Measurement Of Solar Spectral Irradiance And Surface Ozone At Carrollton, Georgia, Usa, During The Great American Eclipse On 21 August 2017, Kirthi Tennakone, L Ajith Desilva, Charles A. Zander*, Shea Rose, Austin B. Kerlin
Georgia Journal of Science
Measurements conducted at the University of West Georgia, Carrollton, Georgia, during the time of the solar eclipse of 21st August 2017 demonstrated that the integrated spectral irradiance in defined wavelength ranges in the ultraviolet and visible calculated as a fraction of the total irradiance reached a minimum at maximum obscuration of the Sun, whereas in an infrared range it was maximum. The method of analysis adopted supports the view that the changes in spectral irradiance during highly obscured partial phases is a consequence of limb darkening. In a surface ozone measurement, a minimum in ozone concentration occurred 30 +_ ...
Cave Dripwater Isotopic Signals Related To The Altitudinal Gradient Of Mount-Lebanon: Implication For Speleothem Studies, 2019 Laboratoire IDEES UMR 6266 CNRS and Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Cave Dripwater Isotopic Signals Related To The Altitudinal Gradient Of Mount-Lebanon: Implication For Speleothem Studies, Carole Nehme, Sophie Verheyden, Fadi H. Nader, Jocelyne Adjizian-Gerard, Dominique Genty, Kevin De Bont, Benedicte Minster, Ghada Salem, David Verstraten, Philippe Clayes
International Journal of Speleology
An important step in paleoclimate reconstructions based on vadose cave carbonate deposits or speleothems is to evaluate the sensitivity of the cave environment and speleothems to regional climate. Accordingly, we studied four caves, located at different altitudes along the western flank of Mount-Lebanon (Eastern Mediterranean). The objectives of this study are to identify the present-day variability in temperature, pCO2, and water isotopic composition and to assess the possible influence of the altitudinal gradient on cave drip waters and cave streams. We present here an overview of the spatial variability of rainwater based on local and regional data, and we ...
The Diversity Of Population Responses To Environmental Change, 2019 University of Southern Denmark
The Diversity Of Population Responses To Environmental Change, Fernando Colchero, Anne M. Bronikowski, Et Al.
Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications
The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us to predict population dynamics with ever‐greater accuracy. Although predictions rest on the well‐advanced theory of age‐structured populations, two key issues remain poorly explored. Specifically, how the age‐dependency in demographic rates and the year‐to‐year interactions between survival and fecundity affect stochastic population growth rates. We use inference, simulations and mathematical derivations to explore how environmental perturbations determine population growth rates for populations with different age‐specific demographic rates and when ages are reduced to stages. We find that stage‐ vs. age‐based models can produce markedly ...
A Global Database Of Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity, 2019 Yale University
A Global Database Of Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity, Tc Chakraborty, Xuhui Lee
Yale Day of Data
The urban heat island (UHI) effect - the phenomenon of higher temperatures in urban environments - is one of the most well-known consequences of urbanization on local climate. We develop the simplified urban-extent (SUE) algorithm, a new algorithm to estimate the urban heat island (UHI) intensity at a global scale. This algorithm is implemented on the Google Earth Engine platform and uses satellite-derived images to calculate the surface UHI intensity for over 9500 urban clusters covering 15 years, making this the most comprehensive global UHI database. The data are validated against previous multi-city studies and then used to estimate the diurnal, monthly ...
Isolution 1.0: An Isotope Evolution Model Describing The Stable Oxygen (Δ18O) And Carbon (Δ13C) Isotope Values Of Speleothems, 2019 Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Isolution 1.0: An Isotope Evolution Model Describing The Stable Oxygen (Δ18O) And Carbon (Δ13C) Isotope Values Of Speleothems, Michael Deininger, Denis Scholz
International Journal of Speleology
Stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios (δ13C and δ18O) are the most applied climate and environmental proxies in speleothems allowing to infer past changes in cave drip water δ13C and δ18O related to climate and environmental variations from above the cave. However, disequilibrium isotope fractionation processes can modify δ13C and δ18O values in speleothems, which is in most cases difficult to estimate due to inter-dependencies on various cave specific parameter. To better understand the effect of these disequilibrium isotope fractionation processes proxy system models were developed in recent ...
Modeled And Measured Ecosystem Respiration In Maize–Soybean Systems Over 10 Years, 2019 Huazhong Agricultural University
Modeled And Measured Ecosystem Respiration In Maize–Soybean Systems Over 10 Years, Ming Zhan, Adam Liska, Anthony Nguy-Robertson, Andrew E. Suyker, Matthew P. Pelton, Haishun Yang
Adam Liska Papers
Crop residue is an abundant resource for the potential production of biofuels, but a better understanding of its use on net carbon emissions must be developed to mitigate climate change. This analysis combines two established crop growth models (Hybrid-Maize and SoySim) with a simple soil and crop residue respiration model to estimate daily ecosystem respiration (ERe) from maize and soybean; ERe was estimated to be the sum of CO2 emissions from the oxidation of the growing crop, crop residue, and soil organic carbon (SOC). Model-estimated CO2 fluxes from irrigated continuous maize and irrigated maize–soybean cropping systems in ...
Planting Date, Hybrid Maturity, And Weather Effects On Maize Yield And Crop Stage, 2019 Iowa State University
Planting Date, Hybrid Maturity, And Weather Effects On Maize Yield And Crop Stage, M. E. Baum, S. V. Archontoulis, M. A. Licht
Unfavorable weather conditions frequently cause farmers to plant maize (Zea mays L.) outside the optimum planting timeframe. We analyzed maize yield and phenology from a multilocation, year, hybrid relative maturity, and planting date experiment performed in Iowa, USA. Our objectives were to determine the optimum combination of planting date and relative maturity to maximize maize grain yield per environment and to elucidate the risk associated with the use of “full-season hybrids” when planting occurs beyond the optimum planting date. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) attributed 70% of the variability in grain yield to planting date and only 10% to relative maturity ...
Analysis Of Land Surface Temperature Over Urban Landcover Types Using Satellite Remote Sensing And Ground-Based Applications, 2018 CUNY New York City College of Technology
Analysis Of Land Surface Temperature Over Urban Landcover Types Using Satellite Remote Sensing And Ground-Based Applications, Makini Valentine, Justine Ginchereau
Publications and Research
Urban areas have discrete differences in their land surface temperatures (LST) compared to rural areas. These regions are covered with impermeable materials with less vegetation and moisture. Consequently, this phenomenon causes major thermal intensities of different land surfaces, negatively impact people and environment. The objective of this project is to examine and to compare land surface temperature obtained from in-situ data and satellite-based observations in order to understand the diurnal variation and heat transfer at each surface type. The study utilizes series of hand held thermal infrared cameras and one Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) infrared camera to find land surface ...
Multidecadal Variability In Climate Models And Observations, 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Multidecadal Variability In Climate Models And Observations, Alex Carl Oser
Theses and Dissertations
Climate change attribution and prediction using state-of-the-art models continue to garner an ever-growing focus amongst both the scientific community and public alike. Recent analyses showing discrepancies in the structure of modeled and observed decadal climate variability (DCV), therefore, have engendered efforts to not only diagnose the dynamics underpinning observed DCV, but also to characterize the behavior of DCV within climate models. In this thesis, we employ Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis (M-SSA) to show that while the DCV signal in observations is best described as a coherent oscillation with complex propagation across the globe, modeled DCV lacks this structure altogether. Specifically ...
Framing Climate Change As National Security: A Survey-Experiment On Climate Change Perceptions., 2018 University of Louisville
Framing Climate Change As National Security: A Survey-Experiment On Climate Change Perceptions., Adam Lyons
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The issues surrounding climate change continue to have polarizing effects on many Americans. In this thesis I offer a potential bridge to this divide with a comprehensive study on how issue frames can impact how individuals shape their opinions on environmental issues. Focusing on a national security frame, I ask the central research “Will the public perceive issues of climate change differently when they are framed as threats to national security?” For this thesis I design an original experimental survey to measure the impact security framing has on participants’ perception of both climate change and environmental policy options. The survey ...
Molecular Fossils From Phytoplankton Reveal Secular Pco2 Trend Over The Phanerozoic, 2018 Utrecht University
Molecular Fossils From Phytoplankton Reveal Secular Pco2 Trend Over The Phanerozoic, Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Johan W. H. Weijers, Brian S. Blais, Stefan Schouten, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
Science and Technology Faculty Journal Articles
Past changes in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (PCO2) have had a major impact on earth system dynamics; yet, reconstructing secular trends of past PCO2 remains a prevalent challenge in paleoclimate studies. The current long-term PCO2reconstructions rely largely on the compilation of many different proxies, often with discrepancies among proxies, particularly for periods older than 100 million years (Ma). Here, we reconstructed Phanerozoic PCO2 from a single proxy: the stable carbon isotopic fractionation associated with photosynthesis (Ɛp) that increases as PCO2 increases. This concept has been widely applied to alkenones, but here, we expand ...
Water, Energy, And Carbon Footprints Of Bioethanol From The U.S. And Brazil, 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Water, Energy, And Carbon Footprints Of Bioethanol From The U.S. And Brazil, Mesfin Mergia Mekonnen, Thiago L. Romanelli, Chittaranjan Ray, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, Adam Liska, Christopher M. U. Neale
Adam Liska Papers
Driven by biofuel policies, which aim to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increase domestic energy supply, global production and consumption of bioethanol have doubled between 2007 and 2016, with rapid growth in corn-based bioethanol in the U.S. and sugar cane-based bioethanol in Brazil. Advances in crop yields, energy use efficiency in fertilizer production, biomass-to-ethanol conversion rates, and energy efficiency in ethanol production have improved the energy balance and GHG emission reduction potential of bioethanol. In the current study, the water, energy, and carbon footprints of bioethanol from corn in the U.S. and sugar cane in Brazil were ...
Designing Climate Policy: Lessons From The Renewable Fuel Standard And The Blend Wall, 2018 Iowa State University
Designing Climate Policy: Lessons From The Renewable Fuel Standard And The Blend Wall, Gabriel E. Lade, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell, Aaron Smith
Economics Working Papers
Many policies mandate renewable energy production to combat global climate change. These policies often differ significantly from first-best policy prescriptions. Among the largest renewable energy mandates enacted to date is the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates biofuel consumption far beyond what is feasible with current technology and infrastructure. In this article, we critically review the methods used by the Environmental Protection Agency to project nearand long-term compliance costs under the RFS, and draw lessons from the RFS experience to date that would improve the program’s efficiency. The lessons are meant to inform both future RFS rulemaking and the ...
Local Warming In Low Latitude Locations: A Time Series Analysis, 2018 Anderson University
Local Warming In Low Latitude Locations: A Time Series Analysis, Ryan Pittman
Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal
Global warming is a well-known and well-studied phenomenon pertaining to a gradual increase of average global temperatures over time. Many global warming mathematical models make certain assumptions regarding the factors that impact global temperature. These assumptions include effects from increased global carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and the melting ice sheets, among others. This paper draws conclusions about temperature changes without the assumptions needed for the global warming mathematical models. Instead of using computer models to project temperatures on a global scale, 33 low-latitude locations in the southern United States were individually studied to see if each one has ...
The 'New Normal' Of Flooding In Portsmouth, Virginia: Perspectives, Experiences, And Adaptive Responses Of Residents And Business Owners In Low To Moderate-Income Communities, 2018 Old Dominion University
The 'New Normal' Of Flooding In Portsmouth, Virginia: Perspectives, Experiences, And Adaptive Responses Of Residents And Business Owners In Low To Moderate-Income Communities, Donta Council, Michelle Covi, Wie Yusuf, Joshua Behr, Makayla Brown, Old Dominion University Resilience Collaborative, Virginia Sea Grant
Presentations, Lectures, Posters, Reports
[First three paragraphs from the Summary]
This project is a part of a broader initiative - the Resilience Adaptation Feasibility Tool (RAFT) - that addresses the daunting challenges coastal communities are facing related to sea level rise and climate change (more information about RAFT is available here: https://ien.virginia.edu/raft).
This aim of this project was to investigate how residents and business owners in low-to-moderate income communities in Portsmouth, Virginia cope with flooding, and to assess implications for how the local government can better engage with residents to better meet their information needs so they can be more resilient to ...
A Climatological Dataset Of Nutrient, Chlorophyll, And Particulate Matter Distributions On The Ross Sea Continental Shelf Derived From Cruise-Based Measurements Spanning 1967 To 2016, 2018 Virginia Institute of Marine Science
A Climatological Dataset Of Nutrient, Chlorophyll, And Particulate Matter Distributions On The Ross Sea Continental Shelf Derived From Cruise-Based Measurements Spanning 1967 To 2016, Walker O. Smith Jr., Daniel E. Kaufman
This dataset includes data used in the publication Smith and Kaufman (2018), Progress in Oceanography, which examines the temporal and spatial distributions of nutrients and particulate matter in the Ross Sea continental Shelf using cruise-based observations, and compares the resulting annual productivity estimates with previously reported satellite-based estimates. Specifically, these data represent distributions of nutrients, chlorophyll, particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, and biogenic silica that were compiled from 42 cruises (from 1967 - 2016) to the Ross Sea continental shelf to generate a comprehensive climatological dataset for November, December, January, and February. This climatology provides a novel look at broad ...
Shifting Echo Chambers In Us Climate Policy Networks, 2018 University of Exeter
Shifting Echo Chambers In Us Climate Policy Networks, Lorien Jasny, Amanda M. Dewey, Anya Galli Robertson, William Yagatich, Ann H. Dubin, Joseph Mccartney Waggle, Dana R. Fisher
Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work Faculty Publications
Although substantial attention has focused on efforts by the new Administration to block environmental policies, climate politics have been contentious in the US since well before the election of Donald Trump. In this paper, we extend previous work on empirical examinations of echo chambers in US climate politics using new data collected on the federal climate policy network in summer 2016. We test for the similarity and differences at two points in time in homophily and echo chambers using Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGM) to compare new findings from 2016 to previous work on data from 2010. We show that ...
Sea Squad, 2018 Goldsmiths, University of London
Sea Squad, Liam Geary Baulch
The Sea Squad is a band of cheerleaders against climate change. Taking action as a team in formation, they gather momentum, inviting all people to cheer with them, mimicking the infinitely expandable nature of the seas' molecular structure. The work was developed and performed as a bilingual project at Est-Nord-Est in Saint-Jean-Port-Joli, Quebec, Canada, and has since been performed and exhibited internationally. The following poems are some of the chants that Sea Squad use to get a crowd cheering together against climate change.
Reconstruction Of Sea Level Around The Korean Peninsula Using Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Functions, 2018 Old Dominion University
Reconstruction Of Sea Level Around The Korean Peninsula Using Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Functions, Se-Hyeon Cheon, Benjamin D. Hamlington, Kyung-Duck Suh
OEAS Faculty Publications
Since the advent of the modern satellite altimeter era, the understanding of the sea level has increased dramatically. The satellite altimeter record, however, dates back only to the 1990s. The tide gauge record, on the other hand, extends through the 20th century but with poor spatial coverage when compared to the satellites. Many studies have been conducted to create a dataset with the spatial coverage of the satellite datasets and the temporal length of the tide gauge records by finding novel ways to combine the satellite data and tide gauge data in what is known as sea level reconstruction. However ...
Impacts Of Climate Extremes On Terrestrial Productivity, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Impacts Of Climate Extremes On Terrestrial Productivity, Suhua Wei
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Terrestrial biosphere absorbs approximately 28% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This terrestrial carbon sink might become saturated in a future climate regime. To explore the issues associated with this topic, an accurate estimate of gross primary production (GPP) of global terrestrial ecosystems is needed. A major uncertainty in modeling global terrestrial GPP is the parameter of light use efficiency (LUE). Most LUE estimates in global models are satellite-based and coarsely measured with emphasis on environmental variables. Others are from eddy covariance towers with much greater spatial and temporal data quality and emphasis on mechanistic processes, but in a limited number ...