeff Chanton, Uta Passow

Faculty Publications

Seafloor sediment resuspension events of different scales and magnitudes and the resulting deep (>1,000 m) benthic nepheloid layers were investigated in the northern Gulf of Mexico during Fall 2012 to Summer 2013. Time-series data of size-specific in-situ settling speeds of marine snow in the benthic nepheloid layer (moored flux cameras), particle size distributions (profiling camera), currents (various current meters) and stacked time-series flux data (sediment traps) were combined to recognize resuspension events ranging from small-scale local, to small-scale far-field to hurricane-scale. One smallscale local resuspension event caused by inertial currents was identified based on local high current speeds (>10 ...


Mathematics Of The Significant Tornado Parameter, Aaron Baker 2018 Stephen F Austin State University

Mathematics Of The Significant Tornado Parameter, Aaron Baker

Undergraduate Research Conference

The idea of this project came from my curiosity of weather and especially how severe storms are predicted. There are many parameters used to predict severe weather that use mathematical formulas. After sorting through the parameters, the STP was the one selected due to its use of other parameters for prediction of tornadoes, as well as concepts used in Single and Multi-Variable Calculus, such as areas between curves and vector magnitude and direction, and learning how to use new graphs than what is normally used.


Hawai'i Wildlife Fund V. County Of Maui, Lowell J. Chandler 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Hawai'i Wildlife Fund V. County Of Maui, Lowell J. Chandler

Public Land and Resources Law Review

In Hawai’i Wildlife Fund v. County of Maui, the Ninth Circuit held that the plain language of the Clean Water Act provides jurisdiction over indirect discharges of pollutants from a point source into groundwater that is shown to be connected to navigable waters. The court found that studies confirmed pollutants entering the Pacific Ocean were fairly traceable to the County of Maui’s sewage disposal wells. In affirming the district court’s ruling, the Ninth Circuit held that Maui County violated the Clean Water Act by discharging pollutants into a navigable water without the required permit. The court also ...


Relational Values And Valuation: Challenges, And Possibilities, Kai Chan 2018 The Univ. of British Columbia, Canada

Relational Values And Valuation: Challenges, And Possibilities, Kai Chan

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Although the ecological valuation literature has been focused largely on instrumental values, there is increasing recognition that relational values might play a crucial and related role in environmental policy and practice. For example, relational values—as preferences, principles and virtues about human relationships involving nature—are identified as central in the IPBES Conceptual Framework, and recent work has investigated the implications of these for conservation and ecosystem management. But what are the implications of relational values for ecosystem valuation? In this talk, I address this question in three points. First, whereas instrumental or economic values are values of a thing ...


Discerning Population Connectivity And Natal Origins Of Pacific Herring (Clupea Pallasi): Inferences On Population Structure From Otolith Chemistry, Wade Smith, Tony Pitcher, Margot Hessing-Lewis, Brian P.V. Hunt, Evgeny A. Pakhomov 2018 The Univ. of British Columbia, Canada

Discerning Population Connectivity And Natal Origins Of Pacific Herring (Clupea Pallasi): Inferences On Population Structure From Otolith Chemistry, Wade Smith, Tony Pitcher, Margot Hessing-Lewis, Brian P.V. Hunt, Evgeny A. Pakhomov

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi, undertake annual migrations between feeding and spawning grounds that link life stages, habitats, populations, communities, and ecosystems. However, movement patterns of these highly mobile fish are poorly understood. Declines in Pacific herring abundance and slow population recoveries in the absence of fishing pressure have elevated concerns over the status of this ecologically, economically, and culturally important species. Pacific herring spawn on substrate in nearshore habitats where eggs and larvae develop for approximately two weeks before hatching. Early development within discrete spawning grounds could facilitate the incorporation of distinctive chemical signatures within otoliths that could be used ...


Washington State Ferries: Colman Dock And The New Mukilteo Ferry Terminal: Environmental Protection And Marine Mammal Monitoring During Construction, Richard Huey 2018 Washington State Ferries, United States

Washington State Ferries: Colman Dock And The New Mukilteo Ferry Terminal: Environmental Protection And Marine Mammal Monitoring During Construction, Richard Huey

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Washington State Ferries (WSF) is constructing two major infrastructure projects in the Salish Sea. Colman Dock (Seattle Ferry Terminal) is undergoing a 5-year reconstruction, and WSF is building the first new ferry terminal in over 50 years in Mukilteo. This presentation gives an overview of both projects, focusing on environmental protection, sediment cleanup, mitigation, and protection of marine mammals and marbled murrelet from pile driving noise. The presentation includes a report on protected species seen during the first year of both projects, and the use of ArcGIS Online Survey 123 for sightings data collection.


Understanding The Implications Of A Changing Environment On Harvested Bivalve Populations Using Habitat Suitability Models, Ted DeWitt, Nathaniel Lewis, Eric Fox, Stephen Pacella 2018 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, United States

Understanding The Implications Of A Changing Environment On Harvested Bivalve Populations Using Habitat Suitability Models, Ted Dewitt, Nathaniel Lewis, Eric Fox, Stephen Pacella

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Habitat suitability models are useful to forecast how environmental change may affect the abundance or distribution of species of interest. In the case of harvested bivalves, those models may be used to estimate the vulnerability of this valued ecosystem good to stressors. Using literature-derived natural history information, rule-based habitat suitability models were constructed in a GIS for several bivalve species (Clinocardium nuttallii, Mya arenaria, and Tresus capax) that are recreationally and commercially harvested in NE Pacific estuaries, including in the Salish Sea. Spatially-explicit habitat maps were produced for two Oregon estuaries using environmental data (salinity, depth, sediment grain size, and ...


Wood Waste Assessment, Characterization, And Remediation In Esquimalt Harbour, Mikaela Davis, Scott Northrup 2018 Hemmera, Canada

Wood Waste Assessment, Characterization, And Remediation In Esquimalt Harbour, Mikaela Davis, Scott Northrup

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Log booming and wood processing operations in BC’s Esquimalt Harbour since the 1800s have resulted in the accumulation of wood waste deposits throughout the subtidal zone. Wood waste can adversely affect sediment quality and benthic and infaunal communities, prompting the Department of National Defence to prioritize the assessment of effects of wood waste on the ecological health of the nearshore marine environment in Esquimalt Harbour. In alignment with the overall Esquimalt Harbour Remediation Project, The Esquimalt Harbour Wood Waste Assessment and Characterization Project was initiated in 2016 and continues into 2018, with Hemmera supporting the assessment, determination of impacts ...


Assessing Biological Condition In Small Streams Of The Puget Sound Lowlands Through Collaborative Regional Monitoring, Richard Sheibley, Curtis DeGasperi, Chad Larson, Brandi Lubliner, Leska Fore, Keunyea Song 2018 U.S. Geological Survey, United States

Assessing Biological Condition In Small Streams Of The Puget Sound Lowlands Through Collaborative Regional Monitoring, Richard Sheibley, Curtis Degasperi, Chad Larson, Brandi Lubliner, Leska Fore, Keunyea Song

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

In 2015, the condition of Puget Sound Lowland streams was evaluated by collecting data for stream invertebrates, algae, water and sediment quality, and instream and riparian habitat. The study was designed and implemented as part of the Stormwater Action Monitoring program, a collaborative, regional stormwater monitoring program funded by more than 90 Western Washington cities and counties, the ports of Seattle and Tacoma, and the Washington State Department of Transportation. The goal of this long term program is to inform stakeholders on the status and trends of small streams within the Puget Lowlands and to track whether stream condition improves ...


Salish Sea Surface Currents: Real-Time Velocities From Hf Radar, Richard Dewey, Rich Pawlowicz, Mike Morley, Manman Wang 2018 Univ. of Victoria, Canada

Salish Sea Surface Currents: Real-Time Velocities From Hf Radar, Richard Dewey, Rich Pawlowicz, Mike Morley, Manman Wang

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Ocean Networks Canada has operated Salish Sea CODAR high-frequency (HF) surface radar systems for monitoring surface currents since 2012. The network of antennae continues to grow, with four arrays now deployed in the southern Strait of Georgia, two more planned for the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and several more installed and planned along BC’s northern coast. These arrays provide hourly maps of surface currents. In the Strait of Georgia, where the Fraser River and ocean tides meet, there are complex surface current patterns that vary under seasonal river and wind conditions. Data are used to understand the circulation ...


The Role Of Reproductive Timing As A Driver Of Genetic Differentiation In Populations Of Pacific Herring, Eleni Petrou, Todd Sandell, Dayv Lowry, Lorenz Hauser 2018 Univ. of Washington, United States

The Role Of Reproductive Timing As A Driver Of Genetic Differentiation In Populations Of Pacific Herring, Eleni Petrou, Todd Sandell, Dayv Lowry, Lorenz Hauser

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

There is growing recognition that maintaining diversity in life history traits contributes to the sustainable management of wild populations. One important life history characteristic is reproductive phenology, and it has been shown that differences in the timing of reproduction can act as a barrier to gene flow between populations. If the difference in reproductive timing determines the level of connectivity, one would expect that genetic differentiation between populations would increase as a function of difference in reproductive date. This pattern, known as “isolation by time” (IBT), has been observed in wild populations of salmonids containing early and late runs. Pacific ...


Alternatives To Disposing Dredged Wood Waste At Sea, Tiffany Paul 2018 Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canada

Alternatives To Disposing Dredged Wood Waste At Sea, Tiffany Paul

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Dredged material in British Columbia sometimes contains wood waste as a by-product of the wood processing industry, typically log handling facilities and sawmills. This presentation will focus on the potential alternative disposal options for dredged wood waste, based on a report by Azimuth Consulting Group, commissioned by Environment and Climate Change Canada to develop a better understanding of the effects of, and options for reducing and managing wood waste and improve the Disposal at Sea permitting process. An analysis of disposal options was considered in light of a comparative assessment of: human health risks; environmental costs; hazards; economics; and exclusion ...


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