The Irreversible Momentum Of Clean Energy, 2017 President of the United States
The Irreversible Momentum Of Clean Energy, Barack Obama
US Department of Energy Publications
The release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) due to human activity is increasing global av-erage surface air temperatures, disrupting weather patterns, and acidifying the ocean (1). Left unchecked, the continued growth of GHG emissions could cause global average tem-peratures to increase by another 4°C or more by 2100 and by 1.5 to 2 times as much in many midcontinent and far northern locations (1). Although our understanding of the impacts of climate change is increasingly and disturbingly clear, there is still debate about the proper course for U.S. policy—a debate that is ...
Climate Change Adaptation For Southern California Groundwater Managers: A Case Study Of The Six Basins Aquifer, Frank Lyles
Pomona Senior Theses
Groundwater has been very important to the economic development of Southern California, and will continue to be a crucial resource in the 21st century. However, Climate Change threatens to disrupt many of the physical and economic processes that control the flow of water in and out of aquifers. One groundwater manager, the Six Basins Watermaster in eastern Los Angeles and western San Bernardino Counties, has developed a long-term planning document called the Strategic Plan that mostly fails to address the implications of Climate Change, especially for local water supplies. This thesis presents an in-depth analysis of the Six Basin Watermaster ...
A Process Model Of Risk Communication: The Case Of Global Climate Change, 2016 University of New Hampshire
A Process Model Of Risk Communication: The Case Of Global Climate Change, Fiona Clark, Keith R. Stamm, Paula Reynolds Eblacas
RISK: Health, Safety & Environment
The authors describe a survey of public media use as it relates to different stages of awareness and concern regarding risk issues.
Sequias En El Sur De La Peninsula De Yucatan: Analisis De La Variabilidad Anual Y Estacional De La Precipitacion (Droughts In The Southern Yucatan Peninsula: Analysis Of The Annual And Seasonal Precipitation Variability), 2016 Rowan University
Sequias En El Sur De La Peninsula De Yucatan: Analisis De La Variabilidad Anual Y Estacional De La Precipitacion (Droughts In The Southern Yucatan Peninsula: Analysis Of The Annual And Seasonal Precipitation Variability), Sofia Mardero, Elsa Nickl, Birgit Schmook, Laura Schneider, John Rogan, Zachary Christman, Deborah Lawrence
Paper is in Spanish. English abstract: This study analyzes the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation across the Southern Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico, addressing the anomalies and trends of annual and seasonal precipitation as well as the occurrence of meteorological droughts, using rainfall data from nine weather stations during the period 1953-2007. Linear regression in the annual and seasonal rainfall were used to analyze the increase or decrease in precipitation trends over this period. Precipitation anomalies enabled the evaluation of the stability, deficit, or surplus of precipitation for each year or season, and a quintile method was used to classify ...
Expression Of Cyanobacterial Fbp/Sbpase In Soybean Prevents Yield Depression Under Future Climate Conditions, 2016 United States Department of Agriculture
Expression Of Cyanobacterial Fbp/Sbpase In Soybean Prevents Yield Depression Under Future Climate Conditions, Iris H. Kohler, Ursula M. Ruiz-Vera, Andy Vanloocke, Michell L. Thomey, Tom Clemente, Stephen P. Long, Donald R. Ort, Carl J. Bernacchi
Predictions suggest that current crop production needs to double by 2050 to meet global food and energy demands. Based on theory and experimental studies, overexpression of the photosynthetic enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) is expected to enhance C3 crop photosynthesis and yields. Here we test how expression of the cyanobacterial, bifunctional fructose-1,6/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (FBP/SBPase) affects carbon assimilation and seed yield (SY) in a major crop (soybean, Glycine max). For three growing seasons, wild-type (WT) and FBP/SBPase-expressing (FS) plants were grown in the field under ambient (400 μmol mol−1) and elevated (600 μmol mol−1) CO2 concentrations ...
A Comparison Of Global Climate Reanalysis And Climate Of South Greenland And The North Atlantic, 2016 University of Maine
A Comparison Of Global Climate Reanalysis And Climate Of South Greenland And The North Atlantic, Jeff Auger
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Global climate reanalysis models are regularly used in many scientific fields concerning climate and atmospheric observation. This thesis utilizes reanalysis models in two chapters in order to gain insight into North Atlantic climate teleconnections and their relation to precipitation across South Greenland. This first chapter of this thesis compares the four most recent reanalysis models – ECMWF Reanalysis Interim (ERA-I), NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), JMA 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55), and NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) – and develops from these models a monthly-mean ensemble average of common meteorological variables for the period 1979-2013. Results from this analysis ...
Teleconnections In Steam: Antarctic Field-Camp Art, 2016 National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research; The University of Auckland, New Zealand; New Zealand Association of Scientists.
Teleconnections In Steam: Antarctic Field-Camp Art, Craig Stevens, Gabby O'Connor
The STEAM Journal
We describe a component of a multi-element STEAM collaboration looking to explore ideas around the life cycle of Antarctic sea ice. One of the intermediate phases of the work involved the scientist deploying partially pre-made art components. Results were modulated by weather and operational constraints and generated a sequence of images and recordings as well as greater understanding of the creative collaboration process.
Optimal Climate Policy When Damages Are Unknown, 2016 Iowa State University
Optimal Climate Policy When Damages Are Unknown, Ivan Rudik
Economics Working Papers
Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are economists' primary tool for analyzing the optimal carbon tax. Damage functions, which link temperature to economic impacts, have come under fire because of their assumptions that may produce significant, and ex-ante unknowable misspecifications. Here I develop novel recursive IAM frameworks to model damage uncertainty. I decompose the optimal carbon tax into channels capturing parametric damage uncertainty, learning, and misspecification
concerns. Damage learning and using robust control to guard against potential
misspecifications can both improve ex-post welfare if the IAM's damage function is misspecified. However, these ex-post welfare gains may take decades or centuries to ...
Climate Change Adaptation Case Study: Benefit-Cost Analysis Of Coastal Flooding Hazard Mitigation, Will Cooper, Federico Garcia, Diana Pape, David Ryder, Ben Witherell
Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics
The damage Hurricane Sandy caused had far-reaching repercussions up and down the East Coast of the United States. Vast coastal flooding accompanied the storm, inundating homes, businesses, and utility and emergency facilities. Since the storm, projects to mitigate similar future floods have been scrutinized. Such projects not only need to keep out floodwaters but also be designed to withstand the effect that climate change might have on rising sea levels and increased flood risk.
In this study, we develop an economic model to assess the costs and benefits of a berm (sea wall) to mitigate the effects of flooding from ...
Street-Level Inundation Modeling Of Hurricanes Matthew And Hermine And Emerging Flood Monitoring Methods In Hampton Roads, 2016 Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Street-Level Inundation Modeling Of Hurricanes Matthew And Hermine And Emerging Flood Monitoring Methods In Hampton Roads, J. D. Loftis, H. V. Wang, D R. Forrest
No abstract provided.
Influence Of Land Cover Type And The Reliability Of Selected Land Surface Models: A Comparison Of Wrf Version 3.6 Coupled To Clm Version 4.0, Noah-Mp, And The Bucket Hydrology, 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Influence Of Land Cover Type And The Reliability Of Selected Land Surface Models: A Comparison Of Wrf Version 3.6 Coupled To Clm Version 4.0, Noah-Mp, And The Bucket Hydrology, Andrew J. Kalin
Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
In this study, the validity of 3 LSMs (Community Land Model version 4.0, Noah-MP and the Budyko Bucket Hydrology model [henceforth referred to as ‘Bucket model’]) coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3.6 (WRF3.6), was examined in an effort to show the associated strengths and weaknesses of each LSM. This objective was completed by first, developing expected results based on a simple surface energy budget calculation, and by later comparing model output to Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) data, which serve as gridded observed values of mean monthly temperature and total monthly ...
Impact Of Climate Change On Corn Yields In Alabama, 2016 Tuskegee University
Impact Of Climate Change On Corn Yields In Alabama, Pauline Welikhe, Joseph Essamuah-Quansah, Kenneth Boote, Senthold Asseng, Gamal El Afandi, Souleymane Fall, Desmond Mortley, Ramble Ankumah
Professional Agricultural Workers Journal
The study used calibrated Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CERES) maize (corn) model to simulate maize (corn) physiological growth processes and yields under 2045 and 2075 projected climate change scenarios for six representative counties in Alabama. The future climatologies for two emission scenarios Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 (medium) and RCP 8.5 (high) were developed based on the IPSL-CM5A-MR high resolution climate model. Average yield decreases of 19.5% and 37.3% were, respectively, projected under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 for 2045, and average yield decreases of 32.5% and 77.8% were, respectively, projected ...
Five Solar Geoengineering Tropes That Have Outstayed Their Welcome, 2016 Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam, Germany
Five Solar Geoengineering Tropes That Have Outstayed Their Welcome, Jesse Reynolds, Andy Parker, Peter Irvine
Multiscale Wind Modelling For Sustainability And Resilience, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
Multiscale Wind Modelling For Sustainability And Resilience, Djordje Romanic
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The research presented herein is a mix of meteorological and wind engineering disciplines. In many cases, there is a gap between these two fields and this thesis is an attempt to bridge that gap through multiscale wind modelling approaches. Data and methods used in this study cover a multitude of spatial and temporal scales. Applications are in the fields of sustainability and resilience. This relationship between multiscale wind modelling and sustainability and resilience is investigated examining several case studies of three different developments: urban, rural and coastal.
An urban wind modelling methodology is proposed and applied for a specific development ...
Managing Climate Change Under Uncertainty: Recursive Integrated Assessment At An Inflection Point, 2016 University of Arizona
Managing Climate Change Under Uncertainty: Recursive Integrated Assessment At An Inflection Point, Derek Lemoine, Ivan Rudik
Economics Working Papers
Uncertainty is critical to questions about climate change policy. Recently developed recursive integrated assessment models have become the primary tool for studying and quantifying the policy implications of uncertainty. The first wave of recursive models has made valuable, pioneering efforts at analyzing disparate sources of uncertainty. We decompose the channels through which uncertainty affects policy and quantify them in a recursive extension of a benchmark integrated assessment model. We argue that frontier numerical methods will enable the next generation of recursive models to better capture the information structure of climate change and to thereby ask new types of questions about ...
Future Changes In Propagating And Non-Propagating Diurnal Rainfall Over East Asia, 2016 National Taiwan Normal University
Future Changes In Propagating And Non-Propagating Diurnal Rainfall Over East Asia, Wan-Ru Huang, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang
Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications
The characteristics of diurnal rainfall in the East Asian continent consist of a propagating regime over the Yangtze River and a non-propagating regime in southeast China. Simulations of these two diurnal rainfall regimes by 18 CMIP5 models were evaluated from the historical experiment of 1981–2005. The evaluation led to the identification of one model, the CMCC-CM that replicated the key characteristics of diurnal rainfall regimes including the propagation of moisture convergence. Using the CMCC-CM to assess the future (2076–2100) change of diurnal evolution and propagation projected by the RCP4.5 experiment, it was found that propagating diurnal rainfall ...
Interannual Variations And Trends In Global Land Surface Phenology Derived From Enhanced Vegetation Index During 1982–2010, 2016 South Dakota State University
Interannual Variations And Trends In Global Land Surface Phenology Derived From Enhanced Vegetation Index During 1982–2010, Xiaoyang Zhang, Bin Tan, Yunyue Yu
Land surface phenology is widely retrieved from satellite observations at regional and global scales, and its long-term record has been demonstrated to be a valuable tool for reconstructing past climate variations, monitoring the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems in response to climate impacts, and predicting biological responses to future climate scenarios. This study detected global land surface phenology from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from 1982 to 2010. Based on daily enhanced vegetation index at a spatial resolution of 0.05 degrees, we simulated the seasonal vegetative trajectory for each individual ...
Estimation Of Crop Gross Primary Production (Gpp): Ii. Do Scaled Modis Vegetation Indices Improve Performance?, 2016 Universities Space Research Association
Estimation Of Crop Gross Primary Production (Gpp): Ii. Do Scaled Modis Vegetation Indices Improve Performance?, Qingyuan Zhang, Yen-Ben Cheng, Alexei I. Lyapustin, Yujie Wang, Xiaoyang Zhang, Andrew Suyker, Shashi Verma, Yanmin Shuai, Elizabeth M. Middleton
Satellite remote sensing estimates of gross primary production (GPP) have routinely been made using spectral vegetation indices (VIs) over the past two decades. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), the green band Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVIgreen), and the green band Chlorophyll Index (CIgreen) have been employed to estimate GPP under the assumption that GPP is proportional to the product of VI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (where VI is one of four VIs: NDVI, EVI, WDRVIgreen, or CIgreen). However, the empirical regressions between VI*PAR and GPP measured locally ...
A Comparison Of Tropical Rainforest Phenology Retrieved From Geostationary (Seviri) And Polar-Orbiting (Modis) Sensors Across The Congo Basin, 2016 South Dakota State University
A Comparison Of Tropical Rainforest Phenology Retrieved From Geostationary (Seviri) And Polar-Orbiting (Modis) Sensors Across The Congo Basin, Dong Yan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Yunyue Yu, Wei Guo
The seasonal and interannual dynamics of tropical rainforests play a critical role in the global carbon cycle and climate change. This paper retrieved and compared land surface phenology from observations acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard geostationary satellites and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on polar-orbiting satellites over the Congo Basin. To achieve this,we first retrieved canopy greenness cycles (CGCs) and their transition timing from two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2) derived from SEVIRI and MODIS data between 2006 and 2013.We then assessed the influences of SEVIRI and MODIS data quality on the ...
A Cross Comparison Of Spatiotemporally Enhanced Springtime Phenological Measurements From Satellites And Ground In A Northern U.S. Mixed Forest, Liang Liang, Mark D. Schwartz, Zhuosen Wang, Feng Gao, Crystal B. Schaaf, Bin Tan, Jeffrey T. Morisette, Xiaoyang Zhang
Cross comparison of satellite-derived land surface phenology (LSP) and ground measurements is useful to ensure the relevance of detected seasonal vegetation change to the underlying biophysical processes. While standard 16-day and 250-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI)-based springtime LSP has been evaluated in previous studies, it remains unclear whether LSP with enhanced temporal and spatial resolutions can capture additional details of ground phenology. In this paper, we compared LSP derived from 500-m daily MODIS and 30-m MODIS-Landsat fused VI data with landscape phenology (LP) in a northern U.S. mixed forest. LP was previously developed from ...