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Long Simulation Of Regional Climate As A Sequence Of Short Segments, Zaitao Pan, Eugene Takle, William Gutowski, Richard Turner 2017 Iowa State University

Long Simulation Of Regional Climate As A Sequence Of Short Segments, Zaitao Pan, Eugene Takle, William Gutowski, Richard Turner

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

Regional climate simulations are long time integrations over an open system where the atmosphere over part of the model domain (boundary zones) is updated periodically. Model reinitialization after a long period of integration can allow several segments of a long simulation to be run in parallel and also minimize possible drift caused by accumulated model errors. However, the spinup problems introduced by each additional restart must be addressed. The necessity and feasibility of subdividing long integrations is investigated by means of a series of experiments in which the authors examine the effects of reinitialization frequency and the relative importance of ...


Potential Impacts Of Climate Change On U.S. Transportation, William J. Gutowski Jr., H. G. Schwartz, A. C. Clark, G. E. Dickey, G. C. Eads, R. E. Gallamore, G. Giuliano, R. H. Iwasaki, K. H. Jacob, T. R. Karl, R. J. Lempert, L. Paiewonsky, S. G. H. Philander, C. R. Zeppie 2017 Iowa State University

Potential Impacts Of Climate Change On U.S. Transportation, William J. Gutowski Jr., H. G. Schwartz, A. C. Clark, G. E. Dickey, G. C. Eads, R. E. Gallamore, G. Giuliano, R. H. Iwasaki, K. H. Jacob, T. R. Karl, R. J. Lempert, L. Paiewonsky, S. G. H. Philander, C. R. Zeppie

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

No abstract provided.


Climate Models: An Assessment Of Strengths And Limitations, David C. Bader, Curtis Covey, William J. Gutowski Jr., Isaac M. Held, Kenneth e. Kunkel, Ronald L. Miller, Robin T. Tokmakian, Minghua H. Zhang 2017 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Climate Models: An Assessment Of Strengths And Limitations, David C. Bader, Curtis Covey, William J. Gutowski Jr., Isaac M. Held, Kenneth E. Kunkel, Ronald L. Miller, Robin T. Tokmakian, Minghua H. Zhang

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

Executive Summary Scientists extensively use mathematical models of Earth’s climate, executed on the most powerful computers available, to examine hypotheses about past and present-day climates. Development of climate models is fully consistent with approaches being taken in many other fields of science dealing with very complex systems. These climate simulations provide a framework within which enhanced understanding of climate-relevant processes, along with improved observations, are merged into coherent projections of future climate change. This report describes the models and their ability to simulate current climate. The science of climate modeling has matured through finer spatial resolution, the inclusion of ...


Long-Term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments And Irreversibility, William J. Gutowski Jr., Matthew Collins, Reto Knutti, Julie Arblaster, Jean-Louis Dufresne, Thierry Fichefet, Pierre Fridlingstien, Xuejie Gao, Tim Johns, Gerhard Krinner, Mxolisi Shongwe, Claudia Tebaldi, Andrew J. Weaver, Michael Wehner 2017 Iowa State University

Long-Term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments And Irreversibility, William J. Gutowski Jr., Matthew Collins, Reto Knutti, Julie Arblaster, Jean-Louis Dufresne, Thierry Fichefet, Pierre Fridlingstien, Xuejie Gao, Tim Johns, Gerhard Krinner, Mxolisi Shongwe, Claudia Tebaldi, Andrew J. Weaver, Michael Wehner

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

Executive Summary This chapter assesses long-term projections of climate change for the end of the 21st century and beyond, where the forced signal depends on the scenario and is typically larger than the internal variability of the climate system. Changes are expressed with respect to a baseline period of 1986–2005, unless otherwise stated.


Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter 2017 University of Minnesota - Duluth

Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Climate change and habitat loss are projected to be the two greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. While public lands have the potential to increase regional resilience of bird populations to these threats, long-term data are necessary to document species responses to changes in climate and habitat to better understand population vulnerabilities. We used generalized linear mixed models to determine the importance of stand-level characteristics, multi-scale land cover, and annual weather factors to the abundance of 61 bird species over a 20-year time frame in Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota, USA. Of the 61 species modeled, we were ...


How Biorenewables Are Impacting Climate Change, Sarah Pinkerton, Riley Bauling, Adam Formento, Jakub Kurpiewski 2017 Iowa State University

How Biorenewables Are Impacting Climate Change, Sarah Pinkerton, Riley Bauling, Adam Formento, Jakub Kurpiewski

TSM 325 Biorenewable Systems Posters

Biorenewable systems utilize organic material of recent biological origin to create energy. Algae and corn are examples of biomasses that are utilized in biorenewable systems. Algae and corn are opportunities to replace gasoline and diesel in order to lower the carbon footprint.

Climate change “is a change in the typical or average weather of a region or city” (Dunbar, 2015). Biorenewable systems that utilize different biomasses have different impacts on climate change. Figure 1 shows the increasing global temperature over the past 134 years. The increase in global temperature is considered a negative side effect of global warming.

This document ...


Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter 2017 University of Minnesota - Duluth

Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter

Peter Wolter

Climate change and habitat loss are projected to be the two greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. While public lands have the potential to increase regional resilience of bird populations to these threats, long-term data are necessary to document species responses to changes in climate and habitat to better understand population vulnerabilities. We used generalized linear mixed models to determine the importance of stand-level characteristics, multi-scale land cover, and annual weather factors to the abundance of 61 bird species over a 20-year time frame in Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota, USA. Of the 61 species modeled, we were ...


Apathy And Concern Over The Future Habitability Of Earth: An Introductory College Assignment Of Forecasting Co2 In The Earth’S Atmosphere, Benjamin J. Burger 2017 Utah State University

Apathy And Concern Over The Future Habitability Of Earth: An Introductory College Assignment Of Forecasting Co2 In The Earth’S Atmosphere, Benjamin J. Burger

Journal on Empowering Teaching Excellence

Non-science, first year regional undergraduate students from rural Utah communities participated in an online introductory geology course and were asked to forecast the rise of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere. The majority of students predicted catastrophic rise to 5,000-ppm sometime over the next 3,100 years, resulting in an atmosphere nearly uninhabitable to human life. However, the level of concern the students exhibited in their answers was not directly proportional with their timing in their forecasted rise of CO2. This study showcases the importance of presenting students with actual data and using data to develop student ...


A Study Of Marine Terrace Formation Along The California Central Coast, Mary C. Devlin 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

A Study Of Marine Terrace Formation Along The California Central Coast, Mary C. Devlin

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

Marine terrace formation is in many instances attributed to wave action, and shore platforms are often called “wave-cut”. However, alternative models for marine terrace formation suggest that other types of physical and chemical weathering have a more central role in the formation of marine terraces than is widely acknowledged. Roering and Retallack (2012) concluded that the roles of subaerial physical and chemical weathering are significant, and played a major role in the formation of the terraces. In this study, weathering of beach cliffs and shore platforms associated with marine terraces at eight sites in two different locations along the central ...


Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Source Apportionment And Btex Risk Assessment Of Winter 2015 In Roosevelt, Utah, Jerimiah Lamb 2017 Utah State University

Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Source Apportionment And Btex Risk Assessment Of Winter 2015 In Roosevelt, Utah, Jerimiah Lamb

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) monitored in Roosevelt Utah including Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (collectively known as BTEX) are associated with deleterious effects including cancer. This study was designed to assess the origin and effect of the toxicants and addressed two points: 1) Source identification using the USEPA’s Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and NOAA’s Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and 2) A human health risk assessment based on ambient concentrations of BTEX collected at the Roosevelt site. Model fit indicated that the primary contributor to total NMHCs was local oil and gas operations and was supported ...


Deglacial Tropical Atlantic Subsurface Warming Links Ocean Circulation Variability To The West African Monsoon, Matthew W. Schmidt, Ping Chang, Andrew O. Parker, Link Ji, Feng He 2017 Old Dominion University

Deglacial Tropical Atlantic Subsurface Warming Links Ocean Circulation Variability To The West African Monsoon, Matthew W. Schmidt, Ping Chang, Andrew O. Parker, Link Ji, Feng He

OEAS Faculty Publications

Multiple lines of evidence show that cold stadials in the North Atlantic were accompanied by both reductions in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and collapses of the West African Monsoon (WAM). Although records of terrestrial change identify abrupt WAM variability across the deglaciation, few studies show how ocean temperatures evolved across the deglaciation. To identify the mechanism linking AMOC to the WAM, we generated a new record of subsurface temperature variability over the last 21 kyr based on Mg/Ca ratios in a sub-thermocline dwelling planktonic foraminifera in an Eastern Equatorial Atlantic (EEA) sediment core from the Niger Delta. Our ...


Embroidered Meteorology, Bettina L. Matzkuhn 2017 artist, independent

Embroidered Meteorology, Bettina L. Matzkuhn

Artizein: Arts and Teaching Journal

Weathering is a series of embroidered works that explore the symbolic and cartographic language of meteorology. Through research, mentorship and the physical work, my understanding and anxiety around weather has grown. Making art is a learning process for me: the haptic is a means for understanding. From embroidered world maps to animation to painted laundry, I conflate the intricacy of textiles with the complicated nature of the atmosphere.


Keynote Address: Climate Change: From Global To New York Scale, Christopher D. Thorncroft 2017 Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany

Keynote Address: Climate Change: From Global To New York Scale, Christopher D. Thorncroft

CHAR

This talk is concerned with the science and impacts of climate change from global to New York scales. It will provide an assessment of how the climate has changed over the past Century based on a purely observational perspective. The scientific basis for anthroprogenic climate change will be explained and discussed including a description of the “greenhouse effect” and why it is important for life on this planet. We will briefly discuss global and local consequences of a warmer climate and what we need to be prepared for going forward in the coming decades.


'Catch The King' Tide With Stormsense On Nov. 5th: How You Can Help Crowd-Source Tidal Flood Event Calibrations For Hampton Roads' Newest Water Level Sensors, Jon Derek Loftis, Harry Wang, David R. Forrest 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

'Catch The King' Tide With Stormsense On Nov. 5th: How You Can Help Crowd-Source Tidal Flood Event Calibrations For Hampton Roads' Newest Water Level Sensors, Jon Derek Loftis, Harry Wang, David R. Forrest

Presentations

Dr. Derek Loftis presented his recent research related to installing new water level sensors (and some of the early event data the network has captured during Hurricanes Jose and Maria) in many Hampton Roads municipalities with the StormSense Smart Cities project. This presentation also introduces information related VIMS efforts with the CCRFR and local news media in the organization of the 'Catch the King' Tide crowd-sourcing data event using the Sea Level Rise App.


The Effects Of Environment On Arctica Islandica Shell Formation And Architecture, Stefania Milano, Gernot Nehrke, Alan D. Wanamaker Jr, Irene Ballesta-Artero, Thomas Brey, Bernd R. Schöne 2017 University of Mainz

The Effects Of Environment On Arctica Islandica Shell Formation And Architecture, Stefania Milano, Gernot Nehrke, Alan D. Wanamaker Jr, Irene Ballesta-Artero, Thomas Brey, Bernd R. Schöne

Alan Wanamaker

Mollusks record valuable information in their hard parts that reflect ambient environmental conditions. For this reason, shells can serve as excellent archives to reconstruct past climate and environmental variability. However, animal physiology and biomineralization, which are often poorly understood, can make the decoding of environmental signals a challenging task. Many of the routinely used shell-based proxies are sensitive to multiple different environmental and physiological variables. Therefore, the identification and interpretation of individual environmental signals (e.g., water temperature) often is particularly difficult. Additional proxies not influenced by multiple environmental variables or animal physiology would be a great asset in the ...


Reply To Nott: Assessing Biases In Speleothem Records Of Flood Events, Rhawn F. Denniston, Gabriele Villarini, Angelique N. Gonzales, Victor J. Polyak, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Matthew S. Lachniet, Alan D. Wanamaker, William F. Humphreys, David Woods, John Cugley 2017 Cornell College

Reply To Nott: Assessing Biases In Speleothem Records Of Flood Events, Rhawn F. Denniston, Gabriele Villarini, Angelique N. Gonzales, Victor J. Polyak, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Matthew S. Lachniet, Alan D. Wanamaker, William F. Humphreys, David Woods, John Cugley

Alan Wanamaker

No abstract provided.


The Influence Of Temperature And Seawater Carbonate Saturation State On 13c–18o Bond Ordering In Bivalve Mollusks, R. A. Eagle, J. M. Eiler, A. K. Tripati, J. B. Ries, P. S. Freitas, C. Hiebenthal, Alan D. Wanamaker, M. Taviani, M. Elliot, S. Marenssi, K. Nakamura, P. Ramirez, K. Roy 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

The Influence Of Temperature And Seawater Carbonate Saturation State On 13c–18o Bond Ordering In Bivalve Mollusks, R. A. Eagle, J. M. Eiler, A. K. Tripati, J. B. Ries, P. S. Freitas, C. Hiebenthal, Alan D. Wanamaker, M. Taviani, M. Elliot, S. Marenssi, K. Nakamura, P. Ramirez, K. Roy

Alan Wanamaker

The shells of marine mollusks are widely used archives of past climate and ocean chemistry. Whilst the measurement of mollusk δ18O to develop records of past climate change is a commonly used approach, it has proven challenging to develop reliable independent paleothermometers that can be used to deconvolve the contributions of temperature and fluid composition on molluscan oxygen isotope compositions. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of 13C–18O bond abundance, denoted by the measured parameter Δ47, in shell carbonates of bivalve mollusks and assess its potential to be a useful paleothermometer. We report measurements on cultured specimens spanning a ...


Annually Resolved North Atlantic Marine Climate Over The Last Millennium, D. J. Reynolds, J. D. Scourse, P. R. Halloran, A. J. Nederbragt, Alan D. Wanamaker, P. G. Butler, C. A. Richardson, J. Heinemeier, J. Eiriksson, K. L. Knudsen, I. R. Hall 2017 Cardiff University

Annually Resolved North Atlantic Marine Climate Over The Last Millennium, D. J. Reynolds, J. D. Scourse, P. R. Halloran, A. J. Nederbragt, Alan D. Wanamaker, P. G. Butler, C. A. Richardson, J. Heinemeier, J. Eiriksson, K. L. Knudsen, I. R. Hall

Alan Wanamaker

Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental period, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North Atlantic Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ18O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ18O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key ...


Oxygen Isotope Ratios In The Shell Of Mytilus Edulis: Archives Of Glacier Meltwater In Greenland?, E. A. A. Verteegh, M. E. Blicher, J. Mortensen, S. Rysgaard, T. D. Als, Alan D. Wanamaker 2017 University of Reading

Oxygen Isotope Ratios In The Shell Of Mytilus Edulis: Archives Of Glacier Meltwater In Greenland?, E. A. A. Verteegh, M. E. Blicher, J. Mortensen, S. Rysgaard, T. D. Als, Alan D. Wanamaker

Alan Wanamaker

Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient ...


Expansion And Contraction Of The Indo-Pacific Tropical Rain Belt Over The Last Three Millennia, Rhawn F. Denniston, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Alan D. Wanamaker, Matthew S. Lachniet, Gabriele Villarini, Yemane Asmerom, Victor J. Polyak, Kristian J. Passaro, John Cugley, David Woods, William F. Humphreys 2017 Cornell College

Expansion And Contraction Of The Indo-Pacific Tropical Rain Belt Over The Last Three Millennia, Rhawn F. Denniston, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Alan D. Wanamaker, Matthew S. Lachniet, Gabriele Villarini, Yemane Asmerom, Victor J. Polyak, Kristian J. Passaro, John Cugley, David Woods, William F. Humphreys

Alan Wanamaker

The seasonal north-south migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) defines the tropical rain belt (TRB), a region of enormous terrestrial and marine biodiversity and home to 40% of people on Earth. The TRB is dynamic and has been shown to shift south as a coherent system during periods of Northern Hemisphere cooling. However, recent studies of Indo-Pacific hydroclimate suggest that during the Little Ice Age (LIA; AD 1400–1850), the TRB in this region contracted rather than being displaced uniformly southward. This behaviour is not well understood, particularly during climatic fluctuations less pronounced than those of the LIA, the ...


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