Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Climate Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1791 Full-Text Articles 3319 Authors 168631 Downloads 85 Institutions

All Articles in Climate

Faceted Search

1791 full-text articles. Page 1 of 52.

Impacts Of Climate Change On Hydrology, Water Quality And Crop Productivity In The Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Philip W. Gassman, Raymond W. Arritt, Daryl E. Herzmann, Todd D. Campbell, Adriana Valcu, Manoj K. Jha, Catherine L. Kling, Raghavan Srinivasan, Michael White, Jeffrey G. Arnold 2017 Iowa State University

Impacts Of Climate Change On Hydrology, Water Quality And Crop Productivity In The Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Philip W. Gassman, Raymond W. Arritt, Daryl E. Herzmann, Todd D. Campbell, Adriana Valcu, Manoj K. Jha, Catherine L. Kling, Raghavan Srinivasan, Michael White, Jeffrey G. Arnold

Catherine Kling

Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture is the main source of nitrogen and phosphorus in the stream systems of the Corn Belt region in the Midwestern US. The eastern part of this region is comprised of the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (OTRB), which is considered a key contributing area for water pollution and the Northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. A point of crucial importance in this basin is therefore how intensive corn-based cropping systems for food and fuel production can be sustainable and coexist with a healthy water environment, not only under existing climate but also under climate change conditions in ...


P07. Characterizing The Purple Crow Lidar To Investigate Potential Sources Of Wet Bias, Jeffrey VanKerkhove, Robert J. Sica, Robin Wing, Steve Argall 2017 University of Western Ontario

P07. Characterizing The Purple Crow Lidar To Investigate Potential Sources Of Wet Bias, Jeffrey Vankerkhove, Robert J. Sica, Robin Wing, Steve Argall

Western Research Forum

The Purple Crow Lidar is a large aperture lidar, capable of retrieving water vapor profiles into the stratosphere. Water vapor in the upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region is of particular importance in understanding Earth's radiative budget and atmospheric dynamics, making accurate UTLS measurements crucial. A comparison campaign with the NASA/GSFC ALVICE mobile lidar in the spring of 2012 showed PCL water vapor measurements were consistently larger than those of ALVICE in the lower stratosphere, prompting an investigation to characterize the system. The investigation looks into how changes to the data processing approach, as well as applying additional instrumental ...


P16. Ralmo Rotational Raman Temperature Retrieval: First Steps Towards The Application Of Optimal Estimation Method (Oem), Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele 2017 Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada

P16. Ralmo Rotational Raman Temperature Retrieval: First Steps Towards The Application Of Optimal Estimation Method (Oem), Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele

Western Research Forum

Background:

Temperature is an important atmospheric parameter that plays an extensive role in the fields of atmospheric dynamics, climatology, meteorology, and chemistry. Light detection and ranging (lidar), is a remote sensing technology that can be used for atmospheric temperature profiling. A lidar transmits short laser pulses into the atmosphere and the light scattered by the particles in the atmosphere is collected and measured using a telescope. The atmospheric temperatures can be retrieved by analysing the Pure Rotational Raman (PRR) scatter measurements from the nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the atmosphere.

Methods:

In this study use the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM ...


Key Differences Between Lakes And Reservoirs Modify Climate Signals: A Case For A New Conceptual Model, Nicole M. Hayes, Bridget R. Deemer, Jessica R. Corman, N. Roxanna Razavi, Kristin E. Strock 2017 Dickinson College

Key Differences Between Lakes And Reservoirs Modify Climate Signals: A Case For A New Conceptual Model, Nicole M. Hayes, Bridget R. Deemer, Jessica R. Corman, N. Roxanna Razavi, Kristin E. Strock

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Lakes and reservoirs are recognized as important sentinels of climate change, integrating catchment and atmospheric climate change drivers. Climate change conceptual models generally consider lakes and reservoirs together despite the possibility that these systems respond differently to climate-related drivers. Here, we synthesize differences between lake and reservoir characteristics that are likely important for predicting waterbody response to climate change. To better articulate these differences, we revised the energy mass flux framework, a conceptual model for the effects of climate change on lentic ecosystems, to explicitly consider the differential responses of lake versus reservoir ecosystems. The model predicts that catchment and ...


The Irreversible Momentum Of Clean Energy, Barack Obama 2017 President of the United States

The Irreversible Momentum Of Clean Energy, Barack Obama

US Department of Energy Publications

The release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) due to human activity is increasing global av-erage surface air temperatures, disrupting weather patterns, and acidifying the ocean (1). Left unchecked, the continued growth of GHG emissions could cause global average tem-peratures to increase by another 4°C or more by 2100 and by 1.5 to 2 times as much in many midcontinent and far northern locations (1). Although our understanding of the impacts of climate change is increasingly and disturbingly clear, there is still debate about the proper course for U.S. policy—a debate that is ...


Why Do Different Drought Indices Show Distinct Future Drought Risk Outcomes In The U.S. Great Plains?, Song Feng, Miroslav Trnka, Michael Hayes, Yongjun Zheng 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Why Do Different Drought Indices Show Distinct Future Drought Risk Outcomes In The U.S. Great Plains?, Song Feng, Miroslav Trnka, Michael Hayes, Yongjun Zheng

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Vigorous discussions and disagreements about the future changes in drought intensity in the U.S. Great Plains have been taking place recently within the literature. These discussions have involved widely varying estimates based on drought indices and model-based projections of the future. To investigate and understand the causes for such a disparity between these previous estimates, the authors analyzed the soil moisture at the near-surface soil layer and the entire soil column, as well as the Palmer drought severity index, the Palmer Z index, and the standardized precipitation and evaporation index using the output from the Community Climate System Model ...


Changes In Arctic Climate And Central U.S. Weather Patterns Is There A Link?, Donald A. Wilhite, Kimberly C. Morrow, Martha Shulski 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Changes In Arctic Climate And Central U.S. Weather Patterns Is There A Link?, Donald A. Wilhite, Kimberly C. Morrow, Martha Shulski

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Earlier snowmelt, decreasing soil moisture, decreased corn yields, increasing extreme precipitation events—these are some of the weather effects currently observed in the central United States that might well have their origin in the rapidly warming Arctic. These and other implications of Arctic warming were among the topics discussed at a fall 2015 workshop, Implications of a Changing Arctic on Water Resources and Agriculture in the Central U.S (Wilhite and Morrow 2016).

The United States assumed chairmanship of the Arctic Council in April 2015, making the workshop topic timely. Given the importance of the Midwest and Great Plains region ...


Associated Dataset: Climate Change Impacts On Southern Ross Sea Phytoplankton Composition, Productivity And Export, Daniel E. Kaufman, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Walker O. Smith Jr., Eileen E. Hofmann, Michael S. Dinniman, John C.P. Hemmings 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Associated Dataset: Climate Change Impacts On Southern Ross Sea Phytoplankton Composition, Productivity And Export, Daniel E. Kaufman, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Walker O. Smith Jr., Eileen E. Hofmann, Michael S. Dinniman, John C.P. Hemmings

Data

This dataset includes data used in the publication Kaufman et al., 2017, JGR-Oceans in revision, which investigates how these climatic changes in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, may alter phytoplankton composition, primary productivity and export. A one-dimensional version of the Model of Ecosystem Dynamics, nutrient Utilisation, Sequestration and Acidification was adapted for use in the Ross Sea (MEDUSA-RS). Glider measurements were used to force MEDUSA-RS, which includes diatoms and both solitary and colonial forms of Phaeocystis antarctica. Model performance was evaluated with glider observations, and experiments were conducted using projections of physical drivers for mid- and late-21st century. Additional scenarios examined ...


Climate Change Adaptation For Southern California Groundwater Managers: A Case Study Of The Six Basins Aquifer, Frank Lyles 2017 Pomona College

Climate Change Adaptation For Southern California Groundwater Managers: A Case Study Of The Six Basins Aquifer, Frank Lyles

Pomona Senior Theses

Groundwater has been very important to the economic development of Southern California, and will continue to be a crucial resource in the 21st century. However, Climate Change threatens to disrupt many of the physical and economic processes that control the flow of water in and out of aquifers. One groundwater manager, the Six Basins Watermaster in eastern Los Angeles and western San Bernardino Counties, has developed a long-term planning document called the Strategic Plan that mostly fails to address the implications of Climate Change, especially for local water supplies. This thesis presents an in-depth analysis of the Six Basin Watermaster ...


Assessing Upper Tropospheric Jet Streak Proximity Using The Rossby Radius Of Deformation, Joshua S. Kastman, Patrick S. Market, Scott M. Rochette, Anthony R. Lupo 2016 University of Missouri

Assessing Upper Tropospheric Jet Streak Proximity Using The Rossby Radius Of Deformation, Joshua S. Kastman, Patrick S. Market, Scott M. Rochette, Anthony R. Lupo

Earth Sciences Faculty Publications

The Rossby radius of deformation is a parameter that describes the relative role of buoyant and inertial forces for atmospheric phenomena in a flow regime. It will be demonstrated that it can also be used to determine whether or not forcing for vertical motions in the region between upper level tropospheric jet streaks overlaps or interacts. Using predefined points in the entrance and exit regions of neighboring upper level jet streaks, the distance between them is calculated for each event. If they are closer than twice the Rossby radius of deformation, the resulting region affected by both streaks is termed ...


A Process Model Of Risk Communication: The Case Of Global Climate Change, Fiona Clark, Keith R. Stamm, Paula Reynolds Eblacas 2016 University of New Hampshire

A Process Model Of Risk Communication: The Case Of Global Climate Change, Fiona Clark, Keith R. Stamm, Paula Reynolds Eblacas

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors describe a survey of public media use as it relates to different stages of awareness and concern regarding risk issues.


Sequias En El Sur De La Peninsula De Yucatan: Analisis De La Variabilidad Anual Y Estacional De La Precipitacion (Droughts In The Southern Yucatan Peninsula: Analysis Of The Annual And Seasonal Precipitation Variability), Sofia Mardero, Elsa Nickl, Birgit Schmook, Laura Schneider, John Rogan, Zachary Christman, Deborah Lawrence 2016 Rowan University

Sequias En El Sur De La Peninsula De Yucatan: Analisis De La Variabilidad Anual Y Estacional De La Precipitacion (Droughts In The Southern Yucatan Peninsula: Analysis Of The Annual And Seasonal Precipitation Variability), Sofia Mardero, Elsa Nickl, Birgit Schmook, Laura Schneider, John Rogan, Zachary Christman, Deborah Lawrence

Zachary Christman

Paper is in Spanish. English abstract: This study analyzes the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation across the Southern Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico, addressing the anomalies and trends of annual and seasonal precipitation as well as the occurrence of meteorological droughts, using rainfall data from nine weather stations during the period 1953-2007. Linear regression in the annual and seasonal rainfall were used to analyze the increase or decrease in precipitation trends over this period. Precipitation anomalies enabled the evaluation of the stability, deficit, or surplus of precipitation for each year or season, and a quintile method was used to classify ...


Expression Of Cyanobacterial Fbp/Sbpase In Soybean Prevents Yield Depression Under Future Climate Conditions, Iris H. Kohler, Ursula M. Ruiz-Vera, Andy VanLoocke, Michell L. Thomey, Tom Clemente, Stephen P. Long, Donald R. Ort, Carl J. Bernacchi 2016 United States Department of Agriculture

Expression Of Cyanobacterial Fbp/Sbpase In Soybean Prevents Yield Depression Under Future Climate Conditions, Iris H. Kohler, Ursula M. Ruiz-Vera, Andy Vanloocke, Michell L. Thomey, Tom Clemente, Stephen P. Long, Donald R. Ort, Carl J. Bernacchi

Agronomy Publications

Predictions suggest that current crop production needs to double by 2050 to meet global food and energy demands. Based on theory and experimental studies, overexpression of the photosynthetic enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) is expected to enhance C3 crop photosynthesis and yields. Here we test how expression of the cyanobacterial, bifunctional fructose-1,6/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (FBP/SBPase) affects carbon assimilation and seed yield (SY) in a major crop (soybean, Glycine max). For three growing seasons, wild-type (WT) and FBP/SBPase-expressing (FS) plants were grown in the field under ambient (400 μmol mol−1) and elevated (600 μmol mol−1) CO2 concentrations ...


Late Paleo-Indian Period Lithic Economies, Mobility, And Group Organization In Wisconsin, Ethan Adam Epstein 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Late Paleo-Indian Period Lithic Economies, Mobility, And Group Organization In Wisconsin, Ethan Adam Epstein

Theses and Dissertations

The following dissertation focuses upon the organization of Pleistocene / Holocene period lithic technology in Wisconsin circa 10,000 – 10,500 years before present. Lithic debitage and flaked stone tools from the Plainview/Agate Basin components of the Heyrman I site (47DR381), the Dalles site (47IA374), and the Kelly North Tract site at Carcajou Point (47JE02) comprise the data set. These Wisconsin sites are located within a post glacial Great Lakes dune environment, an inland drainage/riverine environment, and an inland wetland/lacustrine environment. An assemblage approach is used to examine the structure of each site’s lithic economy. This broad ...


Canada’S Regional Adaptation Collaboratives And Adaptation Platform: The Importance Of Scaling Up And Scaling Down Climate Change Governance Experiments, Adam Wellstead, Michael Howlett, Sreeja Nair, Jeremy Rayner 2016 Michigan Technological University

Canada’S Regional Adaptation Collaboratives And Adaptation Platform: The Importance Of Scaling Up And Scaling Down Climate Change Governance Experiments, Adam Wellstead, Michael Howlett, Sreeja Nair, Jeremy Rayner

Department of Social Sciences Publications

Policy experiments have often been touted as valuable mechanisms for ensuring sustainability transitions and climate change adaptation. However problems exist both in the definition of ‘experiments’, and in their design and realization. While valuable, most experiments examined in the literature to date have been small-scale micro-level deployments or evaluations of policy tools in which the most problematic element revolves around their “scaling-up” or diffusion. The literature on the subject has generally neglected the problems and issues related to another class of experiments in which macro or meso-level initiatives are ‘scaled-down’ to the micro-level. This paper examines a recent effort of ...


Impact Of Climate Change On Soybean Breeding Objectives, Theodore M. I. Hartman 2016 Iowa State University

Impact Of Climate Change On Soybean Breeding Objectives, Theodore M. I. Hartman

Meteorology Senior Theses

Changes in climate, mainly changes in temperature, precipitation, and carbon dioxide concentration are predicted to occur. These changes in climate will affect weather conditions that are vitally important in the growth and development of crops. Historically, yield increases have been observed in many crops, including Glycine max (soybean). This yield increase has been associated with deliberate breeding objectives designed to optimize plant performance for the contemporary climate. This deliberate breeding initiative has modified plant physiologic parameters. This study looks at how changes in soybean physiological parameters, through different cultivars, have attributed to observed yield increases and how future climate changes ...


A Comparison Of Global Climate Reanalysis And Climate Of South Greenland And The North Atlantic, Jeff Auger 2016 University of Maine

A Comparison Of Global Climate Reanalysis And Climate Of South Greenland And The North Atlantic, Jeff Auger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Global climate reanalysis models are regularly used in many scientific fields concerning climate and atmospheric observation. This thesis utilizes reanalysis models in two chapters in order to gain insight into North Atlantic climate teleconnections and their relation to precipitation across South Greenland. This first chapter of this thesis compares the four most recent reanalysis models – ECMWF Reanalysis Interim (ERA-I), NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), JMA 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55), and NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) – and develops from these models a monthly-mean ensemble average of common meteorological variables for the period 1979-2013. Results from this analysis ...


Teleconnections In Steam: Antarctic Field-Camp Art, Craig Stevens, Gabby O'Connor 2016 National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research; The University of Auckland, New Zealand; New Zealand Association of Scientists.

Teleconnections In Steam: Antarctic Field-Camp Art, Craig Stevens, Gabby O'Connor

The STEAM Journal

We describe a component of a multi-element STEAM collaboration looking to explore ideas around the life cycle of Antarctic sea ice. One of the intermediate phases of the work involved the scientist deploying partially pre-made art components. Results were modulated by weather and operational constraints and generated a sequence of images and recordings as well as greater understanding of the creative collaboration process.


Optimal Climate Policy When Damages Are Unknown, Ivan Rudik 2016 Iowa State University

Optimal Climate Policy When Damages Are Unknown, Ivan Rudik

Economics Working Papers

Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are economists' primary tool for analyzing the optimal carbon tax. Damage functions, which link temperature to economic impacts, have come under fire because of their assumptions that may produce significant, and ex-ante unknowable misspecifications. Here I develop novel recursive IAM frameworks to model damage uncertainty. I decompose the optimal carbon tax into channels capturing parametric damage uncertainty, learning, and misspecification
concerns. Damage learning and using robust control to guard against potential
misspecifications can both improve ex-post welfare if the IAM's damage function is misspecified. However, these ex-post welfare gains may take decades or centuries to ...


Climate Change Adaptation Case Study: Benefit-Cost Analysis Of Coastal Flooding Hazard Mitigation, Will Cooper, Federico Garcia, Diana Pape, David Ryder, Ben Witherell 2016 ICF

Climate Change Adaptation Case Study: Benefit-Cost Analysis Of Coastal Flooding Hazard Mitigation, Will Cooper, Federico Garcia, Diana Pape, David Ryder, Ben Witherell

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The damage Hurricane Sandy caused had far-reaching repercussions up and down the East Coast of the United States. Vast coastal flooding accompanied the storm, inundating homes, businesses, and utility and emergency facilities. Since the storm, projects to mitigate similar future floods have been scrutinized. Such projects not only need to keep out floodwaters but also be designed to withstand the effect that climate change might have on rising sea levels and increased flood risk.

In this study, we develop an economic model to assess the costs and benefits of a berm (sea wall) to mitigate the effects of flooding from ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress