Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Climate Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1817 Full-Text Articles 3430 Authors 168631 Downloads 90 Institutions

All Articles in Climate

Faceted Search

1817 full-text articles. Page 1 of 53.

The Arctic: Science, Law, And Policy, Charles H. Norchi, Paul A. Mayewski 2017 University of Maine School of Law

The Arctic: Science, Law, And Policy, Charles H. Norchi, Paul A. Mayewski

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

In 1959, Sir Charles Snow (C.P. Snow) delivered a lecture at Cambridge University entitled The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution in which he identified a duality of cultures. There were the scientists and the humanists--two dimly acquanited cultures that rarely communicated, and when they did it was usually at cross-purposes. One culture was contentedly unknowing and skeptical of science, and the other was marginal to the great social questions of the time. For C.P. Snow, the polarization and lack of communication between the two groups could be fatal to the Western World. The 21st century has also ...


Seasonal Temperature Changes With Elevation On Mount Washington, Meghan Wells 2017 Meteorology

Seasonal Temperature Changes With Elevation On Mount Washington, Meghan Wells

Student Showcase of Excellence

The summit of Mount Washington is warming more slowly than surrounding lower elevations of the Northeast, which is opposite to climate model projections and observations in other mountain ranges. A looming scientific question is: why? A hypothesis is that the exposure of the summit to the “free troposphere”, an air mass that sits above the ground-based "boundary layer”, for approximately half the year is imparting a slower warming at the summit. This research project takes a preliminary first step toward answering this question by finding methods to determine when Mount Washington is in the boundary layer. Temperature readings from the ...


Annual Summary Of Weather Data For Parsons, M. Knapp 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Annual Summary Of Weather Data For Parsons, M. Knapp

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Annual Summary of Weather Data for Parsons, Kansas, 2016.


Collecting Landscape Trees And Shrubs In Ukraine For The Evaluation Of Aesthetic Quality And Adaptation In The North Central United States, Mark P. Widrlechner, Robert E. Schutzki, Vasily Y. Yukhnovsky, Victor V. Sviatetsky 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Collecting Landscape Trees And Shrubs In Ukraine For The Evaluation Of Aesthetic Quality And Adaptation In The North Central United States, Mark P. Widrlechner, Robert E. Schutzki, Vasily Y. Yukhnovsky, Victor V. Sviatetsky

Mark P. Widrlechner

Past experiences with long-term evaluations of woody landscape plants from Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia- Herzegovina in the north central United States indicated that a relatively low proportion of these introductions were well adapted to climatic and soil conditions. Based on these results, criteria were developed to focus future exploration for landscape trees and shrubs from more analogous environments in eastern and central Europe. Application of these criteria identified the forest– steppe transition zone in the northern half of Ukraine as a region with great potential, because of similarities to the north central United States in climatic extremes, soil types and ...


A Zone Map For Mean Annual Moisture Balance In The North Central United States, Mark P. Widrlechner 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

A Zone Map For Mean Annual Moisture Balance In The North Central United States, Mark P. Widrlechner

Mark P. Widrlechner

There are many climatic factors that can limit the adaptation of woody landscape plants. In the North Central United States, one of the most widely studied limiting factors is winter injury caused by low temperatures. Mean annual minimum temperature is the basis for the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map (Cathey, 1990), which is perhaps the most well-known guide for defining woody plant adaptation in the region.


Direct Comparisons Of Ice Cloud Macro- And Microphysical Properties Simulated By The Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 With Hippo Aircraft Observations, Chenglai Wu, Xiaohong Liu, Minghui Diao, Kai Zhang, Andrew Gettelman, Zheng Lu, Joyce E. Penner, Zhaohui Lin 2017 University of Wyoming

Direct Comparisons Of Ice Cloud Macro- And Microphysical Properties Simulated By The Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 With Hippo Aircraft Observations, Chenglai Wu, Xiaohong Liu, Minghui Diao, Kai Zhang, Andrew Gettelman, Zheng Lu, Joyce E. Penner, Zhaohui Lin

Minghui Diao

In this study we evaluate cloud properties simulated by the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) using in situ measurements from the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) campaign for the period of 2009 to 2011. The modeled wind and temperature are nudged towards reanalysis. Model results collocated with HIPPO flight tracks are directly compared with the observations, and model sensitivities to the representations of ice nucleation and growth are also examined. Generally, CAM5 is able to capture specific cloud systems in terms of vertical configuration and horizontal extension. In total, the model reproduces 79.8 % of observed cloud occurrences inside model ...


Link Between Local Phenology And Climate Change, Blake Steiner, Tatyana Lobova 2017 Old Dominion University

Link Between Local Phenology And Climate Change, Blake Steiner, Tatyana Lobova

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

The SouthEast Virginia Phenology Project was initiated as collaboration between Norfolk Botanical Garden and Old Dominion University in 2010 to document phenology of seven native plants and potential effects of the climate change on their life cycle. The air temperature in Norfolk has increased on average by 0.02ºC per year since 1980. Four out of seven of taxonomically diverse plant species (Mayapple, Flowering Dogwood, Highbush Blueberry, and Common ButtonBush) exhibited significant sensitivity to warming temperatures. Of these four, only Common Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) had shown significant phenophases shift. Specifically, first flowering and first fruiting dates had shifted 2.7 ...


Synoptic Atmospheric Conditions, Land Cover, And Equivalent Temperature Variations In Kentucky, Dorothy Yemaa Na-Yemeh 2017 Western Kentucky University

Synoptic Atmospheric Conditions, Land Cover, And Equivalent Temperature Variations In Kentucky, Dorothy Yemaa Na-Yemeh

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Research has demonstrated that equivalent temperature (TE), which incorporates both the surface air temperature (T) and moist heat content associated with atmospheric moisture, is a better indicator of overall heat content. This thesis follows up on a study that used TE to determine the impacts of land use/land cover and air masses on the atmospheric heat content over Kentucky during the growing season (April-September). The study, which used data from the Kentucky Mesonet, reveals that moist weather types dominate the growing season and, as expected, differences between T and TE are smaller under dry atmospheric conditions ...


Characterizing South American Mesoscale Convective Complexes Using Isotope Hydrology, Kyle J. Hogancamp 2017 Western Kentucky University

Characterizing South American Mesoscale Convective Complexes Using Isotope Hydrology, Kyle J. Hogancamp

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) over subtropical South America contribute an average annual volume of precipitation equal to approximately seven km3 and occur with an average regularity in the region, with more than 30 per warm season. Isotopic characteristics of precipitation, such as δ2H and δ18O values, provide information that can be used to identify unique processes and sources related to precipitation events. The largest database of isotope characteristics of precipitation within the region is the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which provides varying temporal resolution data from stations around the world, including subtropical South America.

Using this database ...


Modeling And Projection Of The North American Monsoon Using A High-Resolution Regional Climate Model, Jonathan D.D. Meyer 2017 Utah State University

Modeling And Projection Of The North American Monsoon Using A High-Resolution Regional Climate Model, Jonathan D.D. Meyer

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation aims to better understand how various climate modeling approaches affect the fidelity of the North American Monsoon (NAM), as well as the sensitivity of the future state of the NAM under a global warming scenario. Here, we improved over current fully-coupled general circulation models (GCM), which struggle to fully resolve the controlling dynamics responsible for the development and maintenance of the NAM. To accomplish this, we dynamically downscaled a GCM with a regional climate model (RCM). The advantage here being a higher model resolution that improves the representation of processes on scales beyond that which GCMs can resolve ...


Getting That Sinking Feeling: Analysis And Impacts Of Sea Level Rise On Three National Parks Along The East Coast, Usa, Julia K. Deros, Amanda L. Thibault, Amy B. True 2017 Gettysburg College

Getting That Sinking Feeling: Analysis And Impacts Of Sea Level Rise On Three National Parks Along The East Coast, Usa, Julia K. Deros, Amanda L. Thibault, Amy B. True

Student Publications

Due to global climate change, sea level rise (SLR) has become a threat for future generations, but the extent of this danger is unknown. To help understand the possible effects of SLR on the east coast of the United States, we studied three national parks: Acadia National Park (ACAD), Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS) and Everglades National Park (EVER). We predicted that ACAD would be less affected by SLR than ASIS and EVER due to the construction of its beach profile. By measuring the beach profile, we found that Sand Beach in ACAD was reflective with an average slope of ...


Investigating The Magnitude And Range Of The Urban Heat Island Within Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Samuel S. Thompson, Rachel A. Wilkins 2017 Gettysburg College

Investigating The Magnitude And Range Of The Urban Heat Island Within Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Samuel S. Thompson, Rachel A. Wilkins

Student Publications

Cities experience UHIs due to the thermal properties (albedo, thermal emittance, radiative flux, and heat capacity) of human-made substances and urban geometry. This study investigated the existence of an urban heat island (UHI) in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The goal of this project was to assess whether a small-scale city like Gettysburg demonstrates an UHI effect and, if present, the extent and magnitude of the UHI. We hypothesized that (1) temperatures within the city are significantly higher than the surrounding area, (2) the magnitude of the UHI will diminish as distance from the city center increases, and (3) the UHI will not ...


Climate Change, Natural Disasters, And Suicide: A Systematic Review, Ans Irfan, Peter LaPuma 2017 George Washington

Climate Change, Natural Disasters, And Suicide: A Systematic Review, Ans Irfan, Peter Lapuma

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background.
Natural disasters are projected to increase due to climate change. Mental health is not a well-researched area in public health, particularly as it relates to environmental health and in the aftermath of natural disasters. The suicide rate is approximately 13 per 100,000 people in the US, nationally. This already high suicide rate warrants researching this area mental health. Understanding the relation between natural disasters and suicide rates might help alleviate human suffering and potentially save lives in the future, in post-disaster settings. This research will further the knowledge of the association between natural disasters and suicide and provide ...


P07. Characterizing The Purple Crow Lidar To Investigate Potential Sources Of Wet Bias, Jeffrey VanKerkhove, Robert J. Sica, Robin Wing, Steve Argall 2017 University of Western Ontario

P07. Characterizing The Purple Crow Lidar To Investigate Potential Sources Of Wet Bias, Jeffrey Vankerkhove, Robert J. Sica, Robin Wing, Steve Argall

Western Research Forum

The Purple Crow Lidar is a large aperture lidar, capable of retrieving water vapor profiles into the stratosphere. Water vapor in the upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region is of particular importance in understanding Earth's radiative budget and atmospheric dynamics, making accurate UTLS measurements crucial. A comparison campaign with the NASA/GSFC ALVICE mobile lidar in the spring of 2012 showed PCL water vapor measurements were consistently larger than those of ALVICE in the lower stratosphere, prompting an investigation to characterize the system. The investigation looks into how changes to the data processing approach, as well as applying additional instrumental ...


P16. Ralmo Rotational Raman Temperature Retrieval: First Steps Towards The Application Of Optimal Estimation Method (Oem), Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele 2017 Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada

P16. Ralmo Rotational Raman Temperature Retrieval: First Steps Towards The Application Of Optimal Estimation Method (Oem), Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele

Western Research Forum

Background:

Temperature is an important atmospheric parameter that plays an extensive role in the fields of atmospheric dynamics, climatology, meteorology, and chemistry. Light detection and ranging (lidar), is a remote sensing technology that can be used for atmospheric temperature profiling. A lidar transmits short laser pulses into the atmosphere and the light scattered by the particles in the atmosphere is collected and measured using a telescope. The atmospheric temperatures can be retrieved by analysing the Pure Rotational Raman (PRR) scatter measurements from the nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the atmosphere.

Methods:

In this study use the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM ...


Mass Coral Mortality Under Local Amplification Of 2 °C Ocean Warming, Thomas M. DeCarlo, Anne L. Cohen, George T. F. Wong, Kristen A. Davis, Pat Lohman, Keryea Soong 2017 Old Dominion University

Mass Coral Mortality Under Local Amplification Of 2 °C Ocean Warming, Thomas M. Decarlo, Anne L. Cohen, George T. F. Wong, Kristen A. Davis, Pat Lohman, Keryea Soong

OEAS Faculty Publications

A 2 °C increase in global temperature above pre-industrial levels is considered a reasonable target for avoiding the most devastating impacts of anthropogenic climate change. In June 2015, sea surface temperature (SST) of the South China Sea (SCS) increased by 2 °C in response to the developing Pacific El Nino. On its own, this moderate, short-lived warming was unlikely to cause widespread damage to coral reefs in the region, and the coral reef "Bleaching Alert" alarm was not raised. However, on Dongsha Atoll, in the northern SCS, unusually weak winds created low-flow conditions that amplified the 2 °C basin-scale anomaly ...


Key Differences Between Lakes And Reservoirs Modify Climate Signals: A Case For A New Conceptual Model, Nicole M. Hayes, Bridget R. Deemer, Jessica R. Corman, N. Roxanna Razavi, Kristin E. Strock 2017 Dickinson College

Key Differences Between Lakes And Reservoirs Modify Climate Signals: A Case For A New Conceptual Model, Nicole M. Hayes, Bridget R. Deemer, Jessica R. Corman, N. Roxanna Razavi, Kristin E. Strock

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Lakes and reservoirs are recognized as important sentinels of climate change, integrating catchment and atmospheric climate change drivers. Climate change conceptual models generally consider lakes and reservoirs together despite the possibility that these systems respond differently to climate-related drivers. Here, we synthesize differences between lake and reservoir characteristics that are likely important for predicting waterbody response to climate change. To better articulate these differences, we revised the energy mass flux framework, a conceptual model for the effects of climate change on lentic ecosystems, to explicitly consider the differential responses of lake versus reservoir ecosystems. The model predicts that catchment and ...


The Irreversible Momentum Of Clean Energy, Barack Obama 2017 President of the United States

The Irreversible Momentum Of Clean Energy, Barack Obama

US Department of Energy Publications

The release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) due to human activity is increasing global av-erage surface air temperatures, disrupting weather patterns, and acidifying the ocean (1). Left unchecked, the continued growth of GHG emissions could cause global average tem-peratures to increase by another 4°C or more by 2100 and by 1.5 to 2 times as much in many midcontinent and far northern locations (1). Although our understanding of the impacts of climate change is increasingly and disturbingly clear, there is still debate about the proper course for U.S. policy—a debate that is ...


Why Do Different Drought Indices Show Distinct Future Drought Risk Outcomes In The U.S. Great Plains?, Song Feng, Miroslav Trnka, Michael Hayes, Yongjun Zheng 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Why Do Different Drought Indices Show Distinct Future Drought Risk Outcomes In The U.S. Great Plains?, Song Feng, Miroslav Trnka, Michael Hayes, Yongjun Zheng

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Vigorous discussions and disagreements about the future changes in drought intensity in the U.S. Great Plains have been taking place recently within the literature. These discussions have involved widely varying estimates based on drought indices and model-based projections of the future. To investigate and understand the causes for such a disparity between these previous estimates, the authors analyzed the soil moisture at the near-surface soil layer and the entire soil column, as well as the Palmer drought severity index, the Palmer Z index, and the standardized precipitation and evaporation index using the output from the Community Climate System Model ...


Changes In Arctic Climate And Central U.S. Weather Patterns Is There A Link?, Donald A. Wilhite, Kimberly C. Morrow, Martha Shulski 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Changes In Arctic Climate And Central U.S. Weather Patterns Is There A Link?, Donald A. Wilhite, Kimberly C. Morrow, Martha Shulski

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Earlier snowmelt, decreasing soil moisture, decreased corn yields, increasing extreme precipitation events—these are some of the weather effects currently observed in the central United States that might well have their origin in the rapidly warming Arctic. These and other implications of Arctic warming were among the topics discussed at a fall 2015 workshop, Implications of a Changing Arctic on Water Resources and Agriculture in the Central U.S (Wilhite and Morrow 2016).

The United States assumed chairmanship of the Arctic Council in April 2015, making the workshop topic timely. Given the importance of the Midwest and Great Plains region ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress